|Publication number||US2186925 A|
|Publication date||Jan 9, 1940|
|Filing date||May 11, 1938|
|Priority date||May 11, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2186925 A, US 2186925A, US-A-2186925, US2186925 A, US2186925A|
|Inventors||Hooper Louis G, Hooper Virgil I|
|Original Assignee||Bastian Blessing Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (13), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 9, 1940. v. HOOPER Er AL 2,186,925
' VALVE Filed May 11, 1938 3 shets-sheet 1 a 25 g5 255 802 fg '2, 6^ 25d 265/1242525@ Jan. 9, 1940.
y. l. HooPER x-:r Al. 2,185,925
VALVE Filed May ll, 1938 5 Sheets-Shea?l 2 as y. 55
Jan- 9, 1940. v. l. HooPl-:R ET AL VALVE Filed May ll, 1938 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented jan. 9, 1.940
`finta25 PATENT OFFICE vALvE Y Virgil I. Hooper, Gordon, Tex., and G.
Hooper, Sarepta, La., assignors to The Bastian- Blessing Company, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois l 9 Claims. Our invention relates to a loading assembly for -thegloading and unloading of liquids orgases or `mixed liquids andv gases. One purpose is the provision of an improved loading and unloading assembly for loading such materials into a tank I, Another"purp0se is'the provision of improved A vstorage or shipping container for liquids, gases or the like closedto the atmosphereduring the insertion or removal of the fittings necessary to feed nuids to or remove them from al tank or closed space. z
Another purpose is the provision of an improved means "for handling l liquids, gases, or mixed I liquids or gases for shipment or storage, whereby the, release of any substantial part of such materials isprevented during either loading or unloading or both.
Another purpose is the provision of improved valve means for tanks, cars and the like.
Other purposes will appear from time to -time in the course of the specification and claims'. 4We illustrate our invention more or less diagrammatically in the accompanying drawings -whereinz 1 Figure 1 is a partiaiside' elevacin with parts broken away, illustrating the application of our improved valve means to atankear;v
. Figure 2 is a vertical longitudinal vsection through a part of the dome. 0f4v a tank car, illustrating the tank car in conditie .'forshipment;
' Figure 3 is a vertical section', illustrating part of the loading assembly applied -to the'loading `I it22 to receive corresponding threads oraclei Figure 4 isa partial section,illustratingsome -surefplugvhaving an upper enlargement or 40 of the parts shown in Figure 3 in a diilferentpol' inlet;
Figure 5 is a section on the line 5-5 of Fig I ure 4;
Figure 6 is a vertical section through a variant assembly Figure '7 illustrates. thevvaria'nt assembly when the car is ready for shipment; vand Figure 8 is a detail.
Like parts will be indicated by like symbols including ilxed tanks, buried tanks and the like.
Application M ay 11, 1938, Serial No. 207,419
` `head 2l with a downward shoulder 25. The portion 2i!v is inwardly screw-threaded as at 26 and 30 which forms a part of theloading assembly below described. 'I'hus the. iltting receives se- Referring to the drawings, I indicates any suitable tank herein shown for the purpose of illustration as the type of tank which is employed in connection with tank cars. 5 is a tank car vdome shown as having a removable cover plate 6 nor- 5 mally held in position by any suitable nuts and bolts 1, 8. It will be understood that any other suitable securing means may be employed,
Referring to Figure 1, we illustrate a loading and unloadingI assembly generally-indicated as 10 A and a gauging and vent assembly generally indicated asl B; The assemblyy Aistheprimary subject matter of the present applicationandjthe vent assembly B will be described only cursorily as it forms the subject matter ofa separate ap-` 15 Plication. l
Referring to Figure 2, the'eduction pipe Il which will be understood toterminate closely adjacent the bottom of-the tank is shown as screwthreaded or otherwisesecured to' Vthe ange I5 which is secured to the inner surface of the top of the dome. It may bewe1ded, bolted orl otherwise secured. vItis in line, however, with the loading aperture 'I6 formed inv the domev 5. Alinedabove the aperture I6 we illustrate a iiange member I1 in which is positioned the iltting gen'.- erally indicated as I8 which is shown on a larger scale at the bottom of Figure 3. It may include for example a lower portion I9 of minimum diamf eter and an upper and preferably concentric portion 20 of greater diameter. I I a is an excess pressure valve. In the particular embodiment shown vin vFigure 3 we illustrate the portion laas outwardly screw#- threaded at 2| and in screw-threaded relationship. 35 with correspondingv threads formed in the passage aperture of the flange I1. The inner face o'i. the member I9 is shown as screwf'threaded as v is formed tov receive the threads 21 ofany suitable closure cap 28, as shown invFigure;2,-wh`enl the assembly is removed and the closure is substituted. Also, the same screw-threading is adapted to receive the threads 29 of the wing nut A lectively either the closure cap 28 or the loading 50 assembly of Figure 3.
