US 2182990 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
rINTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Aug. 4, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Dec. 12, 1939. F1 F; KlSHLlNE 2,182,990
INTERNAL COMBUSTI ON ENGINE Filed Aug. 4, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 mullllulllllll'i' l /NVENTU n TTOR/VE V5.
Patented @esta i2, i939 narran sra'rgs patear orgies INTERNAL COMBUSTIGN ENGINE Floyd F. Kishline, irrriinghani9 Mich., assgnor to Graham-Paige Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Michigan Application August 4, 1937, Serial No. 157,397 13 Claims. (C1. 12S- 173) The present invention relates to internal eoin.- a construction in which the carburetor passage bustion engines, and in particular is directed to projects into the head at substantially a right the provision of an improved Water cooling sysangle t the IOngitudinal aX'lS 0f 'the head, and
tern for the cylinder head of aninternai combusthe several intake passages branch from the 5 tion engine, as weil as to the provision of an Carburetor passage at substantially right angles improved head andr intake manifold construction, thereto.
objects of ine present invention areio pro- Further objects of the present invention are vide an improved cooling system for the head t0 generally improve the COnStIlletOn 0f intel- 4 of an internal combustion engine; to provide nal Combustion engines, and to provide an ensuch a-system in Which the opposite sides of the gine Willen may be eCOnOIniCally Inanllfaetnred 10 head are provided With removable cover plates and aSSembled, and Willen llaS improved Operat- Which close the head jacket, at least one of the ing CnaraCterlStiCS- side plates being constructed as a manifold em- With the abOVe aS Well aS Other and mOre del bodying a series of spaced nozzles through which tailed ObJ'eCtS in View, Which appear in the fOlstreams of coolant may be directed against selOWing deSCrptiOn and in the appenflefl ClalrnS, 15 ieoied parts of ine head; to provide an internal a preferred but illustrative embodiment of the combustion engine embodying an auxiliary coolinVentOn aS SllOWn in the aCCOInp-anyng draW- ant circuit for directing at least a part of the ings, tnrellgllent the Several VleWS 0f Which 00reooiant around the cylinder intake passages, to responding reference characters are used to desassist in bringing the gas mixture t0. a, desired ignate corresponding parts, and in which: 20` temperature; to provide such a system in which Figure 1 is a view in vertical transverse section, the jusU mentioned oironit is independent of the of an internal Combustion engine embodying the thermostatic control means utilized to prevent inVentlOn a normal circulation through the engine and the Fig- 2 iS a fragmentary VleW in Side elevation,
a5 venioie radiator; to provide an internal ooinbustaken alone tbe line 2-2 of Fig- 1; 25 tion engine of ine overhead vaive type, embody- Fig. 3 is a fragmentary View in bottom plan, ing an improved head so constructed that the taken alOng the line 3-3 0f Fig- 1; studs for securing the head to the block are re- Fig i is a partial tOp plan VieW 0f the Cylinquired to pass through only a limited thickness der head, With the hereinafter described removof the head structure; to provide such a conable COVer plate renlOVed; 30
struction in which the head is provided with Fig. 5 iS a VieW in tOp plan 0f the engine; packets on its lateral side, io receive the head Fig. 6 is a view in end elevation, taken along securing studs., so that the latter are required the line 5-6 Of Fg- 5; to pass only 'from the base of each pocket through Fig. 'l iS a fragmentary VieW in Section, taken to the underside of the head and are not required along the line l-l 0f Fig. 5; 35 to pass entirely through the head; to provide Fig 3 iS a fragmentary View in SeCtiOrl, taken such a construction in which the just mentioned aleng the line 3-3 Of Fig- 'l5 pockets form a part of and are Within the head Fig. 9 is a fragmentary VieW in SeCtiOn taken jacket, and are closed by the previously menalong the line 9-9 0f Fig- 5; and,
tioned plates, thereby permitting, all studs asso- Fig. l0 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view 40 ciated with each cylinder to be positioned immetaken on the line lll-IB of Fig. 4. diately adjacent the periphery of the cylinder; Referring to the drawings, particularly Figs.
