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Publication numberUS2187528 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 16, 1940
Filing dateJun 7, 1937
Priority dateJun 7, 1937
Publication numberUS 2187528 A, US 2187528A, US-A-2187528, US2187528 A, US2187528A
InventorsRussell T Wing
Original AssigneeRussell T Wing
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fountain pen
US 2187528 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

R. T. WING FOUNTAIN PEN Jan. 16, 1940.

Original Filed June 7, 19357 IN V EN TOR.

RUSSELL T WI N6 "m 6 mm a "9 A TTORNEYS.

' Fly. 10

58 .J4 1f 1/ J0 6/ 60 6/ Patented Jan. 16, 1940 UNITED STATES FOUNTAIN PEN Russell '1. Wing, Minneapolis, Minn.

Application June 7, 1937, Serial No. 146,846 Renewed May 24, 1939 35 Claims.

This invention relates to new and useful improvements in fountain pens and more particularly to that portion of the pen,-commonly known as the pen section, which comprises the pen point and the ink feeding and regulating mechanism.

An important object of the present invention is to provide a fountain pen having a novel ink feeding and regulating mechanism, which acts as a governor, to maintain a constant and uniform flow of ink to the pen point at all times, when the pen is in use, regardless of the particular posi tion, or the amount of ink in the well, or temperature variations.

A further object is to provide a fountain pen having a novel ink feeding mechanism, which acts as a feed regulator and collector of excess ink which may be expelled from the barrel to the pen section.

A further object is to provide an ink feeding mechanism for fountain pens, which operates substantially by capillary attraction, assisted by gravity, and which is so constructed and designed that leakage of ink from the pen section, or flooding, when the pen is in use, is eliminated, and which also serves to increase the ink capacity of the pen without relatively enlarging the ink storage chamber or well in the pen barrel.

A further object resides in the provision of a suitable enclosing member for the governor and ink feeding mechanism, which prevents evaporation, sedimentary deposits and clogging, and keeps the point area substantially clean and free of ink externally.

Other objects of the invention will appear from the following description and accompanying drawing and will 'be pointed out in the annexed claims.

In the accompanying drawing there has been disclosed a structure designed to carry out the various objects of the invention, but it is to be understood that the invention is not confined to the exact features shown as various changes may be made within the scope of the claims which follow.

In the drawing:

Figure 1 is a plan view showing my novel pen section supported in a conventional fountain pen barrel;

Figure 2 is a plan View of the pen section only, with the pen point removed and the parts partially broken away to more clearly illustrate the construction;

Figure 3 is a longitudinal section on the line 3--3 of Figure 1, showing the arrangement of the governor in the pen section;

Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view on the line 4-4 of Figure 3;

Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view on the line 5-5 of Figure 3;

Figure 6 is. a cross-sectional view on the line 5 6-5 of Figure 3, showing th means for retaining the pen point in position in the pen section;

Figure 7 is a plan view of the pen point removed from the pen section;

Figure 8 is a view showing a pen section designed to receive a conventional pen point;

Figure 9 is a cross-sectional view on the line 9-9 of Figure 8; and

Figure 10 is a cross-sectional view on the line Ill-I0 of Figure 8.

In the selected embodiment of the invention here shown, there is illustrated in Figures 1 and 3, for purposes of disclosure, a portion of a fountain pen barrel, generally indicated by the numeral l, and which may be of conventional design. 20 The barrel I as is customary, is provided with an ink well 21, adapted to be filled with ink by suitable means, not shown in the drawing.

A feature of the present invention resides in the novel construction of the pen section, gener- 25 ally indicated by the letter A, and which comprises a cylindrical portion 2, in which the pen point 3 and the ink feeding and regulating means are supported. The cylindrical portion 2 of the pen section is shown terminating at one end in an enlarged portion H, adapted to be removably received in a bore provided in the adjacent end of the barrel I as best illustrated in Figure 3.

The upper wall of the cylindrical portion 2 of the pen section is transversely slitted, as shown at I in Figures 1 and 2, whereby the tip or forwardly extending portion of the upper wall of the pen section may be depressed to a lower elevation to provide a seat or shelf 1 for receiving the pen point 3, as illustrated in Figure 1. The upper surface of the seat I is depressed below the upper surface of the bottom wall of the cylindrical portion 2 a distance suflicient to provide a gap for receiving the body 5 of the pen point, and also a nib stiffener, generally indicated by the numeral 29. The nib stiffener 29, as best illustrated in Figure 3, is positioned between the upper surface of the body 5 of the pen point and the upper wall of the pen section 2, and is provided at its outer end with a button 28, whereby the stiffener 29 may be conveniently moved lengthwise of the pen section to stiffen the nibs 3 of the pen point.