^ vIn order to provide a proper seal for the contents of the tank during shipment, we may providethe closure 28 with a plurality of apertures '28a about the flange of the closure cap. Through .1
these apertures 28a may pass any suitable sealing strip 28h which in turn may be looped through an eye 28o mounted on or secured to the iiange or fitting or 6D. 28d is any suitable seal in the loop or band 2Gb.
Assume that the tank is being shipped, either full or empty, it is preferably shipped with the closure 28 in place as shown in Figure 2 and with the closure plug 23 rmly screwed down against the gasket 3 I. The gasket 3| is shown as received n a recess 3|a in the plug 23 whereby when the plug is raised from its seat it carries the gasket with it. The gasket 3| is shown as concentrically located within the outer gasket 3|b, but if desired a single gasket may be employed. In any event, the single gasket or the two gaskets form a seal and the parts are so proportioned that when the cap 28 is screwed into position its lower edge also abuts against the outer gasket, both gaskets resting upon the single annular supporting or sealing surface 32, which is preferably but not necessarily perpendicular to the axis of the assembly. The gasket means herein shown are advantageous but a tapered thread or a ground joint or any other suitable sealing means may be employed.
Assuming that the outer closure 28 has been removed, as shown in Figure 3, a passage member 33 may be applied to the fitting. It is shown as having a bottom ange 01 shoulder 34 against which the wing nut 3|] abuts and which preferably conforms to the surface 32' or to the gaskets 3| or 3|b, whereby when the wing nut 3D is tightened the member 33 is locked effectively in relation to the fitting |8 and surrounds the plug 23, 24. We illustrate the member 33 as having applied thereto an upper portion or extension 35 which may have a side passage or lateral extension or other outlet portion 36. We illustrate it as screw-threaded as at 31 to receive any suitable valve assembly 38, as shown in Figures 1 and 3. I'his valve assembly might, of course, be located intermediate the ends of the below described loading or unloading hose 5| or at the opposite end of the hose. We find it convenient to have it associated directly with the passage members 33, 35. It is important in any event that closure means be provided so that the space within the members 33, 35 which constitutes a passage may be closed to the atmosphere and may also be cut oi from the loading or unloading zone. The diameter of the enlargement 24 of the closure plug 23 is slightly less than the interior diameter of the members 33, 35.
We illustrate venting means adaptable to provide atmospheric or outside communication with the space between the closure 23 and the valve 38. We illustrate for example an outlet passage 40 of restricted diameter which is controlled by any suitable valve mechanism generally indicated as at 4| and having an exterior handle 42. It will be understood, however, that any suitable means may be employed whereby the operator can permit the escape 0f gases from the space within the members 33. 35. This is of importance in connection with the application of the loading assembly. It is also important as permitting the user to determine whether or not the plug 23 is tightly in position at a time when the members 33, 35 are in the position in which they are shown in Figure 3. It is also possible to employ this valve or vent to drain liquid from the said space and, in general, to relieve pressure from that space when necessary.
It will be understood that whereas we have shown a screw-threaded closure plug 23, other closure means might be employed. However, a screw-threaded plug is convenient and eflicient. When such a plug is employed, it is necessary to unscrew it while the assembly 33, 35 is in place and to position it out of the line of flow between the tank and the passage 36. We therefore provide a control stem 24a. which may be rotatably and slidably mounted in the end 43 of the member 35. The lower end of the stem may be squared or otherwise formed as at 44 in order to penetrate the corresponding aperture 45 of the plug 23, 24. Thus when the stem 24a is rotated it rotates the plug 23.
