US 2185997 A
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Jan- 9, 1940- J. A. HEIDBRINK 2,185,997
MEANS Foa sUPPLYING rro INDIVIDUAL masons AN OXYGENATED GAs MIXTURE Filed Nov. 22, 1957 2 sheets-sheet 1 Ja Heidbmnk.
ttor-naja Jan. 9, 1940. J. A. HEIDBRINK MEANS FOR SUPPLYING T0 INDIVIDUAL PERSONS AN OXYGENATED GAS MIXTURE Filed NOV. 22, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheetl 2 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MEANS- non. SUPPLYING To rNnrvmUAL raasoNs AN oxrcENATEn GAs Mix- Jay A. neiabrink, Minneapolis, signorto The-Ohio Chemical ,and Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio Application November 22,1931, serial No.- rzaslv 1o claims. (c1. 12azoet My invention relates to means for supplying to ber I2 is an expanded-chamber I9 having its individual personsan oxygenated gas mixture in bottom closed by a diaphragm 20. A valve seat an attenuated atmosphere, such, for example, as 2| is Yformed about the central opening I4 from -is encountered in airplane travelat high altitudes valve chamber I I. The inner wall of valve chamorin ascending high mountains. ber Il is cylindrical, and within it moves a valve 5 It is an object of my inventionjto provide head 22 which is hexagonal in shape, so there means kfor delivering to a stream of gas going are passagesalong the six faces of the plunger `to a patient, such as air, a quantity of oxygen in from below to above it. A coil spring 23 tendsL combination with automatically actuated means lto force theeplunger 22 against the valve seat -m to increase the -ilow of oxygen to the gas mix- #v2 I with a moderate'pressure. The diaphragm 10 ture 'as the external air pressure diminishes. I8 is provided with a thrust 4pin 24 and has rest- It is a further object of my invention to pro- Aing upon the diaphragm a head 25 which is envide means such that an operator can regulate gaged by a strong compression spring l26. The manually the rate of iiow' of oxygen to the mixspring 26 tends to' move the diaphragm I8 and u ture of `gases in atmospheres of varying densities. the pin 24 downwardly, .and the pin in turnwill 15 It is a further object of my invention to promove the valve headl 22 away from` the valve vide means 'adapted to be worn on the heads of seat 2l so as to permit gas to flow past it through each individual person in, for example, an airopening I4 into chamber I1'. The valve champlane with means connected therewith for berV I2 has toward'its bottom a valve block 21 ,g breathingthrough the nose,` means for' supplywhich is engaged by a valve seat 29 on a hexago- '20 ing oxygen thereto, means for rebreathing thenal valve head 39 in chamber I2." A compression mixture of oxygen and air and means for inject' spring 3l tends to move the valve head 30 so asv ing air into the mixture. to cause the valve seat 29 thereon to engage the It is a. further object of my invention to pro- Yvalve seat 28 and close communication between s -vide means for supplying a mixture of gases to valve chamber- I2 and expanded chamber I9. 25 the pilot and his passengers and solely under the But a circular port 32 leads through valve block control of the pilot for regulating the amount 21 to permit gas to pass the hexagonal faces ci of oxygen going to the passengers. the valve head `30 and from thence to flow' The full objects and advantages of my inventhrough openings 32 and I6 into chamber I9. u tion will appear in connection with'the detailed The diaphragm 20 is engaged bya pusher pin 30 description thereof, and its novel features are 33 which extends from the center of the valve pointed out in the appended claims. head 30,*and a head' 34 is caused to engage the In the drawings, illustrating an application of diaphragm 20 by means 'of a strong compression my invention in one formspring 35. `The pressure of compression spring f Fig. 1.illustrates afragmentary portion of the 35 Ais regulated by means of an adjusting screw 35 pilot and passenger compartments of an airplane 36 which engages a piece 31 located between the". showing-a ligure therein and my inventionapend of the adjusting ,screw and the spring35. plied thereto. Fig. 2 is a part sectional view of The spring 26 -is held within a chamber 38 in a `the air `oxyg'en'mixing and rebreathin'g device casing member 39, and the spring 35 is held n. and the'nas'al inhalers employed in connection Within e Chamber 40 inside 0f a Casing mem- 40 therewith. Fig. 3 is a. front illustration of a ber 4|. f gauge for showing the Vdelivery of oxygen gas per T0 regulate the.: degree of compreSSiOn upon, minute. Fig. v4 is an enlarged sectional detail 891111925511 Chamber. 38 the f01l0W1ng, means is view of the oxygen. ow control mechanism and employed; "A plunger Piece 42 119011 the 110D 0f 45 the gauge for illustrating it'. 4spring 26 is engaged by a plunger pin 43 upon 45 Referring partieularlyto Fig, .4, a casting mem.. a ball'44 riding on a seat *in the upper part of ber I) is providedwith oppositely-disposed upplunger vDin '43. and heldin position by keeper per and lowervalve chambers II and I2. Valve arms 45 is a bar 46 which is pivotally connectchamber II is closed'by a tubular threaded memed at v41 with a movable head48. 'I'hehead 48 50. ber I3 except for an orice I4 at the center has a portion 49.threaded into an internally- 50 thereof. In like manner valve chamber I2 is threaded rotatable nut 50 controlled by athumb closed by a tubular member I5 except for a ceiiscrew 5I by which meansthe head 49 and the trally-disposed orifice IB. Above valve chambar 46 connected therewith may be moved lonber Il is an expanded chamber I1 having its top l gitudinally, as desired, within the chamber 52 ll closed' by a diaphragln- IILv Below valve cham-l which houses the bar 46 and the head 49. vWith- I6 in Fig. 1.