The inner end of the nib stiffener 29 is provided with a resilient or spring-like portion 30, formed by longitudinally slitting the metal from the inner end of the slide 29, as best illustrated in Figure 2. A detent 3! is formed on the inner end of the yieldable portion 30 adapted to engage notches 32 formed in the upper wall of the cylindrical portion 2 of the pen section, thereby to retain the slide 29 in adjusted position. By supporting the nib stiffener or slide 29, as above described, it may readily be moved from one position to another, as shown in full and dotted lines in Figures 1 and 3, whereby the stiffness or tension in the nibs 3 may be quickly and conveniently varied to suit the likes of each individual. Outward movement of the nib stiffener 29 is limited by a stop 33, provided at the inner end of the stiffener and adapted to engage the inner end of the pen point socket, as indicated at 34 in Figure 2 and full lines in Figure 3.

The pen point 3 is retained in position in the pen section by a small button 9, shown integrally formed in a wall or shelf 6, substantially alined with the depressed portion or shelf I. Thus, the wall portion 5 cooperates with the shelf 1 to provide an elongated seat or shelf for the pen point,

as best illustrated in Figure 2. A suitable aperture 4 is provided in the body of the pen point, as best shown in Figure '7, adapted to receive the button 9, and thereby retain the pen point in position in the pen section. To provide a resilient mounting for the button 9, the wall 6 is longitudinally slitted, as indicated at 9' in Figure 2, whereby the button 9 may readily recede out of the aperture 4, when the pen point is removed from the pen section or inserted therein. An abutment shoulder I8 is provided at the inner end of the wall 6 to limit the inward movement of the pen point 3, as will be readily understood by reference to Figure 3.

Another important feature of the invention resides in the novel means provided within the pen section for controlling and regulating the flow of ink to the pen point. As best illustrated in Figure 3, the means provided for thus controlling and regulating the supply of ink to the pen point comprises what may be termed a governor, generally indicated by the numeral I4. The governor I4 comprises a plurality of spaced disk-like elements or walls I4, arranged within a shell I3, whose upper wall I3 is spaced downwardly from the upper wall of the cylindrical portion 2 and enlarged portion II of the pen stock and cooperates therewith to provide an ink duct 26, leading from the ink well 2! to the pen point. The walls I4 are suitably secured in juxtaposition within the shell I3. The shell I3 is adapted to be fitted into the cylindrical portions 2 and I I of the pen stock body. A suitable plug 20 of ink-resistant material is fitted into the inner end of the shell I3, to seal said end from the ink in the barrel 21.

The disks or wall elements I4 are spaced relatively close together at the inner end of the governor, and are spaced relatively farther apart in a progressive manner, whereby the capillary spaces I9 provided between the walls I4, progressively become wider in a direction towards the pen point, as clearly illustrated in Figure 3. The novel spacing of the walls I4 is important in that it assures a uniform and constant flow of ink' from the barrel 21 to the pen point, when the pen is in use, without danger of flooding. The lower edges of the disk-like walls I4 terminate short of the bottom edges of the side walls of the shell I3, as clearly illustrated in Figures 3 and 5, thereby to provide an air passage I8, which interconnects all of the capillary spaces I9 of the governor I4, and establishes communication between said spaces and a vent opening 24, provided in the inclined wall 2' of the pen section.

The capillary walls I4 of the governor I4 may be formed from a single piece of metal, cut by suitable blanking dies, whereby narrow connections or ties I5 are provided between adjacent disks or walls. The metal is then bent upon itself at each connector I5, in a zig-zag manner, as shown in Figure 2, after which all of the disks are inserted into the shell I3 and suitably secured therein to provide a unitary governor assembly, as clearly illustrated in Figure 3.

As best illustrated in Figure 5, the upper wall I3 of the governor housing is spaced downwardly from the upper wall of the enlarged portion II of the cylindrical casing 2 of the pen section, and is offset at the sides, as shown in Figure 5, whereby longitudinally extending ink channels 23 are provided. Suitable elongated ducts I6 establish communication between the channels 23 and spaces I9 of the governor, whereby ink or air may pass into and out of the spaces I9 through said slits I6, when the pen is in use. 1

As best illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, the top wall I3 of the governor extends forwardly beyond the foremost disk elements I4, and has its opposite edges tapering inwardly to provide a restricted neck or portion I2. It will thus be seen that the shelf portion 6, which constitutes a portion of the seat for supporting the body of the pen point 3, is integrally formed with the top wall I3 of the governor, and is formed by folding a portion of the metal back upon itself, as best illustrated in Figure 3. It is to be understood, however, that if desired, the shelf portion 6 may be independently formed and suitably secured to the forwardly extending portion of the governor without departing from the scope of the invention.