The aperture 45 of the plug may be provided with a recess 46 to receive the thrust balls 41 which serve as a locking means to prevent the plug 23 from dropping from the end of the stem after it has been unscrewed or released. Similar balls 48 are located in a somewhat higher portion of the stem 24a and are adapted, as shown in FigureI 4, to penetrate the locking channel 49 in the member 43. Thus the operator has merely to withdraw the stem 24a to topmost position, as limited by the abutment member 50 in order to lock it and the plug 23 in an upward position above and out of line with the passage f6 and the ow of material into and out of the ank.
We thus provide means for putting the interior of the passage formed by the members 33, 35 and 36 into communication with the interior of the tank while maintaining such space closed, and while preventing any escape of gases from the interior 'of the tank. It will be understood that we may obtain the same result through different means, but the screw-threaded plug is illustrated as a practical and operative solution of the problem.
Assume that the closure 28 hasbeen removed and the loading assembly, including the parts 33 and 35 has been applied, the interior of the loading assembly is thereafter put in communication with the interior of the tank. The operator can connect the valve 38 with any suitable source of liquid or gas to be loaded or transported, for example by the pipe or hose 5|. When all connections have been made, the valve 38 can be opened and pressure may be applied by gravity or otherwise to cause the liquid or gas to iow inwardly along the hose 5| through the open valve 38 inwardly along the passage 36 and downwardly through the member 33, and thus into the tank which can then be lled to any predetermined level or pressure.
The operator can sample or gauge, if desired, by employing the slip tube gauge |04 which will later be described. In handling some substances, however, no separate gauging or sampling or venting means are necessary and the assembly B of Figure l may be dispensed with. It will be understood, also, that under some circumstances and with some substances the eduction pipe may be omitted.
When the tank is lled to the desired level or pressure, the valve 38 can be closed and the plug 23 thrust into locking position and rotated by the stem 24a until firmly locked. Ihe valve 4| can then be employed to determine whether or not the plug is fully locked and also to exhaust pressure from the space within the members 33 and 35 above the plug prior to removing the loading assembly. Thereafter, the wing nut 3U can be rotated to releasing position and the Referring to the vent side or the assembly B,
it will not be described in great detail as it does not of itself form part of the present invention and is described and claimed in a co-pending application Weillustrate it, however, asincluding a flangev or passage member 60 which may be secured to or may be formed integrally with the Vfdome 5. Secured to the member 60 is a fitting generally indicated'as 6I and generally like the fitting |8 of Figure 3. It may be interiorly screivthreaded to receive any suitable plug or closure 66, 61 resembling the plug 23,24. Similarly, the passage member 14 may be removably secured to the fitting 6| as by means of the wing nut 13. A valve 16 closes the upperA portion of the passage member 14. The valve, which may be a gate valve, is controlled by any suitable external handle- 18. An upper passage or elbow 19 is positioned thereabove, having a lateral passage having a valve 82 controlled by the handle 63 and in communication with the hose Sla-which may, if desired, have associated :herewith any suitable back pressure regulator Slidable downwardly through the assembly above described is a slip tube gauge |04 having calibrations and a bottom member or abutment |06. If desired, a pump cylinder |22 may be mounted on the upper end of the slip vtube gauge |04 and any suitable handle |25 may be employed to actuate it and draw` up the liquid through the tube |04 in the event that there is insumcient pressure within the tank to cause the liquid to rise in the tube.; Theescape of the liquid may be controlledfor-exampleby any suitable valve assembly ||3 with the control handle or knob 6. It' will be understood that when the above described venting and gauging and sampling assembly is in position, gasmay bereleased through the hose 5| a and by meansof the tube |04 samples may be-taken fromtime to timey and the level ofy thel liquid inthe tank-may be" determined. When the tank is prepared forshipf ping the above assembly is removed and a closure 28, similar to that for assembly A, is screwed into the fitting 6|.
