|Publication number||US2183596 A|
|Publication date||Dec 19, 1939|
|Filing date||Jan 28, 1938|
|Priority date||Jan 28, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2183596 A, US 2183596A, US-A-2183596, US2183596 A, US2183596A|
|Original Assignee||Eastman Kodak Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (25), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
FIP7907 Dec. 19, 1939. w TR|NK5 BURNER cQNsTRUcTIoN Filed Jan. 28, 1938 INVENTOR BYxa/wdv.
ATTO YS 'man FUFI
BHRNFD" Patented Dec. 19, 1939 UNITED STATES Search Room PATENT OFFICE BURNER CONSTRUCTION Application January 28,
This invention relates to a burner construction and more particularly to a gas and/or liquid fuel burner construction for use in the production of extremely high temperatures.
Numerous burners have been developed and a large number of different type burner constructions are in use for various domestic and industrial heating purposes. However, in the majority of instances where a conventional type of burner is employed, relatively low temperature conditions are involved. In the instance of oil cracking to produce gasoline and various other components, the temperatures may be as high as 500600 C. for example. Certain metallurgical processes require somewhat higher temperatures.
In the present day industries there are certain processes involving use of temperatures of 900 C.-l400 C. or higher. Burners of the aforementioned low temperature type of service, if employed in the latter type high temperature operations, either initially are entirely unsuited or if they function at all, after a short period of service, failure occurs. Not only is the item of frequent repairs uneconornical, but it is readily apparent that the use at high temperatures of burners which may fail, may introduce various other difficulties as well as hazards. That is, in producing high temperatures, the fuel gases emiloyed may be comprised of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, butane and the like. These fuels are usually injected under some pressure. It is therefore apparent that if the burner fails, leaks, or otherwise functions irregularly, numerous diiculties may be incurred.
It is therefore clear that a burner construcfion which will withstand the drastic conditions involved in producing high temperatures such as 900 C.-1400 C. or higher has considerable industrial Value. It is also apparent that if such a burner withstands the aforementioned temperatures it will also withstand lower temperatures.
In general, the production of high temperatures utilizes fuel which naturally burns with a high flame temperature. It also requires a correct ratio of air to fuel and a quick and thorough mix'ng. In addition, preheated air or the use of oxygen is employed. Of these requirements my novel burner readily furnishes a rich fuel and preheated air and also a quick and thorough mixing.
The production of these high temperatures involves the two effects, namely, the effect of high temperature of combustion and the high temi erature of preheated air. The temperature effects of the high furnace temperature upon the 1938, Serial No. 187,445
burner are detrimental. These effects are warping, cracking, oxidation of the burner parts due to heat generated either in the burner mouth or else radiated back from the furnace. The effects of the use of highly preheated air cause expansion of the air duct and of the burner parts, which may likewise produce warping, cracking or other destructive influence on the parts. I have developed a novel burner which may be satisfactorily employed for purposes involving extremely high temperatures, which burner is free of various defects encountered in burners previously employed.
This invention has for one object to provide a burner for use under conditions involving the production of extremely high temperatures. Still another object is to provide a burner, certain parts of which are of non-rigid construction. Still another object is to provide a burner that is particularly adapted to employment for supplying heat to chemical, cracking or other type processes operating at temperatures of 1100l500 C. or higher. Still another object is to provide a burner adapted to consume fuels containing ma.- terials such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, butane or mixtures thereof. Still another object is to provide a burner wherein there is an intimate mixing of the fuel and combustion medium prior to combustion. Still another object is to provide a burner adapted to employ preheated fuel and combustion air. A still further object is to provide a burner adapted for producing a short flame. Other objects will appear hereinafter.
For a more complete understanding of my invention, reference is made to the accompanying drawing. Fig. l is a semi-diagrammatic side elevation View partly in section showing one form of my burner.
Fig. 2 is a semi-diagrammatic side elevation view showing an embodiment of my burner in which certain of the parts have been modied. In the aforementioned figures, certain of the parts have been shown on exaggerated scale for clarity.
In Fig. l, 2 represents the wall of a furnace which, for the purposes of illustration, my burner will be considered as attached to. 'Ihis furnace wall may be of usual construction and is provided with a port 3 extending therethrough for conducting the products of combustion into a heating chamber (not shown). 'Ihe external burner construction may be comprised of the two parts 4 and 6.