To establish communication between the ink supply duct 26 and the pen point 3, a suitable slit I1 is provided in the bent over portion or neck I2. This slit communicates with a slot 8 in the shelf 1, as best shown in Figure-3. The slot 8 communicates with a slit 36 in the pen point, whereby ink may freely feed from the duct 26 through the slits I1 and 8 to the pen point, when the pen is in use.

To use the novel pen herein disclosed, the ink well 21 is filled in any suitable manner common in structures of this general character. In filling the pen, the capillary spaces I9 between the walls I4 of the governor may be partially or completely filled with ink. When the pen is positioned for 4 writing, the ink feeds slowly downwardly through the duct 26 to the pen point. If any ink has accumulated in the governor capillaries, such ink will pass through vents I6 into duct 26, to be used in writing, before any air can enter said duct or ink be drawn from the well 21. After the governor is emptied, air must be supplied to the well 21 before ink will feed from the well to the pen point. This is accomplished by the provision of the elongated slits or vents I6 provided in the upper wall I3 of the governor, through any one of which small bubbles of air may enter the feed duct 26 from the capillaries or spaces I9 of the governor. The small air bubbles thus entering the ink in the feed duct 26 will rise upwardly into the well 21 and into the natural air chamber disposed above the ink level in the barrel, to compensate for the ink which is withdrawn from the well in writing.

The governor I4, in addition to providing means for holding and regulating a surplus of ink, provides this multiplicity of flow-control air vents 16 for the duct 26, and since only one of these vents will vent air at any one time, a number of them could become clogged and the pen .would still function perfectly, thereby assuring an adequate flow of ink to the pen point, as long as the pen is'in use, and regardless of the level of the ink in the ink well. The multiplicity of vent ducts i6 permits the pen to be quickly filled, whereby the ink feeding means, including the governor, may be flushed each time the pen is filled.

As best illustrated in Figure 3, the feed duct 26 is much larger than the usual feed duct in ordiinary pens and is preferably flared inwardly. This is a very desirable feature in that it causes any air which might enter the duct 26, to rise quickly into the well 21 and thus keep the feed duct 26 filled with ink at all times, when the pen is held in writing position.

The longitudinally extending ducts 23 act primarily to quickly convey the ink from the well 21 to the forward and restricted end of the duct 26, while the air rises rearwardly and out of the large rear opening of the duct 26 into the well. In normal use, the duct 26 is always substantially filled with ink, whereby the vents l6 are covered with ink, and any air entering from the governor capillaries does so in small bubbles through one of the vents [6. The size of the vents I6 being preferably equal to or smaller in cross-section than the smallest governor cavity 16, when the ink is withdrawn at the pen point in writing, the ink film always covering the vent ducts l6, will not break down and allow air to enter the well 21, until substantially all of the ink in the governor has first been drawn therefrom. When the governor is. subsequently emptied, air will enter the main ink duct 26 through the vents l6, and rise as bubbles into the ink well 21, thereby allowing additional ink to feed from the well 21 through the duct 26, to the pen point.

The main feed duct 26, because of its large size,,holds considerable ink when the pen is in use, which produces a more positive feeding action than the smaller feed ducts heretofore used in conventional pens. This greatly assists the feeding and governor action. By inwardly flaring or enlarging the inner end of the feed duct 26, to provide a large receiving opening, and further, by the provision of the longitudinally extending ink channels 23, which assist in quickly conducting the ink to the forward part of the duct 26, air entering the feed duct 26 at any point along its length, will rise quickly into the well 21, in substantially the same manner as though the whole duct were made relatively larger. The tapered shape of the duct 26 is therefore preferred, as it takes up less space at the lower end of the pen section. Either a tapered duct, as above described, or a duct which is relatively larger in size throughout its length, may give substantially the same feed weight of ink, as though the ink well itself were extended down to the lower portion of the duct 26, adjacent to the pen point. Thus, the duct 26, because of its unique shape, and size, greatly reduces capillary pull of ink in feeding from the well.

Thus, with the feed of ink from the well requiring much less capillary pull, the ink being withdrawn at the tip of the point, when writing, can easily overbalance the capillary pull of the governor, thereby to assure proper and desired feed and governor control. In conventional fountain pens, the size of the feed duct is depended upon to regulate the rate of feed of ink to the pen point. In the novel pen, herein disclosed, the rate of feed of the ink from the well 21 to the pen point is not dependent upon the size of the main feed duct 26, but is controlled and regulated by the governor, including the air vents 16, which control and regulate the entry of air into the feed duct in accordance with the amount of ink being withdrawn from the pen point in writing. Thus, the governor controls and regulates the supply of ink to the pen point in such a manner that a constant and uniform supply is assured at all times, so long as there is any ink in the duct 26.

