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Publication numberUS2181390 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 28, 1939
Filing dateAug 9, 1933
Priority dateAug 9, 1933
Publication numberUS 2181390 A, US 2181390A, US-A-2181390, US2181390 A, US2181390A
InventorsArthur M Barrett
Original AssigneeArthur M Barrett
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 2181390 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

NOV. 28, 1939. BARRETT 2,181,390

EASEL Original Filed Aug. 9, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet l Nov. 28, 19 39. BARRETT 2,181,390

EASEL Original Filed Aug. 9, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Nov; 28, 1939 FAW som r EASEL, v Arthur M. Barrett, Winnetka, r11,

Appli ion August 9, issaserial No. 684,333 r Renewed May ,28, 1938 I 4 Claims. (eras-198;

The present invention relates generally to easels and other display devices, particularly those as applied to show cards; advertising display signs for show windows and the like. Supporting easels and the like for display purposes are usually secured to the rear surfaces of show cards, display signs and the like, althoughv in many cases. the supporting easel structure is formed as an integral part of the display sign. 10 These display devices are constructed of many different materials, but the material in common use today is cardboard cut to the proper shape to either form a'panel with a supporting easel glued or otherwise securedthereto, or a panel with the easel integral therewith. Generally, also, the type of easel in most common use today for display purposes and the like'which are manufactured of cardboard include a tab or interlocking section cut from the body of the easel 2 and so constructed and arranged as to be capable of being folded outwardly to secure the support ing wing of the easel in position.

This type of easel is subject to a number of objectionable disadvantages. Frequently, the user bends the easel wings or supporting members outwardly of the display face without regard to the locking tab, with the result'th'at the tab is broken off .or, so weakened that it is no longer effectivev in locking or holding the supporting ea- 3 sel wing in position to support the display. Further, the section or portion of the easel proper which is cut to form the locking tab serves to weaken the easel to a considerable extent with the result that the display is not sturdily sup- 35 ported. Also, by virtue of cutting the tab or locking section from the main body of the easel, the process of gluing or otherwise securingthe easel to the panel or display to be exhibited becomes a relatively difiicult operation to inexpensively and ei'ficiently perform. Since the, locking tab cannot be glued to the easel panel, theapplication'of the glue to the portion of the easel to which the panel is secured calls for certain care and particular steps to prevent the glue from 45 being applied at the wrong places. If the gluing is done by hand, two strokes of-the glue brushare necessary, and if the gluing is done by machine, it

requires a special roller with an interrupted sec-.- tion toprevent the application of glue where the 50 looking tab is to be disposed. For, this reason, it is necessary in the prior art that the easel be fed through the gluing machine in synchronization with the special roller, and further, a special or separate roller for each size of easel is necessary.

55 In addition, in easels where the supporting wings locked in only one position.

"fold line.

broken or. interrupted rollers, means, and the like. Also, the present invention contemplates, an, easel, wherein the middle por- 0 tion thereof is not cut or otherwise deformed, a

or stay sections were locked in their operating position bya tab or the like, the angle at which the display face was. fixed cannot be changed or adjustedjbecause the wings themselves can be 1 With. these and other factors in mind, one'of the principal features'of the present invention is the provisioniof a device for display purposes which includes a sheet of material, such as cardboard, whichhas a certain amount of resiliency .10

and in which a line'of weakening, such as a score.

or crease line, defines a line offold about which one of the. sections of the sheet may be bent relative to the. other, in connection with non-elastic vreenforcing means which is stiffer than the cardboard and is connected tosaid sections across the Thus, even-though the resiliency of the latter'tends'to swing the. sections back into their original position, the non-elastic reenforcing means overcomes the resilience of the cardboard an'dxefiectively holds the sections in the relative position into which they have been bent.