in an upward extension 5 3 of chamber 52,` closed by a cap 54, is located a pressurestat `55, which, as shown, comprises a. cylindrical hollow disclike member with flexible walls, the interior of said member being lled with an expansible gas such as air.` Upon the lower side of the pressurestat 55 is a head 56 in which is mounted a ball l514 which engagesthe pivoted bar 46. Engaging the upper side of the pressurest'at 55 vand threaded through the cap 54 is-a member 58 whereby the pressurestat itself and with it the the rate of change of delivery of oxygen effected v automatically according to conditions encountered. l
Apertures 60 and 6| into chambers 52 and 53, respectively, equalize the pressure in these chambers on each -side of the pressurestat 55. It follows that as the air 'pressure in chambers 52 and 53 changes, say decreases upon an airplanes Vgoing into higher altitudes, the expansion of the gas within the pressurestat-55' will cause the member 56 and the ball 51 to push upon the pivoted bar 46 and increase the pressure of spring 26 upon diaphragm I8 for a purpose hereinafter described.
A tubular member 62 conveys oxygen gas from a source of oxygen'supply such as a tank of compressed oxygen of common commercial use, not shown, through a passageway 63 in the valve block I and into the valve chamber I2, and, in turn, when the gas is released to ow as hereinafter described, it will enter expanded chamber I9 and ow therefrom through a passageway 64 into valve chamber II, and from thence, when 'th' valve 2|, 22 opens, into expanded chamber I1. From chamber I1 the gas willA ow through passageway 65 and passageway 66 to a delivery chamber 61. From delivery chamber 61 a tube and piping 68 will carry the gas-past a close-olf petvcock A69 yand a proportioning bore 18 to a ow meter 1I and thence through pipe and connecting tubing 12 to inhaler mechanism 13 onl the head of the pilot oroperator as shown At the same .time from chamber 61 piping 14, comprising a manifold,` will have branches 15 each controlled by a .pet cock 16 and having a proportioning orince similar to orifice v1I), which Willgoto inhaler mechanism 0n the heads of the several passengers in the same manner as shown in Fig. 1 .applied to the head of the pilot /or operator.
These proportioning orifices determine the volume of oxygen delivered at any constant pressure, and as the 4pressure increases or decreases,
from the operation of the regulating mechanism heretoforedescribed, that volume will be corre- Spondingly increased or decreased. Also in the arrangement above described, since the gas goesf to the several passengers through proportioning orifices the same as the proportioning orice 10 lwhich conducts the gas through the ow meter outlet 12.
0n the'ow meter. Hence, the control of the flow of gas by the pilot from inspection of the flow meter controls the supply of gas to the passengers.
The iiow meter 1I is of well-known construction wherein a piston 11 is subject to themoving 'gas under pressure and is moved upwardly more or less in a conical chamber 18 toward the gas The piston 11` carries a rod 19 which is visible, when gas is owing, through closed tube 88, Fig. 3, and the end of the rod will indicate on scale8I the volume ofr gas flowing through delivery pipe 12. This will be the volume or gas going to the pilot or operator. 'However, since that volume passes through the bore 10, and the gas going to each of the passengers passes .through 4a similar bore, the flow of gas to the pilot and to the passengers at any given pressure will be in equal volume.