to provide an internal combustion engine em.- l through 4, the illustrated engine is oi the overbodying an improved intake manifold structure, head valve type, and the head 2l! is secured to in which the intake passages are formed at least the block 22 by a series of studs 2a, which pass 45 in part as channels in the upper surface of the through slightly enlarged openings provided head, and in which the otherwise open channels therefor in the head 2E, and the Shanks of which are enclosed by a removable plate; to provide are threaded into the block 22.
such a construction in which the removable The underside ofthe head 20 is formed to plate is jacketed, and the jacket is included in provide a combustion chamber 2e over each cyl- 50 the above mentioned auxiliary cooling circuit; inder 2e. The illustrated engine embodies six to provide an engine head construction having cylinders, although other numbers of cylinders an improved structural relation between the sevmay, of course, be used. Each chamber 26 is eral intake passages and the passage leading from providedwith an inlet passage 28 and an exhaust the carburetor to the passages; to provide such passage 3e. Each inlet passage 28 is provided 55 with a valve 32, and each exhaust passage is provided with a valve 34. The head 2U is also provided with a series of pockets which extend downwardly from the top surface thereof at points substantially on the center lines of the respective combustion chambers 26, to receive the usual spark plugs, indicated at 38 in Fig. 3. In the broader aspects of the invention, the combustion chambers 26 may take any of a variety of forms, although it is preferred to follow the disclosure of applicants co-pending application, Serial No. 138,539, led April 23, 1937, and assigned to the same assignee as the present application.
As is most clearly shown in Fig. 1, each exhaust valve 34 is provided with a valve guide 40, which is fitted within a boss 42 provided therefor in the head 20, and the upper end of each such valve projects upwardly from the head for cooperation with a tappet 44. Each tappet 44 is slidable within a bore 46 provided therefor in a tappet body 48. `Each valve is continuously urged to the upper and closed position by a compression spring 50 which surrounds the stem of the valve and is seated between the previously mentioned boss 42 and a washer 5| secured on the end of the valve stem in a conventional manner. It will be appreciated that each of the inlet valves is similarly constructed and arranged. The cam shaft 56, which is supported above the body 48 by means of two or more pillar blocks 58 is constructed to effect the successive opening and closing of the valves in a conventional manner. An oil tight cover 62 is preferably provided to enclose the cam shaft, its bearings, and the valve tappets 44. The tappet body 48 is suitably and rigidly secured upon the upper surface of the head 20 in any conventional way a-s by studs (not shown), and a gasket 64 is preferably interposed between the head 20 and the body 48.
With particular respect to the coolant circulation system for these parts of the head which have thus far been described, it will be appreciated that the interior of the head 20 is completely cored out except for the presence of the inlet and exhaust passages 28 and 3D, the spark plug pockets 36, and the valve guide bosses 42, and that, due 'to this cored out relation, a free circulation of coolant is permitted from one end of the head to the other, around and between the just mentioned parts, and over the tops of the individual combustion chambers 26. The upper portions of the opposite lateral sides of the head are enclosed, except for the individual openings associated with the exhaust passages 3U, and the single inlet opening ||2 associated with the inlet passages 28. The lower portion of each side wall of the head, however, is cut away throughout the length of the head, thus affording access from each side of the head to the interior of the head jacket. These lower portions of the sides of the head are enclosed by members 1|] and 12. The member 'I6 is of generally U shape section or panlike form, and is provided along its opposite sides with supplemental members 'I4 which, with the adjacent leg or side wall portions, define channels to receive a sealing gasket '16. The member '18, which is preferably formed of a relatively light metal stamping, is removably secured to the exhaust side of the head, in completely enclosing relation to the associated opening by a plurality of studs '18, which pass through openings formed in the member 'I0 and are adapted to be threaded into the head 20. The other enclosing member 12 is also of generally U-shaped section and is provided with an inner U-sectioned member 8U. The legs 'Z9 of member 'l2 and the legs 8| of member 80 define a channel to receive a sealing gasket 83. The members 'I2 and 80 cooperate to form between them a cooling manifold from which coolant may be directed into the head jacket through a series of nozzles 82, formed in the member 88, Preferably one nozzle opening 82 is provided for each of the cylinders, and is so positioned that the stream of coolant discharged therethrough directly impinges the associated exhaust valve passage 30. A part of the coolant thus discharged also substantially directly impinges the pocket of the associated spark plug, and also flows against and around the top of the associated combustion chamber.