In Figures 6 and 7 we illustrate an alternative form of our invention. Whereas inl the form 'of' Figures 1 and following, a closed plug 23 is ernployed, we can use a valve assembly which is externally operable and which is secured to or permanently left onthe tank. Referringl tov Fig-1f; ure 6, a nipple |50 extends upwardly from the" v It may for example-be screwthreadedtank. into a flange |5| |5|a indicates vany suitable eduction pipe, which extends to the bottom of the tank and which is employed with materials and under circumstances rendering an eductionv pipe necessary. |5|b indicates an excess pressure valve which serves to prevent escape of liquid in the event of breakage or premature opening of the valve assembly.
|52 is any suitable valve housing having a valve |53 therein shown as controlled by theeirf4 terior handle |54. Whereas we illustrate` in llig-A ure 6 a stop cock, it will be understoodv that any..
is screw-threaded as at |60 to receive a valve is locked vvterior of the ilttingvila'nge.` v f vailingly.v shipped inl insulated containers.l
housing |6| having an exteriorly operable valve |62. This valve is also shown as a stop cock but any suitable valve such as a gate valve may be substituted therefor. v
In communication with the passage |59 through the valve housing |6| is any suitable loading and unloadinghose |63 which may extend to a source of liquid or iiuid supply or, when the assembly is being used for unloading, may
lead to any suitable delivery or storage zone.-
The interior of the passage member |51 between the valves |53 and`|62 vis provided with an additional outlet or vent |64 controlled by any sultable valve having for example an external handle |65. It will be understood that the vent |64 is of substantialy smaller cross sectional area than the areas controlled by the valves |53 or |62. It may be employed to vent the interior of the passage member |51 to the atmosphere or otherwise.
Referring to Figure 7, vit will be understood that the nipple |50 when the passage member |51 is removed, may be closed by having the valve |53 turned to the closed position. An additional closure may be employed in the shape of the screwthreaded plug |80 which is received in the threads |55 -of the valve housing flange |55.
'I'hus the form of Figures 6 and 7 differs from the or passage tting associated with the tank, we
wish these terms to be interpreted with sulcient' breadth'to include the formation of'a passage., integral with the tankor integral with the domel i cover or coverplate, it being a matter of. choice as lto whether ornot suchA a tting or its-equivalent be maderemovable or be separately'formed' and thereafter applied permanently tothe tank, -or it' formed as part of thetank, Adome or cover. Y'. .t .Y
scribethe plug or closure as screw-threaded, it
Where inthe speclilcation and claims 'we lde-l lof' will' be understood that we wish such term to be vinterpreted with sufiicient breadth to cover any locking arrangement wherebyV the plug or.. closureA or vunlocked inl response to rotationr f' 1 v FOI x'amplgffit will beiinderstoodthat wherey 1 wey employ vvanky externally .screw-threaded wing l '..f-.fnut in', .connection e rivith aan; iriteriuillyl` f. screwj f' .e threaded -fitting 20, lthe relation of the parts may f be reversed and the wing nutfand the'housing 4 thereof.
may engage the exterior rather thangg'the in It will be realized that whereas in the size, shape, number. and disposition of parts without .departing :from the spirit of our invention. We 1therefore 'wish our description and drawings to bet'akenfas'fin a broad sense illustra# tive or diagrammatic. --rather than aslimiting `us, to our precise 'thomasand operation; of. e.
ounjinveri't'ion" -ar'e as follows:
we'havvpdeA.. scribed and illustrateda practical -r and-.op erative device, nevertheless many changesmayfbe made The prime purpose of` our A.invention is to avoid ftheenormous'losses which take place in the current handling `of volatile liquids such as gasoline, casinghead gasoline and the like, which are pre- In handling highly volatile liquids, it is exceedingly disadvantageous and wasteful to permit such liquids or the gases therein or associated therelid with to exhaust to the atmosphere whether during loading or unloading. Our invention enables an operator to load volatile liquids to a tank and to unload them without at any time permitting the storage or shipping zone to be in direct communication with or to exhaust to the atmosphere. Our invention is applicable not merely to shipping volatile liquids from point to point, but for iixed or buried storage systems from which liquids or gases are thereafter dispensed or used. It may be used in connection with buried butane or propane systems used for house heating, cooking or the like.
A practical advantage of our loading assembly is that it can be applied to and used in connection with existing equipment, such as tank bars, Without any substantial modification of the present structures and without the necessity of applying new and expensive equipment to tanks, tank cars and the like. A further advantage is that our removable valve assembly or assemblies can be kept at loading or unloading points and may be carried to or removed from xed tanks, Whereby a given assembly or group of assemblies may be employed in connection with a large number of different cars, tanks or the like.