'. Another object of 'thepresent invention is the provision of an easel in which the gluing sur .face is flat, continuous,and'uninterrupted, thereby eliminating certain of the objectionable features referred to above, such as the necessity for synchronizing locking tab or the equivalent being dispensed with so that not only is'the easel properly and securely attached to the display card or panel, but

the easel proper is especially effective inopera 3 tive-position to strengthen the panel and, in this connection, serving as an angle member for reenforcing the panel. 1

Another object of the present invention is to provide the easel with means to hang the show 7 card orother display on anail,v hook or other easels proper, in which is incorporated the feature of having means providing for the disposition of a display panel in the proper position and means embodying the above principles for holding the same in that position without the inconvenience and complication of locking tabs 5 and the like. For example, an article container, such as a box, might be provided with a cover or lid which, when raised to any one of a plurality of positions, could be conveniently utilized vention is the provision of display easels, display cards and other display signs and the like formed of material having a certain amountof resiliency, and divided by a fold line into mov ably connected sections, one of which is free to be disposed in a given position, either to sup-- port certain display panels or to allow the position of certain display panels to be adjusted or varied, the sections or other interconnected portions being connected together by non-elastic deformable members, such' as wire staples or stitches, arranged across the fold line and having sufficient strength to hold the sections in-the relative positions to which they arev moved. The utilization of such soft wire reenforcing members does not interfere with the gluing or otherwise attachment of the easel proper to the display card, but does provide a construction wherein the hingedly connected stay piece or other part can be easily and quickly swung to the desired position and will be held in that position by virtue of the bend in the wire stitches. According to the principles of the present invention, the easels and other display cards or sections, while preferably made of cardboard, may also be constructed of light sheet metal and other light material. It is also to be understood that the present invention contemplates the utilization of. the principles of adjustably fixing the easel stay piece in position by any non-elastic deformable means, it being immaterial, as far as this feature is concerned, whether or not wire staples, sheets, strips or the like are employed, or whether or not the display panel or face of the device is formed as a part of the easel proper or is attached thereto, as by gluing or the like.

These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art after a consideration of the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the drawings forming a part of this specification.

In the drawings: 7

Figure 1 is a perspective view, with certain parts broken away, showing the construction of an easel having a single supporting wing or'stay piece which is held in adjusted position by a wire stitch or the ilke, which is capable of beingbent when the supporting wing is swung outwardly away from the plane of the display panel;

Figure 2 is a view of the easel or supporting member proper with the two sections thereof flat and in the same plane and joined by a non-elastic deformable member rigidly and fixedly secured to the several sections;

Figure 3 is a section taken along the line 33 of Figure 2;

Figure 4 is a section corresponding to the section shown in Figure 3, but illustrating the parts in the position they assume when the supporting wing or stay piece has been swung to one of it operative positions;

whereby they may be adapted for available spaces of various dimensions.

of Figure 7;

Figure 9 is a view similar to Figure 6, illustrating the utilization of a single elongated reenforcing member disposed across both of the fold lines and secured to the wing or stay piece sections,

the'easel being shown in its flat position before its attachment to a display card or panel;

Figure 10 shows the use of a plurality of wire staples or stitches, illustrating one form of construction which is useful where the easels are of substantial size;

1 Figure 11 is a perspective rear view of a display device embodying a display panel or card having the supporting easel illustrated in Figure .6 attached thereto, Figure 11 illustrating how the angle of the display card may be varied by varying the angles at which the stay pieces or supporting wings are disposed and are held in adjusted position, this figure also illustrating how the supporting easel wings may be bent backwardly to various positions, depending upon the 'desired'spacing between the heel portions of the supporting wings;

."Figure 12 illustrates a construction wherein the supporting wings or stay pieces are formed from the material of the display panel itself;

Figure 13 shows the application of the present invention to the lid or cover of a display box and providing for the disposition of the cover in a number of positions and held in that position for display purposes;

Figure 14 shows a plurality of display sections secured together along vertical fold lines across which are disposed a plurality of deformable wire staples or the equivalent;

Figure 15 illustrates the display sections shown in Figure 14 when they are folded for shipment or the like; and

Figure 16 illustrates a display device comprising two interconnected sections joined by a fold line and a plurality of wire stitches extending across the fold line and showing two possible positions of the display panels, one with respect to the other Referring now to the drawings, particularly Figures 1 to 5, inclusive, the reference numeral l indicates a display card or panel which is adapted to be maintained in upright position by means of an easel or support 2 which comprises a main 'body or face portion 3 adapted to be secured directly to the rear side of the panel I and a supporting wing or stay piece 4 connected with the main body portion or face portion 3 along a fold line ii. Generally, the material from which the panel l as'well as the easel 2 are constructed will be cardboard or the like, and the fold line 6 will be defined by a score line I 0, indicated in Figures 3 and 4 and referred to later.