The interior of the head jacket is placed in communication with the interior of the engine block jacket 84, by means of a plurality of passages 86 and 81 which may be distributed along both sides of the block and head, in accordance with conventional practice.
Referring particularly to Figs. 5 and 6, the external circulating system for the head and engine block cooling system includes the pump 90 and a conventional radiator 92. Coolant is drawn from the base of the radiator, by the pump 9D, through the line 94, thence through the pump, and thence through the two branching lines 96 and 98 into the manifold 'l2 and the block jacket 84, respectively. The coolant flowing through the line 98 enters the block adjacent the base thereof, at the rear end of the engine, circulates around the several cylinders, and from there flows into the head jacket through the previously mentioned connecting passages 86 and 81. The coolant which flows through the line 96, enters the manifold 'l2 and is discharged into the head jacket on a plurality of streams, through the nozzle openings 82 and mingles with the coolant introduced into the head through the passages 86. The thus commingled supplies of coolant pass forwardly through the head, are discharged therefrom through the outlet passage |00 (Fig. 4), and are returned to the upper part of the radiator through the line |02, the fitting |04 associated with which is removably secured over the opening |80. It will be appreciated that the relative sizes of the supply lines 96 and 98 (Fig. 6) depend upon the relative quantities of coolant which it is desired to direct individually into the block jacket and into the head jacket. The parts immediately associated with the head may normally be expected to require substantially greater cooling than is re quired by the cylinders themselves. Accordingly, it is preferred to construct the line 96 to have a substantially greater capacity than the capacity of the line 98.
The above described construction of the head in addition to providing an extremely satisfactory coolant circulation arrangement, also results in several very important structural advantages. The advantages of aluminum cylinder heads for internal combustion engines are well understood. Due to the substantially greater coefficient of expansion of aluminum than that of iron or steel, however, aluminum cylinder heads have not come into commercial use in engines of the overhead valve type. This is for the reason that an overhead valve head is of substantially greater thickness than a so-ealled L-head type, and, in the absence of an arrangement of the type about to be described, the head studs are required to be of correspondingly greater reaped length. Due to the difference in co-efcient of expansion of the head and of the studs, it is found that the head cannot be maintained in a tight relation to the block. In other words, if the studs are tightened down when the engine is cold, as soo-n as the engine and consequently the cylinder head become heated, the studs are stretched beyond their elastic limit and when the engine again cools down the studs are often loose enough tc permit the gasket between the cylinder block and hea-d to be blown out. To overcome this difficulty, it has been proposed to `utilize specially constructed head studs, which proposal is objectionable as being expensive and unreliable. It has also been proposed to so construct the head that the studs which project into the cylinder block are not required to pass entirely through the head, this, in a broad sense, is the present arrangement. So far as the present applicant is awarahowever, it has not heretofore been proposed to take advantage of a pocket formed within the head for water jacket purposes as a means of permitting the use of shorter head studs. v
In the present instance it will be observed that the head studs ii are provided with bosses lill formed in the base of the head within the previously mentioned water jacket. The bosses HE? are `relatively short, and permit the use of studs which areccminensurate in length with and in most cases shorter than those which are conventionally utilized in engines of the L-head type. 'With the present construction, accordingly, it is possible to make use of an aluminum head with its attendant advantages without at the same time introducing any of the aforementioned difficulties encountered in the application of aluminunheads to engines of the valve-in-head type.
