US 2182372 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec 5; 193%., a COX ET AL 2 182372 BUILDING COVER-ING Filed June 17, 1938 4- Sheets-Sheet 1 Psec r E. Manse v A7 T Toe/V5345;
Dec. 5, 1939.
s. F. cox ET AL 2,182,372
BUILDING COVERING Filed June 17, 1958 4 Sheeiis-Sheet 5 //v n/E/v TOR'S Saw/051.. FCOK Pgec r EK/VuDSE/V p 7' r02 NE V15.
Dec. 5, 1939. s. F. cox Er AL 2,182,372
BUILDING COVERING Filed June 17, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 72 fly/.13.
V VE/V T026 Janus. FC' A P 2: r 6'. lwvuosa/v 77 TOIQ/VEY T Patented Dec. 5, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT; OFFICE 2,182,372 BUILDING COVERING Application June 1'1, 1938, Serial No. 214,247
The present invention relates to protective facings for roofs or walls of buildings, and it has particular relation to facings comprising plates of glass, and notably of tempered glass arranged in 5 overlapping relation to provide a shingle-like outer covering. v
One object of the invention is to provide a roofing or wall construction of the foregoing type that requires a minimum amount of glass and supporting framework.
A second object of the invention is to provide an improved construction for clamping the plates to the framework.
These and other objects will be apparent from consideration of the following specifications, and
the appendant claims.
Among the materials employed in fabricating roofs and sometimes the side walls of buildings, shingles of wood, or of felt-like material saturated 0 with asphalt, are quite common. These materials of course, are of relatively low resistance to weathering, and unless kept painted, the life thereof is comparatively short, and accordingly they are not usually employed upon the better types of construction. Slates and tile have long enjoyed wide use as sheathing elements in roofs and similar structures where high resistance to weathering is required. Plates or units of these various materials are arranged in overlapping courses and rows, that provide definite decorative patterns to which the public has. long been accustomed.
Such materials are highly frangible, and breakage due to thermal and mechanical stresses is frequent. Tiles and slates are, also, of a porous nature and the permeation of water into such porous structures, followed by freezing, results in gradual disintegration. They, of course, are quite opaque, and cannot be employed where transparency or light transmission is desired.
Common glass has'certain properties, such as great resistance to permeation by water, resistance to weathering, and a high degree of transparency or translucency which would render it valuable as an external sheathing or covering material for both the roofs and the side walls of buildings. However, common annealed glass is of such brittle or frangible nature that mechanical breakage is likely to occur. Moreover, where the units overlap each other, unequal heating occurs and breakage as a result of thermal strains is likely to follow. Breakage as a result of freezingand expansion of moisture, entering by capillary attraction, condensation, or otherwise, may also result. For these reasons it will be apparent that danger from falling glass to occupants of the building is substantial, unless a backing of wood or some similar material is provided. Such backng, of course, in addition to being expensive, prevents the transmission of light through a wall 5 or roof, and would, therefore, defeat one of the primary objects of employing glass'shingles' or plates in a roof.
A further serious objection to the use of plates or sheets of glass as shingle units in a roof, has 10 consisted in the fact that when a unit was cracked or broken, the pieces usually remained in place, and could not be detected. Often leakage would occur as a result of such broken units, and it would be difficult to detect the source of leakage. Removal of the stub of the broken shingle from beneath the overlapping shingles was frequently difiicult, because it was usually necessary further to break the stub, and might be attended by breakage of adjacent units. 20
. Since as a result of various types of failures, about 25 per cent of the units composing a shingle type glassroof can be expected to break in normal service over a period of time, such replacements must be relatively frequent and the labor involved, as well as the expense entailed becomes considerable.
