US 2181748 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 28, 1939. F. A. THAHELD 2,181,748
PLUNGER Filed May 4, 1956 Patented Nov. 28, 1939 UNITED STATES PLUNGER Feri A. Thaheld, Dallas, Tex., assignor to The Guiberson Corporation, Dallas,, Tex., a corporation of Delaware Application May 4, 1936, Serial No. 77,692 5 Claims. (01. 309-23) This invention relates to new and useful improvements in plungers. 7
One object of the invention is to provide an improved plunger which is particularly adapted 5 for use in the working barrel of an oil well to pump the well fluid to the surface.
An important object of the invention is to provide an improved pump plunger which is provided with elastic packing elements which are disl torted to pack off upon movement of the plunger in one direction, said elements being arranged to be positively returned to their normal unpacked position upon the movement in an opposite direction, whereby undue frictional wear is elimi- 15 nated.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved pump plunger arranged to reciprocate l in a working barrel and provided with a plurality of elastic packing elements, each member being suitably supported by an expansible metallic member whereby said elastic element is reinforced by the member and is also positively returned to a normal, undistorted position by said member when relieved of pressure.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved packing element for a pump plunger including an annular, expansible metallic member having suitable packing material, such as rubber or the like, molded thereto, whereby expansion of the member will distort the packing material, and retraction of said member will restore said packing material to its normal position.
A still further object of the invention is'to provide an improved pump plunger having a plurality of flared packing elements superimposed thereon, whereby upon reciprocation of the plunger within a working barrel, the packing elements are subjected to the fluid pressure.
A construction designed to carry out this invention will be hereinafter described, together with other features of the invention.
The invention will be more readily understood from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the accompanying drawing, in which an example of the invention is shown, and wherein:
Figure 1 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of a plunger, constructed in accordance with the 50 invention,
Figure 2 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line 2--2 of Figure 1,
Figure 3 is a partial plan view of one of the packing elements, showing its normal unexpanded position,
Figure 4 is a view, similar to Figure 3, showing the packing element distorted, and
Figure 5 is a transverse vertical, sectional view of the same.
In the drawing, the numeral l0 designates the 5 usual working barrel of an oil well pump. The well fluid is pumped upwardly through the barrel into the casing thereabove and is thereby lifted to the surface of the well. A reciprocating plunger I I is mounted to slide within the working barrel l0 and is carried by the lower end of the usual pump rod l2. The plunger ll comprises a tubular mandrel l3 which is disposed axially within the barrel l0 and which has its lower end provided with external screw-threads H. The 5 upper end of the mandrel is formed with similar screw-threads l5 onto which is screwed a valve cage IS. The cage has an upwardly extending nipple l1 externally screw-threaded to receive the lower end of the pump rod I21 The upper end of the bore l3 of the mandrel is provided with an annular bevel l8 which forms a seat adapted to be engaged by a ball l9 which is confined within the cage Hi. When the ball is engaging the seat I8, it is obvious that the flow of fluid through the mandrel I3 is prevented, but when the ball is unseat'ed a free flow of the fluid from beneath the mandrel may flow therethrough and outwardly through the cage is into the working barrel above the plunger.
A collar 20 is screwed onto the lower end of the mandrel l3 and is formed with an internal annular bevel 2| at its upper end. A plurality of superimposed packing elements 22 are supported on the annular bevel of the collar 20 and extend throughout the entire length of the mandrel l3, whereby the uppermost packing element engages the bevelled lower edge 16' of the valve cage l6. Thus, it will be seen that the packing members are confined on the mandrel between the cage l6 and the collar 20.
Each packing element comprises an annular metallic reinforcing plate 23 which is flared upwardly and outwardly as is clearly shown in Figure 5. The plate is formed with a collar 24 at its 5 lower end, which collar has a diameter substantially equal to the outer diameter of the mandrel l3, whereby said collar snugly fits the mandrel. The plate 23 is provided with corrugations 25 which extend radially and which are disposed throughout its entire surface. An annular elastic packing ring 26 is molded to the underside of the corrugated plate 23 and has a width equal to the height of the collar 24. The elastic packing ring may be constructed of rubber, rubber compound, Duprene, or any other suitable material.