further important advantage of enclosing the head studs within the head water jacket resides in the fact that in this way all of the studs irn' The intake manifold for the combustible mixture is for the incst part formed integrally with the cylinder head It is best illustrated in Figs. l. and fl, Fig. i showing substantially only half of the saine and onehalf only will be described as will be understood that both halves are identical except reversed in direction.l The inlet il? for the intake manifold opens laterally and centrally of the cylinder head 25 into a distributing chamber illustrated generally at l i3 and comprises rst chamber or portion llfl of generally cylindrical formation positioned with its axis vertical and a second chamber or portion H5 likewise of generally cylindrical formation with its axis vertical and intersecting the portion l irl so as to provide open communication between them. From the chamber lill the combustible mixture is directed forwardly toward one end of the engine to supply the cylinders at such end and rearwardly of the engine to supply the cylinders at the opposite end. The mixture ilowing toward one end of the engine from the chamber H3 is initially divided into two streams of equal volume by a central vertical wall H6 the plane of which lies in the direction of the iiow from the chamber l it, namely in approximately parallel relation with respect to the longitudinal axis of the engine. The forward or upstream end of the wall l it coincides with the line of junction between the portions lill and H5 at the corre spending side oi the chamber i I3. In other words this wall H6 provides a pair of independent passagesy E il and H3 which open into the portions lld and H5 respectively. The passage H8 opens into the passage 28 leading to that one of the two center cylinders on the corresponding side of the mid-point of the engine lengthvand consequently feeds only the corresponding cylinder. y
The passage lll' extends for a short distance longitudinally of the engine and is then laterally enlarged as at lit and shortly after the point of enlargement in the direction of flow of the combustible mixture therethrough is, in turn, divided into two passages l2@ and i2! of equal volume by means of a vertical central wall |22, the upstream end of which lies in a plane substantially parallel to the direction of flow through the passage Hl and centrally thereof. The passage |20 communicates with the passage 28 leading to the intake port of the endmost cylinder on the correspending end of the engine, and the passage i2! communicates with the passage 23 leading to the intake port of that cylinder next to the end cylinder on the corresponding end of the engine. It will thus be apparent that the intake port of each cylinder is fed by a separate branch of the manifold, this aiding in eliminating the difficulties experienced in connection with the proper distribution of liquid fuel particles between the different intake ports of the engine and also aids in eliminating the phenomena of breathing ofthe fuel mixture in the manifold between the Various ports thereof.
To further aid in the proper distribution of the liquid fuel particles between the branches |26 and l2i the floor of the passage! il in advance ofthe upstream. end oi the wall i22is provided with an upward step or dam 123,curved in plan View, which causes the liquid fuel particles clinging to the bottom wall of the passage lll to be equally distributed over the width-of the bottom Wall before it is picked up and carried on into the passages. i2@ and i2i, thus assuring that equal distribution of these liquid fuel particles toboth passages mi! and I2! will occur.
It has been -found that the provision of the two intersect-ing cylindrical chambers Hd and H5, one of which is preferably smaller than the other, aids in effecting not only an equal distribution of the gaseous combustible mixture entering the inlet port H2 from Whatever type of carbureting means is employed, but also is very effective in causing an equal distribution of unvaporized fuel particles to both the passages Hl and H8 on the saine side of the manifold. This last effect is particularly obtained by extending the at bottom ends of the chambers Hll and H5 slightly below the iioors of the chambers Eil and lill so as to effect an upward step from the floor of the chambers lill and H5 to the iioors of the passages ill lill, this upward step aiording dams lil and H8 respectively for the particles of liquid fuel tending to collect in the distributing chamber l i3 and having the samergeneralV effects in the distribution of the liquid fuel A particles to the passages and H8 as the dam |23 previously described in distributing the liquid fuel particles on the floor of the passage to the passages |20 and |2|.
The cross-sectional configuration of the Various passages and branches of the manifold may be either round, square, or any other desirable shape, or combination of shapes, but particularly in order to enable full advantages to be taken of the dams |23 and the corresponding dams formed at the outlet to the chambers |4 and ||5 it is preferably of rectangular section particularly adjacent the locations of these dams.