'I'he pressure at which gas is delivered, and consequently .the volume of gas which passes the orifices 10 to the pilot and to the passengers,
i'svdetermined generally by the pressure exerted by spring 26 upon diaphragm I8 and spring 35 upon diaphragm 20. Obviously, since the pres- Sure of these springs tends to open the valves, and the pressure of the gas in chambers I1 and I9 'upon diaphragms I8 and 20 tends to closethe valves, increasing the pressure of the springs will increase the necessary pressure upon the diaphragms to close the valves and will increase the pressure at which the gas will flow through opening 66 to chamber 61 and conveying tubes 68 and 14. The pressure of spring 35 will generally be fixed in advance and notvchanged, but thel pressure of spring 26 is subject Yto change and adjustment from time to time through thumb nuts l and 59 in front of the pilot or operator, as shown in Fig. 1, and also will b e subject to change through the veffect of atmospheric pressure on the pressurestat 25 steadily increasing as the atmospheric pressure decreases.
'I'he inhaler mechanism (identically the same passageway 9|, which in turn opens `into a passageway 92 in the' casing 82 adjacent a venturi 93 leading through a passageway 94 to a re- `breathingbag 9,5. n,The oxygen fromconveyor 12 goes through a passageway 96 directly into rebreathing bag 95. y v l The entire arrangement will be secured by a cap' 91 or other securing means upon the head of the individual in such manner that the nasal plugs 86. and 81 will be securely held in thevnostrils of the wearer. The wearer will be advised to breathe entirely through the nose. Upon inhalation oxygen mixed with exhaled gas and air will be drawn into' the lungs of the individual wearer. Upon exhalation part of the exhaled gases will go to the rebreathing bag and' carry along with them some air to be mixed therewith by reason of the action of the venturi93. When, however, .the pressure in the rebreathing bag builds up suiliciently, part of the exhaled gases will discharge through the orifice 89 to atmosphere. In this manner the carbon dioxide which otherwise would accumulate in the rebreathing A for pilot and passengers) is shown in position in said supply, means controlled py the operatory bag is disseminated, and it is also true that some air will join the stream of mixed oxygen and rebreathed gases to go to the lungs on inhalation. 'I'he advantages of my-invention have been quite iully pointed out in'connectionwith the as planes are operated now to go up several 'thousand feet higherthansat present is the practice and obviate the danger of grounding onf 'the' mountains and at the same time keep the passengers and pilot properlysupplied` with oxygen. It is generally believed, too, that a' time coming Vwhen airplane travel will atfall times be at higher altitudes, perhapsas high as the lower stratosphere, and,'of course, some means of supplying suiliciently oxygenated airwill be essential under such conditions. It is a highly important feature of my invention, and one of its chief advantages that the regulationof oxygen supply to the vpassengers is bothwautomatically determined by the air pressure, or,` which is substantially the-same thing, by the eleva' tion, and at the same time is subject to regulation by a single trained and expert operator, and who may be, and in most cases will be; the airplane pilot. The arrangement of small bore tubes through'which the oxygen `flows alike to 'pilot and passengers with flow gauge available Vto the inspection of the pilot, niakes it possible for the pilot at all times to know just the volume of oxygen going to the passengers and to adjust that volume from' time to time as changing conditions may require. In the drawings I have shown but one aneroid or pressurestat, which obviously can be made of any form or size,` and filled with any desiredf'type of gas to 'produce the most eicient results. It is Valso obviousy that several of. such aneroids or pressurestats may be placed in series so that the vthrow of each is transmitted to a succeeding one, and in that way a throwof anylength may be obtained.'
1. A device for delivering oxygen to an op?YV erator and other individuals, comprising a supe ply of oxygen, means including separate connections to the operator and to each of the other individuals for delivering to the operator' and to change the delivery Vpressure and thusto change the rate of delivery of said oxygen, means in each. of said separate. connections including a -proportioning orice'fof predetermined small size for effecting the same rate of delivery to both ythe operator. and the other individuals at any yconstant pressure, and means including a iiow gauge adapted to indicateo rate of now-.to the operator, whereby the operator can change said pressures and so change volumes of iiow as -indicated by said flow gauge.
