US 2177837 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 31, 1939. J MlLLER 2,177,837
TEMPERATURE MEASURING DEVI CE Filed June 29, 1957 JOHN MILLER INVENTOR.
Patented Oct. 31, 1939 UNl'l'E STATES rarer 6 Claims.
This invention relates to means and method of controlling the application of heat in the dressing of hair.
As was pointed out in my previous application entitled Means and method of measuring temperatures, Patent No. 2,136,055, issued Novemher 8, 1938, of which this application is a continuation in part, the application of heat is a very essential step in the production of perma- 10 nent waves, waves, ringlets, and curls on the human head. The temperature of the heat applied may vary from 200 to 800 degrees Fahren heit, depending in each particular case upon the texture of the hair, its location on the head, the
type of hair dress desired, and the types of lotions, wrappers, and heat transfer mediums used. There is a critical temperature for each application at which the best results are obtained.
Heat is applied to the hair either by preheating heat transfer mediums, or by devices containing electric heating means integral therewith, or by exothermic chemical reactions. The maximum temperature generated by the latter may be controlled to a certain extent in the laboratory, but
5 the chemicals are always subject to deterioration from improper packing, storing, and handling; the temperatures of the former two are largely controlled, at present, by guess-work supported, of course, by experience.
But experience is subject to the human factor and can not be delegated. When the heat applied is too hot, the hair becomes burnt and frizzy; if it is too cold, the dressing is imperfectly formed, has no resiliency, and does not last long. Furthermore, the texture of the hair on most heads is not constant, being thinner at the brow, coarser at the temples, and so on. The only way to really determine and control the temperature of the heat application in dressing hair is to actually measure it. I have found that certain forms of thermo-electric couples are best adapted for the temperature measurement in hair dressing.
It is an object of this invention to provide forms of thermo-couples that are best adapted for use in measuring the temperatures of hair-heating devices and the like.
It is another object of this invention to provide a method to control the heat as it is applied to the hair so that the same conditions of heat application may be duplicated in subsequent treatments, and from time to time.
One of the features of this invention resides in the means provided by which the heat transfer (01. lee-4 mediums co-operate with the thermo-couple to insure uniform results.
Another feature resides in the means provided with a thermo-couple whereby the temperature can be taken of heat-transfer mediums in place 5 on the human head without discomfort and annoyance to the person undergoing the hair treatment.
Additional objects and features of this invention will become apparent from the following 0 specification and the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. l is a representation of a specific form of the temperature measuring device with a heat transfer clamp about to be applied thereto; 15
Fig. 2 is a cross-section thru this special form of thermo-couple taken parallel to the base thereof, showing the special configuration of the thermo-couple elements;
Fig. 3 is a representation of a clamp heating 20 cabinet with my temperature measuring device incorporated therein;
. Fig. l shows a portable form of a thermo-couple for use with my new and improved method of hair-curler temperature measurement; and 25 Fig. 5 illustrates how an electrically heated hair-curling iron may be adapted for use in conjunction with the present invention.
I have found that'the most effective form of thermo-couple, for the measurement of tempera- 30 tures of heat-transfer mediums as used in the hair dressing industry, is the one in which the thermo-couple elements are spaced apart, the electric circuit being closed by positioning the object whose temperature is to be measured in 5 contact with the elements and causing the thermo-electric current to flow therethru; the place in the said elements where they contact the said object being substantially points or knife edges and both elements and objects being forced firmly 40 together. The complete galvanometer reaction to the E. M. F. generated in such a set-up takes place in fractions of a second as compared with full minutes in the normal arrangement of a thermo-couple in which the ends of the elements 45 are welded together.
The reason for this may be that the points of the couple elements penetrate the superficial oxide and dirt coating on the object and therefore better electric contact is made. In my opinion 50 the more important reasons for this advantage are: that in the welded-end thermo-couple the process of welding changes the crystalline structure of the elements which together with perhaps an imperfect weld leaves a high resistance area 55 at the weld in the path of the electric current generated, and; the little appreciated fact that heat and electricity are conductable away faster from a point than from a plane surface, and that with the separated elements there are two points of heat infusion into the couple and therefore the couple tips heat up to the temperature of said object faster.
Referring now to Fig. 1: I is a galvanometer dial in the face of the galvanometer housing 2 from which the two thermocouple elements 3 and 4 protrude. The nature of the elements is not material so long as they are capable of acting as a thermo-couple; in this case 3 may be of iron, and element 4 may be of constantan. The elements are each connected to a terminal of the galvanometer (not shown) and are insulated from 'each other by the insulation block 5 and from the housing by any well known means H. The elements are substantially triangular in shape with a flat side positioned against block 5 and a sharp edge (5 of each element pointing outwardly.