For the foregoing reasons glass has not, heretofore, enjoyed any substantial use as a roofing material, except in the form of easily replaceable panes enclosed in reinforcing sash frames, such as are employed in the fabrication of windows, skylights, greenhouses, etc. When the glass is supported in frames it is uniformly exposed to radiation through its area, so that there is no differential of thermal expansion with resultant breakage. Also, no opportunity is afforded for water to seep between superposed sheets to freeze and cause breakage. Moreover, a broken pane is always completely accessible, and can be easily detected and removed from its frame, and replaced by simple methods of glazing, without danger of breakage of additional units. Of course the frames or sashes in a roof were unsightly, and moreoverg vvere subjected to rust or decay. Painting on such sashes in a roof in order to obviate the latter defect, was diflicult and expensive.
The present invention involves the provision of a building in which the roof or side walls are composed of attractive shingle-like plates of glass, the plates being so tempered or heat-treated that if breakage occurs it results in the complete shattering of the glass into small diced fragments,
that cannot harm objects or persons struck thereby, and which are readily removed to permit the insertion of a new unit. i
The invention also involves the provision of a simple system in which the plates are directly secured to. the rafters or studdings without use of purlins.
As an additional feature, the invention involves the provision of certain hollow slotted metallic units suitable for use as a framework to support the plates and an improved clamping device for the plates, designed so to grip the edges of the slot as to permit the plates to be shifted along the units to any desired position.
For a better understanding of the invention,
for securing the plates or shingles to the rafters.
Figure 4 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of a roof showing a modified form of securing device.
Figure 5 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of the device shown in Figure 4, taken on a plane at right angles to the plane of Figure 4.
Figure 6 is. a fragmentary cross-sectional view of a modified form of frame structure for supporting the roof. 1
Figure 7 is a plan view of a shingle of the typ employed in constructing the roof illustrated.1
Figure 8 is a plan view of a modified shingle such as is employed in the edge courses 01'- rows of shingles.
.Figure 9 is a plan view of the type ofshingle employed in the corners of a roof constructed in accordance with the provision of the invention.
Figure 10 is a plan view of a clip or clamp for 1 securing the lowermost course of shingles.
Figure 11 is a side elevational view on the clip or clamp shown Vin Figure '10.
Figure 12 is a plan view of the form of clips or clamps employed in securing the shingles along the lateral edges of a roof.
Figure 13 is an elevational view of the cli shown in Figure 12.
Figure 14 is.a plan view of the type of clips employed to secure the upper corner shingles in place.
Figure 15 is a side elevational view of the clip disclosed in Figure 14.
In the form of the invention illustrated, a framework comprising bars or beams shown in Fig. 1, is provided. These-beams may comprise the rafters of a building, or may be in the form of simple upright studding. In either case, they of course will be in a non-vertical plane. The bars may be of wood or'similar material, but preferably are hollow forms or tubes of metal.
In the form of the invention disclosed in Figure 2 they comprise a tube-like member 23, which is formed along its upper face with a slot 24, having inwardly bent flanges 25. 1
In the form of'the invention illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 they comprise simple rectangular tubes 26. I
In the form of the invention disclosed in Figure 6 the beams comprise a pair of channel-like members 21 and 28, laid upon their edges and having their flanges 29 disposed in opposed but slightly spaced relation with respect to each other. In this form of the invention, the channels are secured together by means of bolts 3|, extended therethrough, and having sleeves 32 disposed thereabout. Nuts 33, upon the ends of the bolts, serve to clamp the webs 35, of the channels, against the ends of the spacing sleeves.
The shingles 38, best shown in Figures 1 and 7 preferably are of approximately quadrilateral outline, and have sides of equal length, and have their diagonals disposed at right angles with respect to each other. In the form illustrated, they areapproximately rectangular in outline, i. e., have diagonals of equal length. However, they may also be of diamond shape if preferred. Preferably the corners of the shingles or plates are clipped as indicated at 39. The diagonal width of each unit is such that diagonally-opposedcorners can be placed upon alternate rafters or bars. That is, the diagonal width of the shingles equals twice the spacing between the latter elements. The thickness may be about one fourth inch. However, this thickness can be varied.