Normally, such display devices as the one shown in Figure 1 are shipped flat with the supporting wing or stay piece 4 disposed fiat against the back side of the panel I and in coplanar relationship with respect to the face portion 3 of the easel.

When such display devices are forwarded to the user, such as, for example, a storekeeper or the like, the device is set up so as to display the matter on the panel I by folding the wing section 4 backwardly to approximately the position shown in Figure 1, which is substantially at right angles to the plane of the panel I, so as to hold the panel in upright position.

The cardboard or other material has a certain amount of resiliency so that if the sections on opposite sides of the fold line 6 are bent or folded about the fold line they tend by virtue of the resilience of the material to return to their original position. stay position t in proper position, the present invention contemplates providing one or more nonresilient deformable connecting or reenforcing members arranged generally across the fold line so as to dispose one end for connection with one of the sections and the other end for connection with the other section. These members are stiffer than the spring of the material so that when the sections are folded and the nonresilient member or members are bent, the latter hold the sections in the position to which they were moved.

In Figures 1 to 5, a reenforcing member l2 in the form of a wire staple or stitch has ends 53 and Hi projected through the sections 3 and d and clinched so as to fixedly secure the memoer iii in position. Since the ends of the staples are usually fairly small, being of wire stock, the insertion of the staple into the material of the isplay sections is relatively simple. -Preferably, the insertion and clinching of the reenforcing members i2 is done while the easel sections 3 and s are fiat, as best shown in Figure 3.

When the user bends the stay or wing section f of the easel backwardly to provide for the support of the easel in upright position, the wire reenforcing member i2 bends with the sections. The wire i2 is non-elastic and deformable, and stiffer than the cardboard so that when the stay section i is moved into the desired position and the wire is bent the section is automatically retained in that position until moved to another position. Two of such positions are indicated in Figure 4, but it will be obvious that the section t may be moved to any number of adjusted or wardly, as indicated by the reference numeral iii in Figures 3 and 5.

When it is desired to stand the easel upright for the purpose of displaying the material carried on the panel l, the user will merely bend the supporting wing or stay piece 4 to a position approximately at right angles to the card or display panel which it supports. The wire reenforcement shown in the drawings will then serve to hold the supporting ring 4 in position as described above. In case the card is to be put away temporarily, the easel can be folded back into its original flat position, and later the supporting wing can again be set in operative position. Tests have shown that this operation can be repeated several dozen times before the reenforcement member l2 will fail.

As will be apparent, the easel 2 is set in operative position on a counter, table or any convenient support, and the-lower or base portion Therefore, in order to hold the applying the glue.

of the supporting wing 4 is'formed as best shown in Figure 2.. This base portion is indicated by the reference numeral and is disposed at a slight angle with respect to the fold line 6 so that the display panel or card will be supported in slightlyrearwardly inclined position, as best shown in Figure 1. It will also be noted that the base portion 20 is provided with a cutaway section 2| forming an upwardly arched opening in the base portion 20 and terminating in a supportingheel 22. By virtue of the cutaway section 2|, only the heel 22 of the supporting wing contacts with the surface or support on which the easel and display card are disposed. By virtue of this construction, the easel may be supported on a somewhat uneven surface without rocking since this construction affords a substantially three point support.

Ordinarily, the face portion 3 of the easel proper is glued to the back surface of the display card or panel I, and as mentioned above, one of the'principal advantages of the present invention is that the instant construction affords an uninterrupted continuous gluing surface which does not require any special equipment for The continuous uninterrupted gluing surface is had because there are no cutaway portions,'such as are found in the easels of the prior art. The wire staples or reenforcing members l2 are of relatively small dimensions,

- as best shown in'Figures 3, 4 and 5, and the glue which secures the panel I to the easel 2 is applied to the base portion 3 or to the corresponding section of the back surface of the panel I or both, the application of the glue being performed in one operation. There is no appreciable relative movement between the wire reenforcing member 12 and the easel so that the glue may simply be applied over the entire face portion 3 including that portion, of the staple l2 which overlies the face portion 3. If desired, the staples l2 may be applied with sufiicient force to cause the wire to be slightly embedded into the material of the easel, but in neither case does the staple interfere with the secure attachment of the card to the easel.

