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Publication numberUS2184681 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 26, 1939
Filing dateOct 26, 1937
Priority dateOct 26, 1937
Publication numberUS 2184681 A, US 2184681A, US-A-2184681, US2184681 A, US2184681A
InventorsFrank Kinzbach, Osmun Fred N
Original AssigneeGeorge W Bowen
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Grapple
US 2184681 A
Images(2)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 26, F, N OSMUN 51- AL 2,184,681

I GRAPPLE Filed Oct. 26, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Dec. 26, 1939.. QSMUN HAL 2,184,681

GRAPBLE Filed Oct. 26, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Dec. 26, 1939 UNITED srar GRAPPLE Tex.

Application October 26, 1937, Serial No. 171,088

11 Claims.

This invention relates to a grapple.

An object of the invention is to provide a grapple of the character described that may be con structed for use either as a spear-type grapple or an overshot grapple, and which is readily engageable with and releasable from a pipe stuck in a well bore.

It is another object of the invention to provide a pipe pulling device of the character described embodying a mandrel having a spiralled face and a grappling member thereon of a general cylindrical shape and having a spiralled face arranged to cooperate with the spiralled face of the mandrel, said cooperating faces being tapered with novel means for varying the diameter of the grappling member whereby it may be released the spear into said pipe.

from the engaged pipe in case the latter cannot be dislodged and removed from the well.

Another object of the invention is to provide interengaging stops on the mandrel and grappling member respectively whereby they will be prevented from becoming screwed too tightly together upon a reverse, or left hand rotation of the mandrel.

With the above and other objects in view the invention has particular relation to certain novel features of construction, operation and arrangement of parts, an example of which is given in this specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:

Figure 1 shows a side view, partly in section, of the spear-type of grapple showing the grappling member contracted to releasingposition.

Figure 2 shows a side view, partly in section, showing the spear-type of grapple in engaged position with relation to the pipe to be pulled.

Figure 3 shows a side elevation thereof, showing the grappling member in expanded position.

Figure 4 shows a vertical, sectional view of an overshot type of grapple showing the grappling member in releasedposition, and

Figure 5 shows a vertical, sectional view of the overshot type, showing the grappling member in engagement with the pipe to be pulled.

Referring now more particularly to the drawings wherein like numerals of reference designate the same parts in each of the figures, the numeral l designates the mandrel as awhole. The lower end of this mandrel is reduced forming the external annular shoulder 2 and is externally enlarged above said shoulder 2 to form the annular external shoulder 3 adapted to engage the upper end of the stuck pipe 4 upon entrance of Screwed onto the lower end of the mandrel is the guide nut 5 and also screwed onto the mandrel there is the releasing nut 6 whose upper end has the downwardly and inwardly converging face i. The releasing nut abuts the upper end ofthe guide nut.

Between the shoulder 2 and the releasing nut 6 the mandrel is provided with the external, spiralled, downwardly flared face 8. As shown this face is spiralled to the left. The upper margin of the spiralled face 8 terminates in an undercut groove 9 which is also spiralled to the left asshown.

The mandrel and guide nut having a central fluid passageway ll) therethrough through which washing fluid may be forced, if desired, from the operating stem ii to which the grapple is attached. On thes mandrel there is a sleeve-like grappling member l2. This grappling member has the slots it cut therein from opposite ends and arranged in staggered relation, as shown, so that the grappling member will be contractile throughout. The slots leading from one end of the grappling member terminate near the opposite end thereof as shown.

The grappling member l2 has the inside, spiralled, downwardly flared face M which conforms to the taper of, and rides against, the corresponding face 8, of the mandrel. The spiralled face It terminates at its upper margin in the spiralled rib l5 conforming in shape to, and adapted to enter, the groove'Q when the grappling member is contracted.

- The lower end of the grappling member l2 has the downwardly and inwardly tapered face l6 adapted to ride against the face 1 to contract the lower end of the grapple.

In use the mandrel may be turned to the left relative to the grappling member to run said grappling member up on the mandrel to the position shown in Figure 3. The mandrel has a stop I! depending beneath the shoulder 2 and the grappling member has a corresponding stop l8 extending upwardly therefrom and arranged to engage the stop H, as shown in Figure 3, to prevent the upper end of the grappling member from becoming screwed up too tightly against the shoulder 2 to prevent its ready release therefrom. The spear may be now run into the well and will be guided by the guide 5 into the upper end of the pipe 4 to be pulled. With the grappling member in expanded position its outer toothed surface will frictionally engage the pipe t but will readily enter the same. Upon an upward pull on the operating string I l the spiralled tapered face 8 of the mandrel will ride up against the inside tapering face [4 of the grappling memp ber and will expand said grappling member into secure engagement with the pipe to be pulled. A further upward pull exerted through the operating string may result in the withdrawal of the stuck pipe. If it does not the mandrel may be turned to the right and thus caused to move upwardly relative to the grappling member carrying the flared face i into contact with the tapering face It of the grappling member thus contracting the lower end of the grappling member as shown in Figure 1 and at the same time the rib l5 will seat in the under cut groove 9 of the grappling member thus causing a contraction of the grappling member from end to end. While so. contracted the grappling member'will frictionally engage the inner surface of the pipe 4 but lightly and a continued rotation of the mandrel while being pulled upwardly will cause the release of the tool from the pipe.

