US 2182444 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. C. MCKINNIE Dec. 5, '1939.
ROOFING ELEMENT Filed Feb. 20, 1939 C?) la 20 A l RNEY,
Patented Dec. 5, 1939 UNITED STATES NT OFFICE 3 Claims.
This invention relates to roofing elements and particularly to composition shingles, such as those made of felt impregnated with asphalt or similar materials.
An object of the invention is to generally improve roof structures, by the provision of a shingle which adapts itself to the conventional methods o'f laying, but eiects a more economical roof covering. v
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved shingle which may be readily formed from standard width rolled roong at a minimum cost. and with a loss of little, if any, material.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a shingle, which may be made with a minimum head lap and with a maximum side lap at the base.
`A further object of theinvention is the provision of a shingle which may be laid in such manner as to obtain the benefits of the American Method, while .retaining the advantages and economies of theDutch Lap Method.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a shingle, vWhichis self-alining, self-spacing, easy to lay, and one which produces. a heavy appearance on the roof.
Further advantages of the invention will appear` as the description proceeds, reference being made to the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary View with parts broken away, of a roof covered with my improved shingle.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary detail in perspective of a part of the roof illustrated in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a section taken substantially on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a plan view showing the manner in which two of my improved shingles may be formed from a conventional width of rolled roong.
Fig. 5 is a perspective View of one of my improved shingles.
Referring now more particularly to the drawing it will be seen that in the embodiment here disclosed, (Fig. 5) my improved shingle is substantially rectangular in shape, having three straight sides and the fourth side formed in the following manner. The fourth side of my improved shingle is provided with a cut-out 8, an inclined marginal edge 9, and a tab I0. As illustrated in Fig. 4 I prefer to form two of my improved shingles in one operation, by cutting the same from a conventional Awidth of rolled roofing I I. In this instance the rolled roofing is 36 inches wide, from which I cut two shingles, each 12 (c1. losfs) inches wide and having all 4of the benets of full rectangular shingles measuring. 12 inches by 18 inches. My'improved shingles, when cut in this manner, are 12 inches wide and are approximately 21 and 3/5 inches long on one side and approximately '.14 and 2/5 inches long on the other side. With a` shingle formed in this manner I amable to effect certain economies in the manufacture and in the laying as will appear more particu'- larly hereinafter. In some applications I prefer to form the shingle (Fig. 5) with a marker stripe Vi, which may take the form of either' a depression in the surface of the shingle, a ridge, lor merely a line drawn on the face of the shingle. The purpose of the stripe I2 is to give a continuous vertical line to the several courses of shingles after they are assembled into a roof structure as illustrated in Fig. 1. The'marker I2 is vertically positioned half way between the cut-out 8 and the opposite end of the shingle. 20
In Fig, .1, I illustrate the preferred manner of assembling my improved shingles into a roof structure'. In this .embodiment I3 represents the roof rafters and IQ the roof sheathing. l The shingl'esareflaidhorizontally in transverseover- 25 lapping icourses. .this embodiment thefshingle I5 is laid with its straight end I6 disposed towards the left and its long side I'l positioned at the bottom, the marker I2 being disposed in vertical position. 'I'he next shingle I8 is laid in the same 30 manner, that is with its straight edge I9 disposed to the left and its long side positioned at the bottom. The left edge I9 of the shingle Ioverlaps the right side I5a of the shingle I5 to the depth of the cut-out portion 8, Figs. 1 and 5. This results in the right end I5@ of the shingle I5 being overlapped near the top approximately two inches and at the bottom approximately six inches. 'I'he shingle 2li overlaps the right end I8a of the shingle I 8 in similar manner. Each succeeding shingle in the same course being similarly applied, until a course of shingles has been disposed across the entire length of the roof. The second course of shingles is vapplied in the following manner. The shingle 2l is cut along the marker I2 and is laid so that it overlaps the upper edge of the shingle I5 and is arranged so that the marker line I2 is in vertical alignment with the end I6 of shingle I5, and so thatfits tab I0 extends to the cut-out portion 8 of the shingle I5. In this position the vertical edge of the cut-out portion 8 of the shingle I5 and the end of the tab I0 of the shingle 2l are in vertical alignment, and the horizontal edge of the cut-out 8 of shingle I5 and the upper horizontal edge of the tab Ill of shingle 2I are in horizontal alignment, as is clearly illustrated in Fig. 1. Thus it will be seen that the cut-out portions 8 and the tabs I0 of the respective shingles serve as spacers and means of alignment. 'Ihe second course of shingles is completed in the same manner. Each shingle is secured to the roof sheathing I4, by nails 22, which are driven through the corners that are ultimately overlapped, namely the upper left hand corner and thelower right hand corner of each shingle. Inasmuch as there is side-lapping of the shingles adjacent the cut-outs 8, the nails 22 driven into the shingles at the upper left hand corners also penetrate and hold the upper right hand corners of the underlying side lapped shingles as at 22a, so that in effect each shingle is nailed at three corners. The fourth and exposed corner of each shingle, except I5, is riveted as at 23, to the next underlying shingle, so that each shingle is secured at all four corners either by nails or a rivet. It will be seen that in this embodiment (Fig. 2) there is a double exposed thickness to the depth of the sidelap at the bottom of each shingle, as at 24. This gives a deep shadow line to the roof. Inasmuch as the markers I2, ofthe shingles of each course are in alignment with the exposed ends of the shingles in each higher and lower course, I obtain a vertical line eiect on the roof structure instead of an oblique line which results when shingles are Dutch lapped, in the usual manner.
In this manner of constructing a roof I am able to obtain the benefits of a six inch side lap at the bottom where there is greater exposure, at the same time providing suicient side lap at the top, Without having to increase the size of the shingle to get the added protection. A roof constructed in this manner has an improved appearance inasmuch as theshingles appear to be smaller because of the eiect of the markers I2. In some applications I prefer to provide the individual shingles with different colors on either side of the markers I2, in order to eiect a diierent color scheme on the roof.
Having described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a shingle having three straight sides and one angular side, the combination of a ,right angular cut-out portion at one corner adjacent the said angular side, and a laterally extending tab having two sides parallel to the corresponding sides of said cut-out portion, there being a marker element vertically positioned across the face thereof, midway between the vertical edge of the cut-out portion and the straight side of the shingle parallel thereto.
2. A roof composed of overlapping courses of shingles, each shinglev having one angular side, said angular side having a right angular cut-out portion at the top, and a laterally extending tab at thebottom, said tab having sides parallel to the edges of said cut-out portion, and each shingle having a marker element extending across the full depth of its face, said marker element being arranged in alignment with one of the straight sides of a shingle in each of the courses above and below the course in which it is positioned, said shingles being laid so that each shingle is sidelapped the width of said cut-out portion by a shingle on the Same course, and head-lapped approximately twice the depth of said cut-out portion by a shingle in the course next above.
3. A roof composed of overlapping courses of shingles, each shingle having onerangular side, said angular side having a right angular cut-out portion at the top, and a laterally extending tab f at the bottom, said tab havingsides parallel to the edges of said cut-out portion, and each shingle having a marker element arranged mid-way between the vertical edge of the cut-out portion and the vertical side of said shingle, said marker being i r positioned in alignment with one of the straight sides of a shingle in each course above and below the course in which it is positioned, said shingles being laid so that each shingle is side-lapped the width of said cut-out portion by a shingle on the same course, and head-lapped approximately twice the depth of said cut-out portion by a shingle in the course next above.
ROXTON C. MCKINNIE.