. such individuals oxygen under pressure from saidA supply, means controlled by' the operator ,to-
change the delivery pressure a'nd thus to change the rate of delivery of said oxygen, and means in each of said separate connections including a proportioning orice of predetermined small' size for eiecting the same rate of delivery to both the operator and the"'other individuals at any constant pressure. 'N
2..-A device for delivering oxygen 'to an operator and other individuals, comprising a.- sup- 'ply of oxygen, means including `separate connections to the operator and to each of the other individuals for delivering to the loperator and such individuals Voxygen under pressure from 3. A device for delivering oxygen to an 0p-y erator and other individuals, comprising a supply of oxygen; means including separate connections to the operator and to each of the other individuals forA delivering to thepperator 'andl such individuals oxygen from said supply, means automatically operated through changes of external/ air pressure to change delivery pressure and thus change the rate of delivery of said oxygen, and means in each of said'se'parate connections including a proportioning. orifice of vpredetermined small size for eiecting the same `rate of delivery to both the /operator and the other individuals at any constant pressure.
i. A device for delivering oxygen to`an operator and other individuals, comprising a supply' of oxygen,'means including'l separate connections to the operator and to each of the other individuals for delivering to the operatorand such individuals oxygen under pressure from said supply, means controlled by the operator and other means automatically operated through changes of external air pressure tochange delivery pressure andrthus change the vrateof delivery of said oxygen, and means in eachot said separate connections including a proportioning orice of predeterminedfsmall size for effecting the same rate'gof delivery to both' the operator and the other individuals at 'any` constant pressure.
5. In combination with an airplane and the pilot and passenger compartments therein, a
source of oxygen supply, individualsets of inhalers and rebreathing bags adapted to be supported on ,the heads ofA pilot "and passengers, a' manifold and connections thereto from said oxygen-supply. `for delivering a stream of oxygen directly to each of said-head-supported rebreath' ving bags, said connections including proportioni ing orifices of rpredetermined small size and the same size for each individual inhaler, means controlled solely by the pilot for regulating the volume of gas delivered to each individual, and a ilow'meter and gauge for use of the pilot or operator in governing the said rate of delivery.
l6. A'device forV delivering oxygenated gas mix-A .ture to individuals. comprising inhaler and rebreathing mechanism adapted to be supported on the head, means for delivering a stream of oxygen directly to the rebreathing mechanism, means automatically operative through changes of air pressure to v ry the rate of delivery of said oxy- `gen including an aneroid and a swinging bar operated .thereby engaging a thrust point, means controlled by the operator for moving the bar endwise relatively tosaid thrust point to change the length of fulcrum of said bar to' vary the rate of change of delivery rate of oxygen eiected by said aneroid. y
'1. A device for delivering oxygeriated gas mixture to individuals comprising a source of oxygen supply and means forV conveying oxygen therefrom, valve mechanism including a diaphragm, a
10 from, valve mechanism including a diaphragm, a
spring positioned to exert force against said diaphragm against the pressure of gas uponthe diaphragm `to Vopensaid valve mechanism,v a swinging bar connected to engage said spring,
15 means engageabie with said bar including an aneroid to hold it against the force of said spring, f
y and means to operate said last-named means to swing the bar to vary Wthe pressure exerted by the spring on the, diaphragm.
w 9. A device for delivering oxygenated gas mixture to individuals comprising a source of oxygen supply and means for conveying oxygen therefrom, valve mechanism including a diaphragm, a spring 'positioned toexert force against said diaphragm against the pressure of gas upon the diaphragm to open said valve mechanism,v a
swinging bai having a pivot fulcrum connected to engage said spring, means engageable with said bar including an aneroid to holdit against the force of said spring, and means to move the bar and its pivot endwise for varying the eiective 5 length of the'lever arm-from the fulcrum pivot to. its point of thrust on the spring.
10. A'device for delivering oxygenated gas mix- -tureto individuals comprising a, source of oxygen -supply and means for conveyingoxygen there-'10 from, valve mechanism including a diaphragm, a spring positioned to exert force against said diaf phragm against the pressure of gas upon the diaphragm to open'v said valve mechanism; a swinging bar having a pivot fulcrum connected 15 to engage Asaid spring, means engageable with said bar including an aneroid to hold it against the force of said spring, means to operate said last-named means to swing the bar on its Divot to vary the pressure'e'xerted on thevspring on the 20 diaphragm, and means `,to move the bar and vits pivotendwise for varying the effective length of the lever arm fromthe -fulcrum pivot to its point of thrust on the spring.'
JAY A. HEIDBRINK. 25