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Publication numberUS2177732 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 31, 1939
Filing dateMay 27, 1937
Priority dateMay 27, 1937
Publication numberUS 2177732 A, US 2177732A, US-A-2177732, US2177732 A, US2177732A
InventorsMaclaren Frederick H
Original AssigneeStandard Oil Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Diesel fuel
US 2177732 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 31, 1939. F. H. MacLAREN DIESEL FUEL Filed May 27, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet lv KQmmmCQm .SO xQmukm Ekx okxm N M QQQ v mS INVENTOR Frederick h. Mala/en ATTORNEY- 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 DIESEL FUEL 'F. H. M oLAREN Filed May 27, 1957 Oct. 31, 1939.

3/0 7 1 w s W1 '5 1/ IINVENTOR Freda/wk hf MacL are/9 BY 0mm -H-\ ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 31 1939 PATENT OFFICE DIESEL FUEL Frederick signor to Standard H. MacLaren, Calumet City, 111., as-

Oil Company, Chicago, 111.,

a corporation of Indiana Application May 2'7, 1937, Serial No. 144,976

7 Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in Diesel fuels and, in particular, to high speed Diesel fuels and the method of preparing the same.

The critical requirements of fuel oils for high speed Dieselengines, which are critically dependent upon the quality of their fuel for efficient operation, are as follows:

I Initial boiling point 400500 F. 10 End point 600-700" F.

- Saybolt Viscosity at 100 F to seconds Pour point 0 F. or below Cetene number -55 In order to meet the pour point specification it 15 is frequently necessary to add to the fuel an addition agent capable of reducing the pour point of the oil. Among such addition agents are the pour point depressors of the condensation type obtained by chemically condensing a chlorinated 20 hydrocarbon, such as chlorinated paraffin wax,

with an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as naphthalene, in the presence of a catalyst, such as aluminum chloride. Among such products might be mentioned Parafiowf. and Pourex described in 5 U. S. Patents 1,963,917, 1,963,918 and 2,057,104. It has been noted that the pour points of some Diesel fuels, particularly those prepared from a narrow out fraction can not "be reduced to the zero pour point specification without the addition of relatively large amounts of the pour point depressors. Economically and mechanically this is undesirable in Diesel fuel oils.

As used herein and in the appended claims the term narrow out Diesel fuel oil is defined as a 5 Diesel fuel oil fraction in which the difference in temperature between the 90% point and the 50% point by the A. S. T. M. distillation method is about F. or less. It is an object of the present invention to provide a method of effecting a reduction in the pourpoint of Diesel fuel oils which are normally nonrespon'sive to pour point depressors.

It is another object of the invention to provide a method of increasing the pour point depressor 45 response of Diesel fuel oils.

A further object of the invention is to provide a method of reducing the pour point of narrow cut Diesel fuel oils which are normally non-responsive to pour point depressors.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a narrow out Diesel fuel oil having a low pour point.

Qther objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following descrip- 55 tion thereof and the accompanying charts in which:

Fig. 1 is a chart showing the effect of the invention on the pour point depressor response of a narrow out Diesel fuel oil; and r Fig. 2 isa chart showing the effect of the invention in increasing the pour point depressor response of another narrow out Diesel fuel oil.

I have found that narrow cut Diesel fuel oils can be made responsive to pour point depressors of the condensation type by adding to such narrow cut Diesel fuel oils small amounts of amorphous waxes or amorphous wax-bearing materials. More specifically I have found that the addition of 0.2% to 0.8% of amorphous wax or amorphous wax-bearing materials and 0.2% to 2% of a pour point depressor of thecondensation type to a Diesel fuelin which the difference in temperature between the point and the 50% point by the A. S. T. M. distillation method is about 55 F. or 'less will produce a Diesel fuel oil having a pour point of 0 F. or lower, whereas the pour point of the-same Diesel fuel oil without the addition of amorphous wax cannot be reduced to 0 F. even upon the addition of much higher quantities of a pour point depressor of the condensation type.

Examples of amorphous waxes and amorphous wax bearing materials which can be used effectively are petrolatums, petrolatum base stocks, Wax tailings, foots oil (oil obtained from the sweating of paraffin wax) and other paraffins of non-crystalline structure.

The invention is clearly illustrated and the effectiveness thereof fully demonstrated in the following examples:

Example 1.-A narrow out high speed Diesel fuel oil identified as Fuel A having an A. S. T. M. distillation as shown in Table I and a solid test of +l2 F. when'admixed with 0.5%, 1% and 2% of a pour point depressor of the condensation type such as Pourex, had a solid test of +8 E. +7 F. and +7 F. respectively, indicating poor pour point depressor susceptibility.

TABLE I NARROW CUT HIGH SPEED DIESEL FUEL On.

A. S. T. M .distzllation Degrees Fahrenheit To the same high speed Diesel fuel oil was added about 0.5% of a petrolatum base stock having a melting point of about 137 F. The A. S. T. M. solid point of this mixture was about +14 The mix after the addition of 0.5%, 1% and 2% of the same pour point depressor used in the above tests are tabulated for comparison in Table II.

TABLE II Pom; POINT Da'rnnssoa SUSCEPTIBILITY Solid test Percent depressor Narrow Narrow cut out Diesel Diesel fuel 011+ fuel 01] 0.5 percent 137 F. M. P. pet. st.

The effectiveness of a small amount of an amorphous wax in increasing the pour point depressor susceptibility of narrow cut Diesel fuel oils is strikingly shown by the above data and in Fig. 1 in which these data are graphically presented.

Example 2.-The effect of amorphous waxy materials on the pour point depressor susceptibility of narrow out high speed Diesel fuel oils was tested on another narrow cut high speed Diesel fuel oil identified as Fuel B having an A. S. T. M. distillation shown in Table III and an A. S. T. M. solid test of +15 F.