Another of the principal advantages of the present invention lies in the fact that the supporting wing portion 4 may be bent outwardly from the display card I to any number of positions, and in doing so the heel portion 22 will be disposed closer to or farther away from the lower edge of the card I, whereby the card may be supported at different angles other than the predetermined angle obtained by turning the supporting Wing portion 6 at right angles to the display card. For example, if the supporting wing or stay piece 4 is not turned to exactly a 90 po-, sition, the card I will be tipped back slightly more than is indicated in Figure 1.

The upper section of the face portion 3 is provided with means to hang the card I or other article to which the easel 2 is attached. To this end, the upper section is cut, as indicated by the reference numeral 25, to form a tab 25 having an aperture 21. By means of the tab or hanger 26, the card I may be suspended from a nail, hook orother means so that the article, constructed according to the principles of the present invention, is given a dual value, namely, that of an easel and that of a hanger. Ordinarily, when the tab 26 is utilized for supporting the easel L, the supporting stay piece 4 is left in its original flat position and is held in that Gil position by the rigidity of the deformable reenforcements.

The construction described above is one wherein the easel 2 is not provided with any intermediate cutaway portion but is securely and rigidly attached to the display panel by a continuous and uninterrupted gluing surface whereby, when the supporting wing 4 is turned to operative position, the easel proper serves as a rigid reenforcing angle which provides for a more effective support of more flexible cards or panels than could be provided by the constructions of the prior art in which the easel is cut away rather severely to form the tab or locking means to hold the supporting wing in operative position. Cutting away the easel weakens the same with the result that the display card is not as well supported as it is by a device constructed according to the principles of the present invention.

An easel of the double wing type is shown in Figure 6 and comprises a face portion 35 and a pair of oppositely disposed stay pieces or supporting wings SI and 32 connected to the central section as along fold lines 34 and 35 where the material of the easel is cardboard or the like. As in the single wing type, the double wing easel is provided with one or more wire staples or reenforcing members 31 and 38 disposed across the fold lines 34 and 35. These 'reenforcing members are formed'of non-elastic deformable wire or the like and are secured to the cardboard in substantially the same manner as indicated in Figures 3 to 5. It may be preferable, in some easels, to employ flat wire instead of round wire, and such has been indicated in Figures '7 and 8.

Like the single wing easel shown in Figures 1 and 2, the double wing easel shown in Figure 6 may be provided with a cutaway portion in the base of each of the supporting wings 3! and 32 to form heel portions it for the easel. Also, in the double wing easel, and particularly where the supporting heel portions 40 are formed, the Wings 3! and 32 may be bent to any one of a plurality of operative positions and not only serve the purpose, as in Figures 1 and 2, of supporting the display panel in slightly different positions but also the spacing of the rear points of supports for the easel may be varied as, ior example, where it is desired to provide a somewhat wider support for the rear of the easel. This arrangement is best shown in Figure 11 which illustrates two different positions for the wings 3i and 32. Bending the supporting wings SI and 32 changes the angle slightly at which the display panel 4| is carried or supported. Figure 11 also illustrates a construction in which the supporting wings (ii and 32 are not provided with cutaway sections in the base thereof. This makes a slightly more simplified construction and therefore more inexpensive.

The single wing and double wing easels described above may be constructed in many different sizes, depending upon the requirements and the material employed and the number of nonelastic deformable reenforcements will vary. For example, Figure 9 shows a relatively small easel of the double wing type including a central base portion or gluing section 50 and two supporting wings or stay pieces l and 52. In this case, a single, somewhat elongated, wire staple or reenforcement 53 is employed which extends entirely across both of the fold lines 54', and 55 by which the stay pieces 5| and 52 are connected with the central or main body portion 50. Where the easel is of larger construction, it may be preferable to employ a plurality of reenforcing members for each of the fold lines, so that their total resistance against bending is greater than the spring resilience of the cardboard sheet. Such a construction is indicated in Figure in which the stay pieces 5'! and 58 are connected with the portion or gluing section 59 along fold lines 5! and 52 which are reenforced by a plurality of wire staples 65 or the equivalent. Single Wing easels may also be constructed similar to the double wing easels shown in Figure 10, namely, by the employment of a plurality of wire staples or other non-elastic reenforcing members.