The burner member 4, which may be referred to as the burner tip, may be of any suitable shape but preferably is conical as shown (or rounded as shown in Fig. 2). The burner tip may have aixed thereto one or more lugs as indicated at 'I and 8 for attaching the burner to the furnace wall. This may be done by means of bolts shown at 9 and II.
Positioned at another point on the burner tips circumference is a flange or collar I2. This part may be cast integral with the burner tip or might be welded or otherwise affixed thereto. The function of this part will be set forth hereinafter,
A portion or all of the parts just described are preferably constructed of suitable heat-resisting alloy, of which a number are described in The Book of Stainless Steel by Thum. It is also possible to employ various non-ferrous heat-resisting alloys such as nickel molybdenum chromium, nickel tungsten chromium, and the like. In general, I prefer to employ either a ferrous or nonferrous metal alloyed with a substantial content of chromium.
The other external part of the burner construction 6 may comprise an elbow type conduit member as shown. This member may be comprised of the external metal shell I3 which is lined with a suitable refractory material as indicated at I4. It is possible, in place of the composite construction just described, to employ a solid heat-resisting metal piece. However, the first mentioned type of construction is sufficiently heat-resistant to withstand the temperature of the highly preheated air and economical, hence, desirable. Part 6 also terminates in a collar construction I6 which is similar to part I2 already described. In the event that the internally lined composite construction is employed, an internally extending flange or shoulder as at I'I may also be present.
The parts 4 and 6 are in the nature of a conduit for conducting combustion air from I8, for example, through I9 and thence through 2l to the burner orice 22. These parts 4 and 6 cooperate as at 23 by means of a non-rigid, overlapping ange and preferably bell and spigot construction shown. This construction may be relatively simple and comprise the inner or spigot member 24 which is embraced by the outer overlapping or bell member 26. Shoulders may be provided at. 21 and 28 for restricting the movements of these parts to some extent. It is, of course, apparent that the part 24 might be the overlapping member, whereas the part 26, the inner member. Or, it is also possible to dispense with the shoulders or abutments 2'! and 28 and merely provide one conduit more or less free to move within the other.
It will be observed that parts 4 and 6 are so positioned that they do not touch each other but are constructed with some space between them. That is, there is a certain amount of clearance between these parts. Preferably, this clearance will be substantially equivalent to the vertical expansion of duct I9 relative to the furnace. While my novel construction may appear to resemble an ordinary slip joint, it is not constructed for this purpose. My construction serves several purposes, as will be more apparent as the description proceeds.
Encircling the construction and preferably extending between the `collars I2 and I6 are one or more heat-shielding means 29. This means may comprise a fiber such as asbestos encased in a thin metal sheet to prevent crumbling and to preserve the shape thereof. As indicated, a plurality of such members may be positioned at this point; or if desired, a water-cooling coil 3| may supplement the action of means 29. In other words, this construction may vary somewhat, it being desirable, however, that the medium be interposed therearound in such a manner as to prevent substantial heat transmission therethrough.
Further removed from the construction and attached to collars I2 and I 6, is a metal bellows or accordion-like member 32. As apparent, this member is non-rigid and therefore permits a substantial amount of movement within the burner parts, yet at the same time does not leak or otherwise present difliculties. The aforementioned parts, such as 29, are positioned within the enclosed chamber defined by the bellows 32 and the overlapping flange construction 24, 26. By means of this structure, insucient heat is transmitted to the exterior metal parts to cause the damage thereof.
In further regard to the bellows structure 32, it will be observed that this device is air tight. The arrangement and cooperation of the above described parts serves several purposes. It allows expansion right and left and also up and down. The bellows 32 is very flexible for right and left movements and this is desirable because of the expansion in the bustle pipe. For up and down movements the bellows 32 is more restricted. However, the movement permitted in this direction is sucient because the expansion in pipes I9 and I3 is not very great. However, varying degrees of expansion may be taken care of, depending on the length of the bellows. That is to say, if a bellows of comparatively great length between the collars I2 and I6 is employed, change of size in pipes I9 and I3 of considerable magnitude may be taken up. With the above disclosure, one skilled in the art may readily choose the proper length of bellows depending on the size of the burner, the temperatures to be involved and other such factors.
The bell and spigot construction 26 and 24 serve the purpose of keeping the radiations of the bright interior away from the asbestos ring 29. The latter also serves to some extent for keeping radiations away from other parts of the equipment.