We can readily adapt existing cars or tanks to our invention by applying to them the preferably removable and semi-fixed iitting I9, 20 with the closure plug 23 and the outer cover 28. Thus only inexpensive elements are applied to or are moved with or are installed on the tank cars or tanks while the more expensive and delicate valve assemblies such as are shown at A in Figure 1 may be applied to the tank or car at the time of loading or unloading and may be removed when the loading or unloading operation is completed and may be stored and serviced at the loading or unloading point. Thus they are at all times in the hands of competent operators and are not subjected to the hazards of travel or to the abuse which they would receive at the hands of employees who have no direct responsibility for them. It will be clear that a large number of cars can be handled by the employment of a small number of loading or unloading assemblies or units.
In handling volatile liquids and particularly iniiammable liquids, the prevention of any substantial exhaustion to the atmosphere results in an enormous saving of the substances handled. It also greatly increases safety, since it prevents the exhaustion to the atmosphere of the large quantities of inflammable gases which are released in current practice. A further advantage is the great saving in time.
As an example of the problem faced, during the loading and transit of casinghead gasoline, a considerable portion of the gasoline is driven into vapor so that when the tank car arrives at its destination a very substantial pressure has been built up in the tank. Prevailingly in the present practice the closure cap is removed and the gaseous contents under pressure are simply wasted to the atmosphere. This venting has to be permitted since otherwise it would be dangerous for the operator to remove the dome c over 6. Some cars 'are even provided with a safety cover which prevents their removal until this pressure is vented oi. This venting may require several hours, which involves a substantial loss of time. The presence of the vapor in the atmosphere is a hazard since a spark from a passing locomotive may ignite the vapor. As a matter of fact, many lives have been lost from this cause. The wastage of material is great. In hot weather, cases are known Where as much as 3,000 gallons of gasoline have been wasted from a ten thousand gallon load. The wastage is seldom less than 300 gallons per load, even in cold 5 weather. This involves not merely a money loss to the shipper but a waste of a limited natural resource. A
Whereas our invention is particularly applicable to and valuable with the handling of volatile and inflammable liquids, it lends itself to the economical handling of a wide variety of liquids, both Where pressure is present and where pressure is absent. Lubricating oils, for example, may be efficiently handled through our removable valve assembly. A partial list of substances which .can advantageously be handled includes gasoline, propane, butane, crude oil, lubricating oil, alcohols, volatile solvents, acids, malodorants, poison gases, chlorine gas, and liqueed gases in general.
'I'he excess pressure valve lla is useful as preventing undesired escape of the contents of the tank in the event that the valve assembly is broken off or prematurely removed or improperly opened.
1. In a removable valve assembly for a tank or the like having an aperture and a closure therefor, a passage member and means for removably securing the passage member in sealing relation to the aperture of the tank, While such aperture is closed, means supported upon said passage member for non-rotatably engaging the closure cf such aperture for removing it from a 35 position sealing such opening or for fully restoring the closure to said position While said passage member is in place, said means including an actuating part exterior of said passage member, an additional passage member in fluid ow communication with said first-mentioned passage member, a separate closure for said additional passage member independent of said iirst closure, and means for actuating said separate lclosure to move it into and out of closing position.
2. In a -removable valve assembly for a tank or the like having an aperture and a closure therefor, a passage member and means for removably securing the passage member in sealing relation to the aperture of the tank, While such aperture is closed, means supported upon said passage member for non-rotatably engaging the closure of such aperture for removing it from a position sealing such opening or for fully restoring the closure to said position While said passage member is in place, said means including an actuating part exterior of said passage member, an additional passage member in uid iiow communication with said first-mentioned passage member, 00 a separate closure for said additional passage member independent of vsaid rst closure, means for actuating said separate closure to move it into and out of closing position, independent means for venting pressure to the air from the 05 interior of said first mentioned passage member, and means for operating said venting means independently of the closure for the tank and for said additional passage member.