All of the easels referred to above are of the type that are made from a separate sheet of material, such as cardboard or the like, and fastened onto the back of a display card or panel. In such constructions I havereferred to the easel proper as being the face portion and the angularly disposed portion which supports the display panel. It is to be understood, of course, that the entire device may be termed an easel if desired, and, moreover, certain specially constructed display cards have the easel die cut out of the material of the card itself. This construction is illustrated in Figure 12 in which it will be observer that the display card, indicated by the reference numeral 65, has been out along lines 66 and 61 to form easel wings HI and H which are connected with the main portion of the display .card 65 along fold lines, permitting the wings to be folded backwardly to the position shown in Figure 12. In this construction, no gluing is necessary, but one or more reenforcing wire staples or the like which are stiffer than the cardboard may be employed for holding the supporting wings 10 and H in position. As shown in Figure 12, a single reenforcing member 13 is employed and extends entirely from one wing to the other. If desired, one or more individual wire staples or stitches may be employed for each of the supporting wings l0 and H.

The principles of the present invention are also applicable to display devices and the like other than supporting easels. For example, certain types of display cartons are now in use and are provided with a lid or cover which is adapted to be raised to an upright position or to some other position in which the advertising matter or other display material on the cover may be exhibited. Generally, however, the cover is held in operative or display position by means of flaps, tabs, looks or the like, of more or less complicated form and construction. In this type of carton, the present invention contemplates connecting the cover or lid with the container by one or more wire staples, wire stitches or the like so that merely raising the cover to the desired position will automatically dispose the same so that it will be held in that position. In this way no attention need be given to the proper application of locking tabs and other expediencies.

Figure 13 illustrates such a construction, the container being indicated by the reference numeral 80 and comprising end and side walls, to one of which a lid or cover 8| is attached by hinge means or the equivalent. Where the container or box 80 is formed of cardboard, usually the cover is connected with the container proper along a fold line of the type employed in the easel shown in Figures I to 5, so that the cover 8| acts as a free Wing, such as the easel wings be, the present invention contemplates the utili zation of one or more wire stitchings orstapl'es 82 securely fixed or clamped to the cover 3! and the associated supporting wall therefor across the fold line. The wire stitches 82 are formed of non-elastic deformablematerial, and are stiff enough to-hold the cover in any position against the spring or resilience of the cardboard. v

Another embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in Figures l4 and i5. Occasionally it is necessary to ship a large sized display card in a relatively small package. When this is necessary, the sheet or card is creased or cut'tc establish fold lines and then the various sections are folded down several times to reduce the-size of the package. For example, Figure it shows four sections in display position and Figure i5 illustrates the sections folded together for shipping or mailing. In Figure i l the sectionsare indicated by the reference numerals 85, 86, 8'! and 88, and adjacent sections are connected together along a fold line across which is disposed a plurality of reenforcing wire stitches 90. Generally, such wire stitches or staples would be inserted in the sheet when the sections are fiat and extended, as indicated in Figure M, and then the display would be folded for shipping. Upon its arrival, the user would unfold the display and the stitches or staples would hold the sections in the positions to which they were brought, thereby providing a relatively stiff display which is self-sustaining. The total strength of the nonelastic reenforcing members is greater than the spring of the material, so that whether extended (Figure 14) or folded (Figure 15), the members 90 hold the sections 85, 86, 81 and 88 in position.

It is also a feature of the construction shown in Figures 14 and 15 that the display device as a whole may be arranged for different sized windows or display spaces since, by virtue of the bendable reenforcing members 9!], the sections may be folded or unfolded to the correct angular position relative to each other to fit the display to the desired space, the connecting members then serving to hold the sections in their positions with appreciable rigidity.