Extending through and at least partly housed by the aforementioned conduit dened by parts 4 and 6, is another conduit 33. This conduit is for supplying fuel to the burner tip and may be comprised of a small heat-resisting metal tube. Inasmuch as this tube is of relatively small diameter as compared to the conduit encircling it, it is possible to obtain the tube constructed of heat-resisting metal. 'I'he tube may terminate as at 34 in a nozzle member for introducing the fuel into the combustion medium.v
The fuel conduit may be concentrically or otherwise positioned within the rst described conduit, by means of supports such as the radially disposed blades or ns 36. Another portion of the tube may be attached to the equipment by means of a collar as at 31. The tube may be packed or otherwise slidably mounted in the collar and have aixed thereto a fuel line as at 38.
From the preceding it may be seen that I have provided a burner of non-rigid construction. It is apparent that when my burner is subjected to high temperatures, even though thermal distortion is induced therein, breaks or leaks do not occur, inasmuch as by virtue of my novel construction in which various parts are free to move, the expansion and contraction is taken up. It will FUEL BURNERS.
also be observed that by my novel construction having the bell and spigot construction as at 23, heat conductance is stopped to some extent thereby. This makes it necessary to construct only the tip or a portion of the tip as at 22 and extending back to 36 of heat-resisting metal. Also, by virtue of my construction the various protruding parts such as at 8, I2 and I6 facilitate heat dissipation. Therefore, the part 6 may be constructed of more or less inexpensive materials and if desired. lined with refractory material as at I4. This insulation adequately protects the metal parts from the preheated air. Other advantages of my apparatus will become more apparent from the further description with respect to Fig. 2.
In Fig. 2, a portion of mv burner is shown on larger scale. This gure also indicates to some extent certain ways in which the structure may be modified. In Fig. 2, 52 represents the furnace wall provided with a port 53, In the apparatus shown in this figure, the burner tip 54 is constructed spherically or rounded as shown and may be made up from heat-resisting allov, the heatresisting alloy welded or otherwise affixed to the remainder of the tip as at 56.
The remainder of the external portion of the tip is substantially as described in Fig. l. That is. a. lug or flange may be provided as at 51 for aiixing the burner to the furnace. Further lugs or collar means are provided as at 58 for supporting the bellows or accordion-like metal member 59. As readily apparent from the drawing. the bellows member may be axed to flange 58 by means of a ring 6I positioned over the edge thereof. This ring is held in position and may be securely forced against ange 58 by means of the bolts 62 and 63. It is readily apparent that while two bolts appear in the drawing, a suitable number would be spaced around the periphery of the flange for properly attaching the bellows and rendering it air tight. The interior of the tip construction as at 64. rather than being tapered as shown in Fig. l, may be more or less uniform and cylindrical as shown in Fig. 2. As in Fig. 1. the tip includes a suitable bell or spigot construction as at 56. Inasmuch as this construction is substantially the same as already disclosed with respect to Fig. l. further description is unnecesse ry. The construction is likewise encased by means of asbestos or other such non-heat conductive material 61. This material mav be compacted in a metal case 68. if desired. The heat-resistance of this means may be supplemented with cooling coils 69 as shown. However. such construction is optional. In most instances bv providing a thick enough layer of fibrous heat-resisting material as at 6?. heat transmission is suitably cut down at these movable parts.
The interior of the burner as in Fig. l. is provided with a fuel inlet conduit 7|. This conduit may comprise a single heat-resisting allov or if desired. a composite structure with heat-resisting material on the exterior thereof may be employed. The fuel tube may be spaced with respect to the rst-mentioned conduit by means of the whirler 12. This part, which may be in the nature of a spirally arranged blade not only serves to support the fuel tube but also may impart a rotary ow to the combustion medium flowing in the passageway 'I3 defined by the exterior wall of the fuel tube and the interior wall of the burner tip.
The fuel feeding tube 1I may terminate in a nozzle construction 'I4 having a plurality of radi- Sefch Room ally positioned small openings 16 for dlspersing the fuel. Inasmuch as this part is subjected to high temperature, it will be constructed from suitable heat-resisting alloy.