Since the packing ring is molded to the underside of the flared corrugated plate 23, it is obvious that when the packing element is in position on the mandrel, the plate and packing ring attached thereto flare upwardly at an inclination. The diameter of the packing ring is greater than the diameter of the corrugated plate 23 whereby the peripheral edge portion of said packing ring extends beyond the edge of said plate. When the packing ring is in a normal undistorted position, there is a very slight clearance between the edge of said packing ring and the inner wall of the working barrel It].
In operation, it will be seen that upon the downstroke of the plunger I I, the well fluid below said plunger will flow upwardly through the bore l3 of the mandrel and will unseat the ball l8 so as to pass upwardly through the cage to the working barrel above the plunger. Also, upon the downstroke of the plunger the well fluid will strike the underside of the lower packing element 22 and will tend to force the same inwardly toward the mandrel, whereby the fluid may by-pass between said packing element and the wall of the barrel Ill. The tendency of the packing element to be disengaged from the wall of the working barrel upon the downstroke of the plunger,
will greatly reduce any frictional wear on the edges of the packing ring 26 of the element. This reduced frictional wear will increase the life of the packing element.
After the downstroke of the plunger is completed, and said plunger begins to move upwardly, the pressure of the fluid above the plunger will immediately seat the ball l9, whereby the downward flow of fluid through the mandrel will be prevented. The pressure of the well fluid will be exerted against the uppermost packing element 22 and this pressure will tend to expand or increase the flare of said element. Also this pressure will flatten the corrugations 25 in theplate 23 and as these corrugations are flattened or straightened, the packing ring 26 molded to the underside thereof will be distorted in a radial direction whereby the edge of said packing ring is positively moved into engagement with the wall of the working barrel in. Therefore, upon the upstroke of the plunger I I there will be no possibility of well fluid escaping or by-passing downwardly around the plunger ll. 7
As the upstroke is completed and the next downstroke commences, the pressure of the well fluid above the plunger is relieved. As soon as this occurs, the metallic plates 23 which have been flattened to a certain extent by the pressure, will immediately return to their normal position. Thus, the packing ring 26 secured to the underside of the corrugated plate 23 will be pulled inwardly to its normal unexpanded position. It is noted that this restoring of the packing ring to its normal position takes place immediately upon the relieving of the pressure from the packing element 22. This is occasioned by the return of the corrugated plates 23 to their normal posi tion.
From the above, it will be seen that the plates 23 not only provide a reinforcement or bracing of the elastic packing rings 26, but also provide a positive means for restoring said packing rings to their normal unexpanded position during the downstroke of the plunger, whereby excessive and undue wear on said packing rings is eliminated.
It is pointed out that the device is simple in construction and comprises a minimum number of parts. Whenever one of the packing elements 22 becomes worn, or must be replaced for any reason,
it is only necessary to remove the collar 20 from the lower end of the mandrel, and all of the packing elements may then be readily removed. It is noted that the partitifiiar number of packing elements which are employed may vary, as it has been found that eflicient results may be obtained with various numbers of the packing elements.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. A packing element for a reciprocating plunger including, a metallic funnel shaped corrugated reinforcing member, and an elastic packing ring secured thereto, said ring having a greater diameter than that of the reinforcing member, whereby the peripheral edge portion of said ring extends beyond the edge of said member.
2. A packing element for a reciprocating plunger including, an annular metallic funnel shaped plate having corrugations throughout its entire surface, and an elastic packing ring molded-to the underside "of said plate, said ring having a diameter greater than that of the plate, whereby its peripheral edge portions extend beyond the edges of said-plate.
3. A packing element for a reciprocating plunger including a funnel shaped corrugated reinl forcing member provided with a depending annular flange and an elastic packing ring secured to the under side of said member and to said flange and extending outwardly beyond the out-er periphery of said member. v
4. A packing element for a reciprocating plunger including a funnel shaped corrugated reinforcing member, an elastic packing ring secured to the under side of said member and extending outwardly beyond the outer periphery of saidmember and a metallic annular collar supporting the inner portion of said elastic packing ring.
5. A packing including a plurality of frustoconical metallic members having openings in the centers thereof, corrugations extending from said openings to the outer peripheries of said members, a depending flange forming a part of each of said members and an elastic packing ring interposed between said members and outwardly from the flange of one of said members, said packing ring extending beyond the outer peripheries of said metallic members.