It will be noted from an inspection of Figs. 1 and 4 that a portion of the intake manifold projects laterally outwardly beyond the side walls of the head 20 and such portion is formed with an open upper face closed by a cover element or closure plate 22. This construction is followed preferably to enhance the ease of the molding operations in the formation of the head and also to permit greater facility in inspection of the interior walls of the intake manifold and removing rough spots or other obstructions that might occur therein during the casting operation. The closure plate |22 overlaps the upper face of the cylinder head 20 at its inner edge, and its outer edge is preferably formed to a contour such as to bring it flush with the outer edge of the main body portion of the manifold, and it is secured in place by means of screws |24.
In accordance with a further phase of the present invention the closure plate |21 is provided on its upper surface with a water passage |29 formed integrally therewith. This is for the purpose of imparting a relatively small amount of heat to the combustible mixture flowing through the intake manifold but without adding sufiicient heat to the mixture to materially adversely effect the volumetric efficiency of the engine. In this respect it will also be understood that inasmuch as the intake manifold is formed mainly within the cylinder head 20 and a material proportion of its exterior walls is bathed by the cooling water circulated through the head, a considerably greater amount of heat than that provided only by the passages |29 will be transmitted to the combustible mixture during engine operation.
In accordance with the broader phases of the present invention the passage |23 may be conneeted into the engine cooling system in any suitable manner so as to effect a circulation of the cooling water heated by the engine therethrough. However, in some cases it will be desirable to employ a supercharger in connection with the engine and which supercharger may be of the type shown and claimed in my copending application for Letters Patent of the United States Serial No. 35,022, filed August '7, 1935, now Patent No. 2,157,761, May 9, 1939, and in such case the supercharger is preferably water jacketed. This combination is illustrated in Fig. 5 and in such case the supply of heated liquid for the water jacketed supercharger may be readily provided by connecting the water jacket of the supercharger in series with the passage |23. To this end the passage |23 is interrupted at |25 midway of its length and immediately over the inlet port H2 to which the supercharger |30 is suitably secured, it being understood that a suitable or conventional carburetor (not shown) is provided for feeding the combustible mixture to the supercharger |30.
The water jacket inlet |3| for the supercharger |30 is communicated with the interior of the passage |23 on the forward side of the interruption |25 by means of a suitable nipple |32 extending therebetween and aiding in locating the supereharger |30 with respect to the cylin der head. The outlet |33 for the superoharger water jacket is similarly placed in communication with the passage |23 on the rear side of the interruption |25 by means of a corresponding nipple |34. This construction is clearly brought out in 8 in which it will be noted that the contacting faces of the closure plate |22 and supercharger |30 about the corresponding nipple |32 or |34 are beveled as at |36 in opposed relation to form a chamber in which a suitable packing such as |38 is received in order to render the connection Water tight.
As clearly appears in Fig. 9, the inlet |40 for the passage |23 is connected into the interior of the cylinder head jacket adjacent the front end thereof by a short connecting passage |42. Similarly, the outlet |44 associated at the left hand end of the passage |23 is connected to the inlet side of the pump 00 by means of a short hose connection |65 (Figs. 5 and 6). With this arrangement it will be observed that a portion of the coolant which would otherwise be discharged at the front end of the head 20 through the previously mentioned hose connection 02, is discharged through the passage |42 into the closure passage |23. Such portion of the coolant flows to the left, as viewed in Fig. 5 through the righthand portion of the passage |23, thence circulates through the water jacket of the supercharger |30, through the lefthand portion of the jacket of the passage |23, and is then returned to the inlet side of the pump through the short connection |46.
rlhe just mentioned coolant circulating circuit 'by-passes the previously mentioned radiator 92. With this arrangement, a thermostat or other heat responsive element may be interposed in the line |02, or in the fitting |04, in accordance with conventional practice, to prevent a circulation through the radiator 92, except upon the attainment of a predetermined operating temperature of the water or other coolant in the water jackets of the engine cylinder block and cylinder head. The closing off of the line |02, however, does not interfere with the circulation of coolant from the pump through the block and head jackets, and through the just mentioned by-pass coolant circuit.