In laying the shingles each unit is disposed diagonally with respect to the bars or rafters with outer or transversed corners disposed upon alternate rafters to provide horizontal courses 40. The intermediate orvertical corners are disposed in rows upon the intermediate rafters. In the courses the upper corner is overlapped by the lower corner of the next shingle in the row, and it in turn overlaps the upper corner of the preceding shingle in the row. .The ends of the plates or shingles in the same course are slightly spaced with respect to each other, as indicated at 4|, and are disposed between the overlapping corners of the shingles in the adjacent rows.
-Corner shingles 42 are approximately right triangles and of dimensions approximately corresponding to those obtained by cutting shingles or plates 38 into quarters along their diagonals. Starter or edge shingles 43, best shown in Figures 1 and 8 are also of triangular outline, and are of about the dimensions obtained by cutting a shingle 38 into halves, along one diagonal.
The lower edges of shingles in each succeeding course are disposed in overlapping relation with respect to the upper edges of the preceding course. The overlap indicated at 44 may be varied, depending somewhat upon the slope of the roof, and such like factors. An overlap of two or three inches is found to be satisfactory for most purposes. This overlap, of course, may be increased or decreased if desired. When the shingles are so arranged it will be apparent that the-major portion of the roof comprises'only a single thickness of glass. Accordingly, the amount of glass required, to cover a given area, is reduced to a minimum.
The clips or securing devices 45 for holding the shingles or plates 38 upon the rafters or bars may be of the form shown in Figure 5.. It is susceptible of application upon the tubular rafters 26 and may also be employed for securing the shingles or plates upon wooden rafters or studding. These clips comprise straps 46, of steel, brass, copper, or other suitable material, pierced to receive simple securing devices such as screws 41, nails, rivets, or the like. Each clip is formed with an upwardly offset portion 48, of a height sufficient to clear the upper corner of the preceding shingle. The clips are also provided with portions 49, which overlie the upper portion of the latter shingle, and which at their lower extremities are upwardly and backwardly bent to provide hook 5|, adapted to clamp over the lower cor ner of the overlying or upper shingle.
The clips 52, disclosed in Figures 2 and 3, are substantially identical in construction with the clip 45, already described. They are secured upon transverse plates 53, adapted to rest upon the tubular bars 23. Screws 54, securing the clip to the transverse plate 53, are threaded through channels 56, that fit over the downwardly-extending edge portion 25, upon either side of the longitudinal slot 24. These channels may be of substantially the same length as the beams or rafters 23. However, they may also be cut-into sections of any desired length, and a plurality of sections employed for each of the beams or rafters. It is even possible to employ a section for each of the beams or rafters. The latter construction has the advantage that the clipsmay then be adjusted longitudinally on the beams or rafters in order to hold the shingles or Screws 6| extending through the clamps or clips and threaded into the element 60 serve to draw the key members upwardly into the space between the flanges and thus to maintain the clips in proper position. Key member 60, like channels 56, may be of substantially the same length as the channels 2'! and 28 or may be cut into any desired number of sections in order to permit the clips or clamps to be adjusted longitudinally along the rafters or bars.
The clips or clamps employed for securing the lowermost courses of plates 42 or starters 43 are of the outlines disclosed in Figures wand 11. They comprise straps 65 which are substantially straight throughout their length and which at their upper extremities are provided with openings 66 for screws or other securing devices. The hooked portion 61 at the lower extremity of the clamp in cross-sectional outline substantially corresponds to the portion 5| described in connection with the embodiment of the invention disclosed in Figure 5. However, it is of a width sufficient, not only to hook over the lower corner of the superposed shingle, but to engage the lower edges of contiguous triangular shingles at the extremities thereof in order to maintain the latter in position.
The clips or clampsemployed for securing the courses at the end of the roof are of the forms disclosed in Figures 1, l2 and 13. Such clips comprise strap 10 substantially corresponding to the straps 46 in construction, but having in addition lateral arms H which at their extremities are provided with upwardly bent hooks I2 engaging the edges of the outermost shlnglesa They may also be provided with a downwardly-projecting flange or lug I3 adapted to engagethe edges of the shingles which are disposed therebeneath.
at their upper outer corners. These clips are substantially of L shape in outline and comprise a body portion 75, which at its lower extremity 1s bored as indicated at H, to receive screws or other fastenings. The stem 18 on the clips projects laterally and at its extremity is provided with a hook 19 which grips the edge of the shingle at the corner thereof in order to prevent lateral displacement.