In cases where it is desired to provide a display having the last mentioned features of adjustability but without the feature of being capable of considerable reduction in the size of the package when folded, a construction such 7 94 connected together along a fold line 95 and reenforced by suitable wire staples or other nonelastic bendable connections which are stiifer than the spring of the cardboard or other material from which the display is made. This construction may be necessary for large windows where it is necessary totake into consideration the fact that the displays must be so designed as to fit many diiferent sizes and shapes of display windows. For example, relatively large display cards of the type that fold on the vertical score line have been employed and are adapted to fit into one of the several corners of a show window or the like through which the cards may be viewed from different positions. Such display cards are usually made for a 90 fold, inasmuch as most windows have right angle corners. However, all windows do not have right angle cornersand considerable difiiculty is experienced in fitting the usual display device to such windows because Whatever the connecting means the looking or reenforcing means prevent .the ready adaptation of the device to these unusual windows. With the present invention, embodying flexible non-resilient wire stitchings or staples connecting the display sections and arranged across the fold line or lines, it will be easily seen that the display device, thus constructed according to the principles of the present invention, would be such that the display could be fitted to all shapes of display windows. Figure 16, for example, indicates two different position's in which the display device may be erected.

As mentioned above, cardboard forms the principal material used, but it is to be understood that the principles of the present invention are not limited to the use of such material, and that whatever the material that is employed, or irrespective of whether the'display device is in the form of an easel, container or panel, there is provided one or more sections or wings that are freely movable relative to others but which are held in position by non-elastic reenforcing members which are stiffer than said material so that,

while capable of beingbent when the sections Lsued March 11, 1913, to W. M. Carter, and of the fact that wire stitches have been used at the vartical corners of fiber board boxes, as in patent No. 1,917,920, issued January 31, 1931, to H. R. Bliss, to prevent the corners from ripping, but I believe it to be broadly new to provide nonelastic deformable members across the fold line between two relatively movable sections and which are bent when the sections are bent but which are stiffer than the sections so as to hold the latter against returning to their original position.

It will therefore be apparent that, while I have shown and described above the constructions in which the principles of the present invention have been preferably embodied, my invention is not to be limited to the specific means shown and described, but that, in fact, widely different means may be employed in the practice of the broader aspects of my invention.

What I claim, therefore, and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. An easel for display purposes and the like,

comprising a face portion and a stay portion of integral construction and formed of cardboard or the like having a scored fold line dividing said i portions, and a wire staple inserted into the material of said portions when they are fiat, the staple being disposed across the fold line at the side of said portions in which the score defining the fold line is made and having its ends projected entirely through the portions adjacent the fold line and clinched, respectively, to said portions at the other side thereof, whereby when one of the portions is swung outwardly about the fold line relative to the other portion, said wire staple will be bent and will serve to reenforce the scored zone of the easel and hold said portions in the relative position to which they have been moved.

2. An easel for display purposes and the like, comprising a face portion and a stay portion hingedly connected together, said face portion presenting a continuous uninterrupted gluing sur- 75 face, and a bendable non-elastic member secured to said portions and including a member having its intermediate section disposed at one side of said portions with a portion of said intermediate section disposed against said gluing surface and its end sections projecting through said face and stay portions and clinched on the other side thereof, said member being adapted to be bent when said portions are bent and to hold said portions in their relative positions.

3. An easel for display purposes and the like, comprising a face portion and a stay portion hingedly connected together, said face portion presenting a gluing surface, and a bendable nonelastic member secured to said portions and including a member having its intermediate section disposed at one side of said portions and its end sections projecting through said face and stay portions and clinched on the other side thereof,

a part of said member overlying and disposed closely against said gluing surface, said member being adapted to be bent when said portions are bent and to hold said'portions in their relative positions.

4. An easel for display purposes and the like, comprising a face portion and a stay portion hingedly connected together said face portion presenting a continuous uninterrupted gluing surface, and a bendable non-elastic member secured to said portions and including a member having its intermediate section disposed at one side of said portions and its end sections projecting through said face and stay portions and clinched on the other side thereof, a part of said member overlying and disposed closely against said gluing surface, said member being adapted to be bent when said portions are bent and to hold said portions in their relative positions.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2467190 *Oct 5, 1945Apr 12, 1949CowlesSelf-erecting easel
US4310095 *Mar 31, 1980Jan 12, 1982Bernat Fontlladosa EnriqueDisplay unit for displaying confectionary items having sticks
U.S. Classification248/459
International ClassificationG09F1/04
Cooperative ClassificationG09F1/04
European ClassificationG09F1/04