From the foregoing description, it will be appreciated that the present invention provides an effective and efficient coolant circulating system for an internal combustion engine, and also affords improved features of construction of the cylinder head and intake manifold of internal combustion engines. It will be understood that the foregoing description is to be regarded in an illustrative, and not in a limiting sense.
What is claimed is:
l. The combination with a water jacketed cylinder head of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, formed to provide a series of individual combustion chambers, of a plurality of means associated with each chamber and arranged around and adjacent the periphery thereof, for securing the head to an associated engine block, said means being removably accessible from within the head jacket.
2. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a water jacketed cylinder head, one wall of the jacket being adapted to close a cylinder of the engine, and a plurality of means arranged around and closely adjacent the Wall of the cylinder for securing the head to the block, said means being passed through the Wall of the head and being removably accessible from Within the head jacket.
3. In an internal combustion engine, the cornbination of a head having a Water jacket formed therein and having an opening in at least one lateral Wall of the jacket affording access to the interior thereof, means accessible Within the jacket through said opening for securing the head to an associated cylinder, and a plate removably secured to the said lateral side for closing said opening,
4. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a head having a Water jacket formed therein and having an opening in at least one lateral Wall of the jacket affording access to the interior thereof, means accessible Within the jacket through said opening for securing the head to an associated cylinder and a, removable coolant manifold secured to the said lateral side of the head for closing said opening and through 'which coolant may be directed into the head jacket.
5. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a head having a Water jacket formed therein and having an opening in at least one lateral Wall of the jacket affording access to the interior thereof, means accessible within the jacket through said opening for securing the head to associated engine cylinders, and a removable coolant manifold having a plurality of nozzles associated therewith for closing said opening and through which coolant may be directed into the head jacket.
6. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a head having a Water jacket formed therein and having an opening in at least one lateral Wall of the jacket aifording access to the interior thereof, means accessible within the jacket through said opening for securing the head to an associated cylinder, means for circulating coolant past the cylinder and to the head, and additional means including a coolant manifold secured to the said side of the head for closing said opening and through Which coolant may be directed into the head jacket.
'7. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder head formed t0 provide a coolant jacket therein, and having the lateral sides thereof provided with openings leading into the interior of the jacket, means extending into and accessible from Within the jacket for securing the head to an associated cylinder, and removable plates secured to the opposite sides of the head for closing said openings.
8. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder head formed to provide a coolant jacket therein, and having the lateral sides thereof provided with openings leading into the interior of the jacket, means extending into and accessible from Within the jacket for securing the head to an associated cylinder, and removable plates secured to the opposite sides of the head for closing said openings, at least one of said members being formed as a coolant manifold through which the coolant may be introduced into the head.
9. In a removable coolant manifold adapted t be secured to the side of an internal combustion engine, the combination of a pair of generally U-shaped members secured together in telescoped relation, the base of the inner member having a plurality of nozzles formed therein, and the legs of the members dening a channel between them to receive a sealing jacket.
10. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder head having a plurality of cylinder intake passages integrally formed therein, a portion of which are exposed upon a surface of the head as channels, and a closure member removably secured to the head for closing said channel-like portions.
l1. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder head having a plurality of cylinder intake passages integrally formed therein, a portion of which are exposed upon a surface oi the head as channels, and a Water jacketed closure member removably secured to the head for enclosing said channel-like portions.
1-2. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder head having a plurality of cylinder intake passages integrally formed therein, a portion of Which are exposed upon a surface of the head as channels, a jacketed supercharger associated with said engine, a closure member for said channel-like portions of said passages having a pair of separate jackets formed therein, and means connecting said separate portions and said supercharger jacket in series relation in a coolant circuit.
13. In an internal combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder head having a plurality of cylinder intake passages integrally formedA therein, a portion of which are exposed upon a surface of the head as channels, a jacketed supercharger associated with said engine, a closure member for said channel-like portions of' said passages having a pair of separate jackets formed therein, and means connecting said supercharger jacket between said separate portions in a series coolant circuit.
FLOYD F. KISHLINE.