Fig. 2, which is a cross-section taken thru elements 3 and a and block 5 of Fig. 1, shows the shape of elements 3 and 4 clearly.
In Fig. 1 again: i is a hair curling clamp in which 3, 8 are oppositely positioned heating elements hinged together by pin 9 and are being constantly urged together by spring H3 acting upon the handles H. To measure the temperature of heating clamp '5 it is necessary merely to spread elements 8 apart by pressing handles i place the clamp over elements 3 and 4 and release handles ii momentarily. The spring IE! will press the heating elements 8 against couple elements 3 and and the galvanometer will react practically instantly to give the E. M. F. temperature reading. It should be noticed that spring if] is an essential means in the operation of this device; knowing its tension, the edges 8 can be sharpened or blunted accordingly.
It should be further noticed that the couple elements being spaced apart, block 5 is not absolutely essential and that in its absence the axis 9 of clamp 17, when applied, would tend to lie in a plane substantially parallel with plane passing thru both couple elements; block 5 acts as a guide for clamp i so that the axis 9 will lie in a plane substantially perpendicular to the plane of the couple elements, and the jaw elements 8 must contact edges 6.
t should also be apparent that each couple element could be made each with two diametrically opposite axial edges, and, by omitting block 5, the said couple would be able to contact the heat transfer clamp l in four places instead of two.
The device shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 may be incorporated with a clamp-heating cabinet of which that shown in Fig. 3 is typical. In Fig. 3; The vertical sidewalls E2 of the cabinet l3 supports a series of horizontal, electrically heated bars 4 so fashioned that clamps I may be positioned on them to be heated in groups. Each bar l l may or may not have some sort of thermostatic or electric resistance control so that it heats only up to a predetermined maximum, different for each bar. The electric switches and controls for bars Hi are shown at l5. On the face N5 of the cabinet i3 is placed the thermo couple elements 25 and 26 with its insulator 21, and the gaivanometer dial l. The galvanometer itself, of course, is placed within the cabinet l3.
With this arrangement it is possible to give a scientifically heat controlled hair dressing with ease. The same hand that removes a clamp 1 from a bar l4 places it over elements 25 and 26 to get the galvanometer reaction, and almost instantly removes it either to replace on bar if too cold, to wave it about if too hot, or to apply it to the hair if the temperature is right. The additional time it takes to measure the temperature is hardly appreciable in the total time required for the entire hairdressing job; the uniformity of results can be guaranteed for successive sittings and treatments. Since the temperature requirements for different locations of hair on the head Vary, it is possible to prepare the entire head of hair, making all the necessary operations precedent to the application of the heat, then as each hair clamp l is removed from primary heater l4 and its temperature measured, the temperature reading will indicate what portion of the heat it is to be applied to.
The elements 25 and 26 of Fig. 3 differ from elements 3 and 4 of Figs. 1 and 2 in that they are circular in cross-section. This shape for the couple elements is not as effective as the sharp edged type, nevertheless, it still is superior to the joined-element type of 'thermo-couple when utilized in the manner described in the preceding paragraph.
It is often desired to determine the temperature of the heating element while it is in place on the human head. Naturally, if all the heat has not been transmitted out of the said medium there is a resultant 'heat waste. It is also often desirable to take the temperature of the self heating type of heating element, such as the chemical reactance type or integral electric heat-- ing types. The welded type of thermo-couple is also too sluggish to take these temperatures. The best results again require spaced couple elements contacting the heat transfer mediums at points or knife edges under pressure. The waving of human hair is a complicated process involving tightly winding the hair, the application of a plurality of special spindles, lotions, wrappers, and clamps; all of which totals to quite a load for the subject (or patient) to carry on her head. To apply pressure to a heating device so that its temperature may be taken while it is in place on the head would be very objectionably uncomfortable, if not altogether painful. For this purpose therefore I have devised the portable device shown in Fig. 4.
In Fig. 4, 28 and 29 are the elements of the thermo-couple which are arcuately bent and terminate in points 3i]30 which are oppositely p0- sitioned. The elements 28 and 29 are insulated from each other, and each is supported by a handle is which are hinged together at [9. The spring 20 tends to keep handles l8 apart, and therefore, points 39 close together. From each element 28 and 29, thru handles IS, a wire 2! leads to a terminal of the galvanometer (not shown).
To measure the temperature of a heating element it requires that this thermo-couple clamp, as it may be called, be positioned so that said medium is between points 39 and the spring 20 be allowed to exert its pressure to insure good electrical contact. The temperature is read at the galvanometer. Since the said clamp is held in the hand, and if the points of contact on the said medium are chosen properly, no additional weight can be felt by the person sitting for the hair treatment.