3. In a removable valve assembly for a tank 70 or the like having an aperture and a closure therefor, a passage member and means for removably securing the passage member in sealing relation to the aperture of the tank, While such aperture is closed, means supported upon said passage member for non-rotatably engaging the closure of such aperture for removing it from a position sealing .such opening or for fully restoring the closure to said position while said passage member is in place, said means including an actuating part exterior of said passage member, an additional passage member in fluid flow communication with said first-mentioned passage member, a separate closure for said additional passagemember independent of said first closure, means for actuating said separate closure to move it into and out of closing position, independent means 'for venting pressure to the air from4 the interior of said first mentioned passage member, Asaid venting means including an outlet of substantially reduced cross-section in relation to the crossv sectional area of said additional passage member, and means for operating said venting means vindependently of the closure for the tank and for said additional passage member. l
4.The combination with the filling opening structure of a tank and a closure for such structure provided with a socket, of a removable valve assembly detachably secured to said structure, said assembly comprising a passage member, an operating stem traversing said passage member and having one end projecting therefrom, means secured to said end for moving said stem, means at the other end of said stem removably received in said socket, means detachably locking the second-mentioned means in said socket, and an additional passage member in fluid fiow communication withl said first mentioned passage member, and independent valve means for said additional passage member.
5. The combinationwiththefillingopeningstructure of a tank and a closure for such structure provided With a socket, of a removable valve assembly detachably secured to said structure,said assembly comprising a passage member, an operating stem traversing said passage member and having one end projecting therefrom, means secured to said end for moving said stem, means at the other end of said stem removably received in said socket, means detachably locking the second-mentioned means in said socket, an additional passage member in 4fluid fiow communication with said first mentioned passage member, valve means therefor, and additional means for venting pressure from the interior of said first'mentioned passage member to the open air.
6. In a removable valve assembly for vtanks and the like, a passage fitting on the tank, a closure plug removably screw-threaded in the passage of the fitting, said fitting including an internally threaded portion of greater diameter than saidA plug, a passage member and means for releasably securing it to said last-mentioned threaded portion of the fitting while the plug is in place, an operating element traversing said passage member and having one end projecting therefrom, means secured to said end for moving said element, and means for securing the oppositel end of said element detachably and non-rotatably to the closure plug of said fitting to permit said plug to be removed from a position sealing said fitting or restored to said position. v
7. In a removable valve assembly for tanks and the like, a passage fitting on the tank, a threaded closure plug bodily and removably screw-threaded in the passage ofthe fitting, said fitting including an additional interiorly uscrew-threaded portion of greater diameter than that in whichthe closure plug is screw-threaded, a passage member, and means for rotatably securing it vto said fitting while the plug is in place, an operating element traversing said passage member and having one end projecting therefrom, means secured to said end for moving said element, meansfor securing ed portion of the fitting, and an exteriorlyscrewthreaded nut surrounding said passage member above said shoulder and threadedly engaged with the interiorly screw-threaded portion of the fitting whereby to seal the passageV member to the fitting while the plug is in place.
8. In a removable valve assembly for tanks and 'the like, a removable passage fitting on the tank,
a bodily removable closure plug screw-threaded in the passage of the fitting, a passage member and means for removably securing it to the fitting while the plug is in position within the fitting, the interior diameter of the passage member being greater than the exterior diameter of the plug, 3
an operating element traversing said passage member and having one end projecting therefrom, means secured to said end for moving said element, means'for securing the opposite end of said element detachably and non-rotatably to the closure plug to permit the closure plug to be removed from ajposition sealing said fitting or restored to said position, a lateral passage extending from said first passage member and a valve therefor, a vent member in communication with said passage member, and a valve for controlling said vent member and means for actuating said valve to vent said passage member to the air, irrespective of the position of said plug and of the first-mentioned valve.
9. In a removable valve assembly for tanks and the like, a -removable passage fitting on the tank, a closure plug bodily removable and screw-threadingly mounted inthe passage of the fitting, a passage member and lmeans for removably securing it to the said fitting while the plug is in position within the fitting, an operating element traversing said passage. member and having one end projected therefrom, means secured to said end for moving said element, means for securing the opposite end of said element detachably and non-rotatably in the closure plug of said fitting to permit the closure plug to be removed from a position sealing said fitting or restored to said position, an additional passage member in communication with said first passage member, a valve controlling said second passage member and carried thereby, said first passage member being provided with an additional outlet 'passage of restricted .diameter in communication with the space between said valve and said closure plug, and a valve controlling said last mentioned passage and means for actuating it from the outside to cause venting to the air.
VIRGIL I. HOOPER.
LOUIS G. HOOPER.
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|U.S. Classification||137/321, 251/291, 251/216, 137/588, 285/139.1, 73/298|
|International Classification||F16K1/32, F16K1/48|