The construction of a roof in accordance with the provision of the present invention is substantially self evident from the foregoing description. Clip or clamp of the type shown in Figure 12 is first secured to the outermost or end rafter 20 at the lower extremity thereof and clips or clamps corresponding to that disclosed in Figure 10 are then secured to the alternate intermediate rafters as shown in Figure 1. A corner shingle 42 is then secured under the hooks of the first two of these clips and a row of half plates or shingles 43 of the type disclosed in Figure 8 are laid all the way across the roof at the lower edge thereof with the clips shown in Figure 10 securing them in position at the extremities thereof. Subsequently, shingles 38 are of the form disclosed in Figure 7,, are laid in a course with the lower edges thereof superposed on the upper edges of the shingles 42 and 43 and with the lower corners thereof engaged by and secured by the hook portion 61 of the securing clamps or clips. After this latter course of shingles has been laid. a second half shingle 43 is disposed with its apex substantially coinciding with the upper corner also of the type illustrated in Figure 12. Subsequently; a second complete course of shingles 38 are laid with their lower edges superposed upon the upper edges of the first-mentioned course. This process is repeated until the entire roof area is completely covered. The upper corners of the roof are finished with shingles 42 substantially similar to those at the lower corners. Rotation of these shingles about an axis perpendicular to the plane thereof is prevented by means of a clip of the type shown in Figure 14. The remainder of this course of shingle is composed of units of the type disclosed in Figure 8.
Many advantages are obtained 'from a roof constructed of tempered glass plates or shingles in accordance with the provision of the present invention. For example, it will be apparent that a minimum amount of glass is required completely to close a given amount of space. Only a small amount of glass is covered by overlapping shingles and therefore, the shingles are placed substantially uniformly and are not subjected to excessive internal stresses due to unequal heating. It will be apparent that by reason of the formation of the unit of tempered glass, if rupture occurs at a point, e. g., point A in Figure 1, the entire unit will instantly shatter into small round fragments and will drop out. Such breakage, of course, is readily detectable, and the complete elimination of the fragments makes it an exceedingly easy matter to slide a replacement unit into position under the ends of the clamps. This is substantially in contrast to a shingle of. conventional design which if cracked, for'example, at the point A might remain in position and provide a leak which would be diflicult to detect. If the fracture of the glass was sufliciently extensive relatively large pieces might be permitted to fall and would constitute a great hazard to persons who happened to be disposed beneath at the time of dislodgment. In many cases where the breakage was not sufliciently extensive to release the fragments of glass, it would be difiicult for the repair man to remove the pieces in order to permit a second unit to be slid into position. Breakageof adjacent unit might readily occur in an attempt to release the broken fragments.
By supporting the glass plates or shingles directly upon the non-horizontal rafters or bars, permits reduction of the amount of framework to a minimum. The light transmitting properties and the appearance of the structure are thus substantially improved.
It is to be understood that the structures herein illustrated are to be considered merely as illustrative and that numerous modifications may be made therein without departure from the spirit of the invention or from the scope of the attendant claims.
What we claim is: 1
1. A building having an outer shell, a portion of which comprises laterally spaced non-horizontal bars, quadrilateral plates of glass disposed diagonally directly upon the bars with two diagiao Flo
onally-opposed lateral corners resting upon alternate bars and the remaining two corners being over the intermediate bars, and the two lower margins of each plate overlapping a single upper margin of each of twoplower plates, and means to secure each plate to an intermediate bar, the bars being metallic hollow members which are longitudinally slotted along their top surfaces, the means to secure the plates to the bars comprising elongate metallic members having portions engaging the tops of the bars on each side of the slots and portions hooking over the lower corners of the glass plates, clamping elements within the bars and screws extending through the metallic members and the clamping elements to draw them together to clamp the walls of the bars.