All of the foregoing presupposes that the heating element whose temperature is being measured is a good conductor of electricity, or that a low resistance path for the passage of the thermoelectric current is provided in said medum between the points contacting with the thermocouple elements. In Fig. 5 is shown a form of heating element used in hairdressing, and in which 22 is the housing within which electric heating elements are placed, and 23 is the leads from said heating elements to the source of electric supply. The strands of hair that are to be treated are wound on spindles which fit into a hollow within housing 22. Naturally, housing 22 is in reality a shell of non-electricity-conducting, heat insulating material, and in order that the temperature of the internal heat be measured, means must be provided to make that heat available on the surface of the housing 22.
The methods of accomplishing this are particularly described in my above mentioned Patent No. 2,136,055. In this case I provide a bead 2d of soft metallic material which runs thru the heating section within the housing 22. The head. ends terminate at the external surface of said housing at substantially diametrically opposite places. To take the temperature within housing 22 I take the portable thermo-couple clamp of Fig. 4 and position points 30 at opposite ends of bead 24.
In certain types of the electrically heated heatapplicators the metallic heat-transfer medium proper extends slightly beyond the housing. The said metallic medium is represented by skirt 3| in Fig. 5. In such cases bead 2 3 is not necessary, and the clamp pyrometer may be applied directly to skirt 3|. I have bent couple elements 28 and 29 of Fig. 4 to conform to the contour of skirt 3! so that it may be grasped therebetween.
Hairdressing is as old as Eve. The principles of the thermo-couple circuit were discovered in 1822. I believe that my adaptation of the thermo-electric circuit, using the arrangements hereinbefore described, makes it practically feasible, for the first time, to measure the temperature of heat transfer mediums immediately prior to their application in the treatment of hair on the human head, and, while so applied. In fact, using my methods, it is possible to write a temperature prescription for a woman and she will be assured that no matter where she has her hair done it will receive the same temperature treatment.
The construction of my pyrometers and their method of application in the treatment of human hair will be readily understood from the foregoing description, and it will be seen that I have provided simple inexpensive and eflicient means for carrying out the objects of my invention. Furthermore, while I have particularly described the elements best adapted to perform the functions set forth, it is obvious that various changes in form, proportion and minor details of construction and application may be resorted to without departing from the spirit or sacrificing any of the principles of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. A thermometer of the thermo couple type in which the couple elements are spaced apart, each couple element being exposed a substantial part of its length, and an insulating Wall positioned intermediate said couple elements and extending substantially the full length of the exposed portions of said couple elements, said insulating wall being substantially wider than said couple elements.
2. A thermometer of the thermo couple type in which the couple elements are spaced apart, each couple element being exposed a substantial part of its length, an insulating wall positioned intermediate said couple elements and extending substantially the full length of the exposed portions of said couple elements, said insulating wall being substantially wider than said couple elements, and each of said couple elements being formed With a relatively sharp longitudinal edge disposed in a direction away from said insulating wall.
3. A thermometer for measuring the temperature of clamps such as used in the dressing of hair and the like comprising a type thermo couple type in which the couple elements are spaced apart, each couple element being exposed a substantial part of its length, and an insulating wall substantially wider than the couple elements positioned intermediate said couple elements and extending substantially the full length of the exposed portions of said couple elements, said in- Sula-ting wall serving as a guide for the jaws of clamps when said clamp jaws are placed in grasping relation about said thermo couple elements.
4. A thermometer comprising a thermocouple, adapted for the measurement of the temperature of hair treating clamps and the like, in which the couple elements are spaced apart, each couple element being exposed a substantial part of its length and formed with a relatively sharp edge longitudinally disposed along said couple element, the said edges being so disposed that they will both be contacted by the clamp, whose temperature is being measured, when said clamp is placed in grasping relation about said couple elements.
5. A thermometer comprising a thermocouple, adapted for the measurement of the temperature obtaining at the interior surfaces of the jaws of hair treating clamps and the like, in which the couple elements are spaced apart, each couple element being exposed a substantial part of its length and formed with "a relatively sharp edge longitudinally disposed along said couple element, the said edges being so positioned that they will both be contacted by the clamp, whose temperature is being measured, when said clamp is placed in grasping relation about said couple elements.
6. A thermometer comprising a thermocouple, adapted for the measurement of the temperature of hair treating clamps and the like, in which the couple elements are spaced apart, each couple element being exposed a substantial part of its length and formed with a relatively sharp edge longitudinally disposed along said couple element, the said edges being so positioned that they both may be contacted by the clamp, whose temperature is being measured, and guiding means to guide said clamp into contacting both said edges when said clamp is placed in grasping relation about said couple elements.