TABLE III NARROW CUT HIGH SPEED DIESEL FUEL OIL A. S. T. M. distillation Initial B. P 519 10% off 53a 20% off 543 30% off 548 40% off 555 off 563 60% Off 572 70% Ofi 582 80% off 596 90% off 617 Max 656 To this fuel oil were added 0.5%, 1% and 2% of the pour point depressor of the condensation type such as Pourex and the A. S. T. M. solid points are found to be about +10 F. for all three concentrations. To this Diesel fuel oil fraction was added 0.5% of a crude petrolatum base stock of about 137 F. melting point. The A. S. T. M. solid test of this mix was about +15 F. The addition of 0.5%, 1% and 2% of the pour point depressor reduced the A. S. T. M. solid tests to +8.6 F., +4 F. and 3 F. respectively. The comparative data are presented in Table IV.

TABLE IV POUR Ponv'r DEPRESSOR SUSCEPTIBILITY A. S. T. M. solid tests Narrow cut Narrow cut high speed Percent depressor high speed Diesel fuel oil Diesel fuel .5 percent 137 oil F. M. P. pet.

base stk.

oil. The results obtained are tabulated in Table V.

TABLE V POUR Pom'r Drsraassoa SUscEP'rmIurY Solid test Percent depressor Narrow cut Same fuel oil+ Same fuel oil+ high speed .5 percent .5 percent Diesellafuel of] "fonts oil" pet. taiiings F. F. F.

The marked improvements shown by the above data are graphically presented in Fig. 2.

In the above examples the solid tests were determined by the A. S. T. M. method (A. S. T. M. D9744).

In the foregoing description of my invention, and in the appended claims by the term pour point depressor susceptibility I mean the ability of an oil to respond to the pour depressing effect of a pour point depressor added to said oil. To illustrate: An oil has a pour point of about +25 F. Upon the addition of about 0.25% of a pour point depressor the pour point of the oil is reduced to +20 F. The "pour point depressor susceptibility of this oil is poor. Another oil having a pour point of +25 F. upon the addition of about 0.25% of a pour point depressor has a pour point of about -10 F. The pour point depressor susceptibility of this oil is good.

While I have described my invention in connection with preferred embodiments thereof the same are to be construed as merely illustrative, and not as a limitation of the scope of the invention, except as defined by the appended claims.

I claim:

1. The method of increasing the pour point susceptibility of a narrow out high speed Diesel engine fuel oil having an' initial boiling point between about 400 F. and about 500 R, an end point between about .600" F. and about 700 F. and characterized by a difference in temperature between the 50% distillation point and the 90% distillation point of less than about F., the pour point of which is normally not materially reduced by the addition of a pour point depressor thereto, which comprises adding to said Diesel engine fuel oil from about 0.2% to about 2% of a pour point depressor and from about 0.2% to about 0.8% of an amorphous waxy material, whereby the pour point of said Diesel engine fuel oil is substantially reduced.

2. The method described in claim 1 in which the amorphous waxy material is a petrolatum base stock.

3. The method described in claim 1 in which the amorphous waxy material is a product selected from the group consisting of petrolatum, petrolatum base stocks. wax tailings and "facts oil.

aromatic hydrocarbon in the presence of a v G catalyst. v

5. The method described in claim 1 in which the pour point depressoris a depressor obtained by chemically condensing a chlorinated paraflin wax with naphthalene 'in the presence oi aluminum chloride. v

6. A high speed Diesel engine fuel having a pour point below about +10 F. comprising a narrow cut high speed Diesel engine fuel having an initial boiling point between about 400 F. and about 500 F., an end point between about '600" F. and about 700 F., a cetane number of at least about 50 to 55 and characterized by a difwax tailings and "roots oil.

ierence in temperature between the 50% 'distillation point and the 90% distillation point oi. less than about 55 F. and further characterized by being substantially unresponsive to pour point depressors, irom labout 0.2% to about 2% of a pour point depressor of the condensation type and from about 0.2% to about 0.8% or an amorphous waxy material selected from the group consisting of petrolatum, petrolatum base stocks,

'7. A high speed Diesel engine fuel oil as described in claim 6 in which the pour point depressor is obtained by chemically condensing a chlorinated paraflin wax with naphthalene in the presence of aluminum chloride.

FREDERICK H. MACLAREN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2615799 *Apr 3, 1948Oct 28, 1952Sinclair Refining CoDiesel fuel
US2917375 *Jul 31, 1958Dec 15, 1959Sinclair Refining CoFuel oils
US3245766 *Jun 8, 1962Apr 12, 1966Exxon Research Engineering CoChlorowax-naphthalene condensation product pour depressant for middle distillate fuels
US3620696 *Sep 17, 1968Nov 16, 1971Exxon Research Engineering CoFuel oil with improved flow properties
US3773478 *Mar 17, 1969Nov 20, 1973Exxon CoMiddle distillate fuel containing additive combination to increase low temperature flowability
US3790359 *Mar 17, 1969Feb 5, 1974Exxon Research Engineering CoMiddle distillate fuel having increased low temperature flowability
US6187065 *Dec 2, 1998Feb 13, 2001Exxon Chemical Patents IncAdditives and oil compositions
WO2006014959A2Jul 27, 2005Feb 9, 2006Peragen Systems IncContinuous process for on-site and on-demand production of aqueous peracetic acid
Classifications
U.S. Classification585/8, 585/14, 585/9
International ClassificationC10L1/16, C10L1/10
Cooperative ClassificationC10L1/16, C10L1/1608, C10L1/1691
European ClassificationC10L1/16