If it be desired to re-engage the tool with the pipe it may be lowered into the pipe and turned to the left, the friction of the grappling member with the pipe holding saidv grappling member stationary, until the mandrel is run down again to the position shown in Figure 3 whereupon an upward pull will cause the grappling member to again securely engage the pipe to be pulled. I

An overshot type of grapple is illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 wherein the mandrel is designated by the numeral I3 and is attached to the lower end of the operating string l i. It is tubular in general contour and has the inside annular shoulder 20 to contact the upper end of the pipe 4 to be pulled upon lowering of the grappling tool thereover. The mandrel E53 has the spiralled, upwardly flared, inside face 2%.

This face 2| is spiralled to the left and at its upper margin terminates in a correspondingly spiralled, under cut groove 22. Screwed into the lower end of the mandrel l9 there is the guide nut 23 and abutting the upper end of the guide nut and screwed into the mandrel there is the release nut 24 whose upper end has the inwardly and upwardly converging face 25. There is a grappling member 25 which is cylindrical in general contour but whose outer: side has the upwardly diverging spiralled face 27 pitched to conform to the pitch of, and to seat .upon the face 2!. The face fl is spiralled in a direction corresponding to the spiral of the face 25 and at its lower margin there is a correspond ingly spiralled rib 28 adapted to fit into the groove 22, when the grappling member is in released position, to maintain it released, shown in Figure 4. The grappling member 26 has the staggered slots 29 extending from opposite ends thereof, each slot extending from one end of said grappling member approximately to the other end thereof so that said grappling member will be expansible. The lower end of the grappling member 25 has the inside, downwardly flared face 30 arranged to engage the face 25 for a purpos to be stated.

In use the overshot type of grapple may be lowered into a well and over the upper end of the pipe as shown in Figure 5. The inner side of the grappling tool 26 is provided with the horizontal, upwardly pitched, inside teeth to en age the pipe. The grappling member 26, even when in expanded position, will frictionally engage the outside of the pipe to be pulled. When overshot is lowered over the upper end of the pipe it may be turned to the left so as to release the grappling member 26, that is, so as to permit the grappling member to move upwardly into the position shown in Figure 5 if it is not already in that position. An upward pull may then be exerted through the operating string i l. Thereupon the grappling member 26 will be contracted by the wedging of the spiralled face 2| against the spiralled face 21 causing the said grappling member to securely grip the pipe. If the pipe cannot be dislodged the grappling tool may be released therefrom by turning to the right. Upon such turning to the right the lower end of the grappling member 26 will be engaged over the upper end of the releasing nut 24, the co-action of the faces 25, 30 causing an expansion of the lower end of said grappling member and at the same time the rib 28 will be engaged closely within the spiralled groove 22 which will cause an expansion of the grappling member as shown in Figure 4 and a continued rotation to the right and upward pull will release the overshot from the pipe.

Depending from the shoulder 20 there is a stop 3| and extending upwardly from the grappling member 25 there is a stop 32. Said stops are provided for the same purpose as the corresponding stops I! and I8 shown in Figures 1 to 3.

The drawings and description disclose what are now considered to be preferred forms of the invention by way of illustration only, while the broad principle of the invention will be defined by the appended claims.

What we claim is:

l. A pipe grapple comprising a mandrel having a helical, tapering face, a sleeve-like expansible grappling member thereon of a general cylindrical contour and substantially longer than its transverse diameter and having a helical tapering face arranged to fit the face on the mandrel.

2. A releasable pipe grapple comprising a mandrel having a helical, tapering face, a tubular grappling member on the mandrel having a helical tapering face shaped to conform to the shape of, and to cooperate with, the face on the mandrel, additional means on the grappling member and mandrel effective to cooperate to vary the transverse diameter of the grappling member upon relative rotation of said parts in one direction.

3. A pipe grapple comprising a mandrel having a helical, tapering face, a tubular grappling member associated with the mandrel and having a helical tapering face shaped to conform to the shape of, and to cooperate with, the face on the mandrel, means on the grappling member and mandrel effective to cooperate, upon relative movement of said parts in one direction, to vary the transverse diameter of the grappling member and interlocking means on the mandrel and grapple for limiting the relative movement of said parts in the other direction.