The functioning of my novel burner is apparent 5 to a substantial extent from the preceding description. However, for further purposes of illustration, a brief description of burners func` tioning will now be set forth, reference being made chiefly to Fig. 1. Air at a temperature of several hundred degrees C. is forced through the bustle pipe I8 from which a porttion thereof branches off through conduits I9, 2I and finally arriving at the burner tip 22. The linear ow of this combustion medium may be rendered non-linear by virtue of vanes or blades 36 or the whirler I2 of Fig. 2. Simultaneously with the introduction of the combustion medium. fuel such as hydrogen, butane, methane or mixtures thereof, is introduced as at 38 through the conduit 33. Either or both, the fuel and air may be in a preheated condition. In my description I will treat them as preheated.
The preheated fuel and preheated air are intimately mixed as at 22 and burned, generating an extremely high temperature. While the flame may be at some point in the port 3 removed from the burner tip 22, nevertheless the burner tip becomes heated to a high temperature, hence, the desirability of constructing this part of heat-resisting alloy. However, as already indicated, by virtue of my construction the transmission of heat back along the conduit is prevented to some extent by the bellows construction and associated parts. Although the van'ous parts of the burner 5 are at different temperatures, thereby expanding and/or contracting to different extents, due to the non-rigid construction of my burner, there is provision for sufficient movement in all directions so that leaks and breaks do not occur.
My burner as described herein, may be used in various processes. For example, the burner may be employed in processes such as described in Wulff Patents 1,880,308 and 1,880,309 and 1,843,- 965, wherein high temperatures are employed. This use is merely illustrative and my burners may be employed in various other types of installation. 'I'he burners function over a long period of high temperature without leaks or failure.
From the preceding it is apparent that the construction is susceptible of some modication. For example, either conical or rounded ends may be employed for the burner tip. The interior of the tip casting may be cylindrical or tapered. The heat-resisting means may be comprised of one or more layers or may be supplemented by means other than the shielding eifect of the heat-resisting band described herein. While water-cooling adjacent the heat-resisting band has been indicated, this s optional. In general, the heat-resisting band will be constructed of a degree of thickness suitable to the temperatures to be involved. Hence, I do not wish to be restrici ed in my invention, excepting insofar as is necesst tated by the prior art and the spirit of thc appended claims.
What I claim is:
l, A gas burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of high temperatures comprising an external conduit member terminating in a cylindrical end, means associated therewith for attaching the member to a furnace. a second external conduit member positioned in communicative relationship with the first member by means of a bell and spigot construction, in which the internal member of the bell and spigot does not touch the external member thereof, and an accordion-like metal cylinder that extends around at least a portion of the bell and spigot and with the construction forms an enclosed chamber, a heat-resisting medium positioned in the chamber and encircling the construction, another conduit member positioned at least partly within the first-mentioned conduit, and blade means connected with this latter conduit for positioning the conduit with respect to the first-mentioned conduit so that an annular passageway is formed.
2. A burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of temperatures in excess of l000 C., which comprises an inlet conduit for fuel, a second conduit at least partially embracing the first conduit and positioned therefrom to form a passageway, the conduits terminating in conical members to form a burner orifice. blades attached to both conduits for positioning the first conduit in the second, the burner being characterized in that the second conduit comprises a plurality of parts including a bell and spigot construction, in which the internal member of the bell and spigot does not touch the external member thereof, therebetween, insulating neans enveloping said construction, and the aforementioned insulating means being enveloped by a iiexible bellows construction attached to each of said parts.
3. A gas burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of high temperatures comprising an external conduit member terminating in a burner tip, means associated therewith for attaching this member to a heating chamber, a second external conduit member positioned in communicative relationship but spaced from the first member by means of a bell and spigot construction and an accordionlike metal means that with the aforementioned construction forms a chamber, a heat-resisting medium encased in a metal container positioned in the chamber and encircling said construction, another conduit member for supplying fuel, positioned at least partly within the first-mentioned conduit, and means connected with this latter conduit for positioning the conduit with respect to the first-mentioned conduit so that a substantially annular air passageway is formed.
4. A burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of temperatures in excess of l000 C., which comprises an inlet conduit for fuel, a second conduit for supplying oxidizing medium at least partially embracing the first conduit and positioned therefrom to form a passageway, the conduits terminating in members which form a burner orifice, whirler blades attached to both conduits for positioning the first conduit in the second and for imparting a rotary movement to the medium that flows through the passageway, collars attached to the second conduit for supporting at leastpart of a non-rigid structure comprising overlapping flanges dividing the second conduit into two spaced parts, insulating means enveloping the anges, and the aforementioned parts associated with the anges being further enveloped by a exible bellows construction attached to said collars.