2. .A construction as defined inclaim 1 in which the edges of the slotted hollow members are'i nwardly bent and the clamping elements engage the edges. 3. A construction as defined in claim 1in which the edges of the slotted hollow members are inwardly bent and the clamping elements comprise inverted channels fittingover the inwardly bent edges.
4. A building having an outer shell; a portion of which comprises laterally spaced non-horizontal bars approximately quadrilateral plates of glass disposed diagonally directly upon the bars with the two diagonally-opposed lateral corners resting upon alternate bars andthe remaining two corners being over the intermediate bars, and the two lower margins of each plate overlapping a single upper margin of each of two lower plates, and means to secure each plate to an intermediate bar, the bars being hollow members comprising inwardly facing channels having spaced upper margins providing slots running longitudinally thereof, the means to secure the glass plates comprising metallic straps having portions hooking over the lower corners of the plates and rear portions resting upon the top of the bars, elongated clamping members within the bars and screws extending through the straps and the clamping members to draw the clamping members into engagement with the edges of the channels.
5. A construction as defined in claim 1 in which the glass plates are so tempered that upon rupture of the surface thereof they shatter into small rounded fragments.
6. A'building construction comprising spaced parallel longitudinally slotted tubular bars and 5 ing upon alternate bars with both of the intermediate corners resting upon intermediate bars, the intermediate corners respectively overlapping and underlapping a corner of the adjacent plates, clamps for'the plates, each clamp comprising a strap of metal hooked at one end over the corner of the plate and extending back under the plate over an intermediate corner of one adjacent plate and between the outer corners of the other two adjacent plates, key members disposed in the tubes and bolts securing the clamps to the latter. 1
7. A construction as defined in claim 6, in which the edges of the slots are inwardly turned a 'd the key elements comprise inverted channels within the hollow members gripping. said edges.
8. A construction as defined in claim 6 in which the hollow members have inwardly-turned edges and the straps are secured to key elements which comprise inverted channels within the hollow members gripping the edges.
9. A construction as defined in claim 6 in which the bars are hollow members comprising two channels arranged with the'flanges in slightly spaced relation to provide'slots for bolts securing the straps to the hollow members and are secured together by bolts extending through the channels and through spacing sleeves between the channels.
10. A building having an outer shell, a portion of which comprises laterally spaced non-horizontal bars, providing a framework, approximately quadrilateral plates of tempered glass disposed in transversecourses directly upon the'bars with the two diagonally-opposed lateral corners supported by alternate bars and the remaining two corners being over the intermediate bar, and the two lower margins of each plate overlapping a single upper margin of each of two lower plates, and means to secure each plate to an intermediate bar, the endrow of plates being formed by cutting the quadrilateral plates, approximately along their intermediate diagonals, the intermediate diagonal of the latter plates being parallel to the end of the roof, means for securing the plates in the endrow, comprising metal straps having their lower ends hookedover the lower corners of the plates, the upper ends being secured to the end bar, the straps having lateral branches with portions hooked over the outer edges of the end row of plates.
11. A building having an outer shell, a portion of which comprises laterally spaced nonhorizontal bars providing a framework, approxi mately quadrilateral plates of tempered glass disposed in transverse courses directly upon the bars with the two diagonally-opposed lateral corners supported by alternate bars and the remaining two corners being over the intermediate bar, and the two lower margins of each plate overlapping a single upper margin of each of two lower plates, and means to secure each plate'to an intermediate bar, the bottom course of plates being triangular plates formed by splitting quadrilateral plates approximately along their horizontal diagonals, and the means for securing each tricorresponding plate, the strap being further exangular plate comprising a strap having at its tended under the overlapping plate and secured bottom end wings engaging the ends of two adto the corresponding bar. jacent bottom plates and having an upturned SAMUEL F. COX.
5 portion hooking over the lower comer of the PERCY E. KNUDSEN. 5