4. A releasable pipe grapple comprising a mandrel having a helical, tapering face, a tubular grappling member associated with the mandrel and having a helical, tapering face shaped to conform to the shape of, and to ceoperatewil-h, the face on the mandrel, said grappling being'slitted from opposite ends to render it expansible, means on the grappling member and mandrel effective to cooperate, upon relative movement of said parts in one direction to contract the transverse diameter of the grappling member.

5. A pipe grapple comprising a mandrel having a helical, tapering face, a tubular grappling member associated with the mandrel and having a helical, tapering face shaped to conform'to the shape of, and to cooperate with, the face on the mandrel, said grappling member being slitted from opposite ends to render it expansible throughout its length, means on the grappling member and mandrel effective to cooperate,

upon relative movement of said parts in one direction to contract the transverse diameter of the grappling member, and means for limiting the relative movement of said parts in the other direction.

6. A pipe grapple comprising a mandrel shaped to telescope with a pipe stuck in a well bore and having a helical face which tapers at an angle to the axis of the mandrel, a tubular grappling member on the mandrel having a helical, tapering face shaped to conform to the shape of, and to cooperate with, the face on the mandrel, said grappling member being capable of contraction and expansion to vary its transverse diameter,

means on the mandrel and grappling member effective to cooperate, upon relative movement of said parts, to vary the transverse diameter of the grappling member.

'7. A pipe grapple comprising a mandrel shaped to telescope with a pipe stuck in a well bore and having a helical face which tapers at an angle to the axis of the mandrel, a tubular grappling member on the mandrel having a helical, tapering face shaped to conform to the shape of, and to cooperate with, the face on the mandrel, said grappling member being capable of contraction and expansion throughout its length to vary its transverse diameter, additional means on the mandrel and grappling member effective to cooperate, upon relative movement of said parts in one direction, to vary the transverse diameter of the grappling member, and means for limiting the relative movement of said parts in the other direction.

8. A pipe grapple comprising a mandrel shaped to telescope with a pipe stuck in a well bore and having a helical, tapering face and an annular tapering face, a grappling member thereon of a general cylindrical contour capable of contraction and expansion and having a helical,

tapering face shaped to fit the tapering face of the mandrel and having an annular tapering face, said mandrel and grappling member being relatively movable to bring said annular faces,

into cooperation to vary the transverse diameter of the corresponding end of the grappling member and means carried by the mandrel and grappling member, effective, upon such movement to correspondingly vary the transverse diameter of the other end of the grappling member throughout its length.

9. A'pipe grapple comprising a mandrel shaped J each other upon relative rotation, means on the mandrel and grappling member including annular, co-acting faces, effective to vary the diameter of the grappling member throughout its length upon relative movement of said parts in one direction and stops on the mandrel and grappling member to limit their relative rotation in the other direction.

I 10. A pipe grapple comprising a mandrel shaped to telescope with a pipe stuck in a well bore and having a helical, tapering face with an undercut helical groove adjacent one margin of said face, said mandrel also having an annular tapering face, a grappling member on the mandrel, sleeve-like in form and capable of contraction and expansion and having a helical tapering face shaped to fit the tapering face of the mandrel and which terminates in a marginal helical rib shaped to fit into said groove, said grappling member having an annular tapering face, said mandrel and grappling member being relatively movable to bring said annular faces into cooperation to vary the transverse diameter of the corresponding end of the grappling member, said rib being positioned to fit in said groove upon such movement to correspondingly vary the transverse diameter of the grappling member throughout its length. I

11. A pipe grapple comprising a mandrel shaped to telescope with a pipe stuck in a well bore and having a helical, tapering face and also having an annular, tapering face, a grappling member on the mandrel, sleeve-like in form and capable of contraction and expansion and having a helical tapering face shaped to fit the tapering face of the mandrel, saidgrappling member having an annular, tapering face, said mandrel and grappling member being relatively movable to bring said annular faces into cooperation to vary the transverse diameter of the corresponding end of the grappling member, said mandrel and gripping member having helical interengaging parts, effective, upon such move- -ment to correspondingly vary the transverse diameter of the grappling member throughout its length.

FRED N. OSMUN. FRANK KINZBACH.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2491392 *Feb 26, 1946Dec 13, 1949Osmun Dean WMultiple seat releasing and circulating overshot
US2518430 *Oct 30, 1947Aug 8, 1950Osmun Dean WGrapple
US2616752 *Feb 26, 1946Nov 4, 1952Osmun Dean WSpiraled seat releasing and circulating overshot
US2624413 *Jun 28, 1946Jan 6, 1953Gray Tool CoOil well hanger
US2689763 *May 1, 1950Sep 21, 1954Osmun Dean WGrapple
US2769655 *Apr 10, 1953Nov 6, 1956Holmes Lloyd RInternal pipe gripping tool
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Classifications
U.S. Classification294/86.22, 294/96, 294/102.1, 294/86.25
International ClassificationE21B31/12, E21B31/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B31/12
European ClassificationE21B31/12