5. A gas burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of high temperatures comprising an external conduit member terminating in a heat-resisting alloy end, a second external conduit member positioned in communicative relationship with the first member by means of an accordion-like metal means that extends completely around a portion of the members and with the members forms an enclosed chamber, at least a portion of said members being spaced apart to form a non-rigid inner joint, a heat-resisting fibrous medium positioned in the chamber and encircling the joint, another heatresisting alloy conduit member positioned at least partly within the first-mentioned conduit, and a heat-resisting whirler member connected with this latter conduit for positioning the conduit with respect to the first-mentioned conduit so that a substantially annular passageway is formed.
6. A burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of temperatures in excess of 1000* C., which comprises a fuel conduit, a second conduit at least partially embracing the first conduit and positioned therefrom to form a passageway for preheated air, the conduits terminating in a burner orifice, means attached to the conduits for positioning the first conduit at least partly within the second, the burner being characterized in that the second conduit is of non-rigid construction comprising at least two parts, overlapping flanges at least partially separated, at the parts junction, insulating means enveloping the fianges, and the aforementioned parts associated therewith being further enveloped by a fiexible bellows construction attached to said parts.
7. A gas burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of temperatures in excess of 1000" C., which comprises an inlet conduit for fuel, a second conduit for supplying air at least partially embracing the first conduit and positioned therefrom to form a passageway,
the first mentioned conduit terminating in a tip;`
having a plurality of radially disposed openings;l therein, blades positioned between the conduits for spacing the first conduit in the second and for imparting a non-linear movement to the air flowing through the passageway, the burner being characterized in that the second conduit is of non-rigid construction comprising at least two sections, a freely movable and at least patially spaced apart gland construction between the sections, insulating means around the gland, and an air tight flexible bellows around and attached to each of said conduit sections.
8. A gas burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of high temperatures comprising a. conduit member terminating in a conical end, lugs associated therewith for attaching this member to a furnace, a collar on this member, a second conduit member having a corresponding collar positioned in communicative relationship with the first member by means of a non-rigid spaced apart internal construction having shoulders and an accordion-like metal member that extends completely around a portion of the conduit members and with said construction forms a chamber, a heat-resisting medium positioned in the chamber and encircling the construction, another conduit member positioned at least partly within the firstmentioned conduit, blade members connected' with this latter conduit for positioning the conduit with respect to the first-mentioned conduit so that an annular passageway is formed.
9. A burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of temperatures in excess of 1000D C., which comprises an inlet conduit FUEL BURNERS.
for fuel, a second conduit for supplying oxidizing medium at least partially embracing the first conduit, the second conduit being of nonrigid construction comprising at least two parts, a bell and spigot construction between the parts in which the internal member is at least partially spaced apart from the external member, insulating means enveloping said construction, and a flexible bellows associated with the conduit parts.
10. A gas burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of high temperatures comprising a large conduit member, a second large conduit member positioned as an extension of the rst conduit member but atleast partially separated therefrom, and connected thereto by means of an airtight accordion-like metal member that extends around a portion of the members, a heat-resisting medium positioned beneath said metal member and encircling a portion of both conduits, and another conduit member positioned at least partly within the first-mentioned conduit.
11. A furnace construction including a burner adapted for use under conditions involving the production of high temperatures, comprising a conduit member terminating in a burner orifice, said conduit member being attached to and sup- Search ported to some extent by said furnace construction, another conduit member independently supported, flexibly connected to the first conduit member, said conduit members being so positioned that they are at least partially spaced apart, another conduit member for fuel housed by the aforementioned members and cooperating therewith to form a passageway for oxidizing medium, and means for supplying fuel and oxidizing medium to the respective members.
12. A vburner construction which will withstand high temperatures and is suitable for heating the interior of enclosed chambers comprising a. conduit member terminating in a burner tip of heat-resisting alloy, said conduit member being adapted for support adjacent said chamber, another conduit member adapted for independent support, exibly connected to the rst conduit member, said conduit members being so positioned that they are at least partially spaced apart, another conduit member for fuel housed by the aforementioned members and cooperating therewith to form a passageway for oxidizing medium, and means for supplying fuel and oxidizing medium to the respective members.
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|U.S. Classification||239/397.5, 285/189, 285/300, 431/183|