In normal use, the capillaries or spaces 19 of the governor are usually empty, whereby they are always ready to take up any overflow of expelled ink from the well, should any air which might be in the well, when the latter is only partially filled, expand from the heat of the hand, or lowered external air pressure as is experienced in air travel, when the pen is in use, and thus cause a slight pressure on the ink, which might momentarily force an excessive supply of ink into the duct 26. Should the air in the well 21 expand and cause an excessive flow of ink from the barrel into the duct 26, such excessive ink, instead of flowing directly to the pen point, as in ordinary pens, will thus be attracted into the capillaries of the governor. Variations in atmospheric pres sure, as experienced in air travel, may also at times, cause an excessive amount of ink to be forced into the feed duct 26 from the well 21. Such excessive ink is immediately absorbed by the governor H, as above stated, whereby it will be seen that variations in altitude will not affect the operation of my pen.

The governor acts, in effect, as a sponge and absorbs all such excessive ink, but with the difference that any subsequent contraction of the air in the well, will withdraw the ink from the capillaries of the governor before any air can be drawn into the well of the reservoir through the ducts I6 and thence, duct 26. Two conditions assure this operation: (1) the governor must be empty before air can reach the venting ducts l6; and (2) the ducts iii are of such small size as to hold a film of ink until all governor capillaries are drawn empty. The capillaries or spaces l9 between the walls H of the governor, preferably vary in size progressively from the inner end of the governor in a direction towards the pen point,

whereby the capillaries at the inner end are con siderably smaller in size than the spaces or capillaries ii! at the opposite or outer end thereof. The capillaries H are so spaced that those at the inner end of the governor have a stronger attraction for ink, whereby ink is sustained at a higher level at the inner end of the governor. The forward end of the governor has its capillaries more widely spaced so as to balance against the lesser gravity at this level, and whereby said lower and wider spaced capillaries will give u their ink at about the same time the upper and smaller capillaries do. If the lower capillaries were not wider or larger than the upper capillaries, they might not empty before air vented into the well through an upper duct l6, because of having less gravity pull.

In conventional fountain pens, the comb or gills formed on the sides of the feed bar or other ink collecting devices, are equally spaced apart and are necessarily of undersized capacity, and

function substantially as gravity collectors of ink, rather than capillary absorbers of surplus ink. Such conventional ink collecting devices serve the purpose intended only to a very limited degree, and have ink collector pockets, of necessity of such equality and larger size and of open or exposed construction, as to allow the ink to drain back into the well from their collector spaces when the pen is capped and placed in an upright position.

The novel governor I4 disclosed in the present application is not intended to be drained by gravity when the pen is in an upright position. Since it is entirely enclosed, any of its ink is thus prevented from leaking into the cap when the pen is in an upright position, as when placed in a pocket. In normal writing position, my novel governor absorbs and holds ink at a location considerably above the usual height and is entirely enclosed, except for the small breather hole 24, whereby evaporation of the ink is practically eliminated. Since the governor is not intended to be drained by gravity, the pen is especially valuable for use in desk pen sets, where the pen is always supported in substantially a writing position.

When surplus ink is either drawn or forced into the governor capillaries, air must be expelled from these capillaries to allow the inflow of ink. This air is expelled through channel I8 and thence to the atmosphere through the vent opening 24. The channel I8-is outwardly flared in a direction towards the pen point, and terminaates in an enlarged cavity or chamber 25. The shape of the channel I8 and pocket are of, such that, as the ink fills the governor capillaries, regardless of the position of the pen, all the governor capillaries will be completely filled with ink before any ink fiows into the channel I8. This result will obtain since the smallest end of the channel I8 is larger than the adjacent governor capillary, and any point in the channel I8 is larger at that point than the corresponding capillaries in that particular location. Thus, not until after all of the capillaries of the governor are full, will the channel I8 start to fill.

After the capillaries of the governor have become filled, the channel III will commence to fill. The channel I6 will start to fill at its rear or narrow end adjacent to the plug 2|]. Because of the channel I8 being narrower, or smaller in cross-section at its upper end, this end will have a relatively stronger capillary attraction, whereby the channel I8 will gradually fill towards thepen point. The air in said channel will be gradually expelled through the breather hole 24, as the channel .fills, until the governor chamber is completely filled with ink. If the channel I8 were not shaped as illustrated in Figure 3, it would start to fill from the opposite end, thus closing the hole 24 and preventing further action or usefulness of the governor. The governor capillaries I9 and channel I8 permit much greater expansion of the air which rests in a partly filled well, by furnishing a greater ink collection capacity than previously provided in fountain pens. The novel governor herein disclosed thus permits the safe use of a much larger well or reservoir in the pen barrel, whereby the ink capacity of the fountain pen is increased.

The novel construction of the governor also eliminates all danger of the pen flooding or leaking in the cap, regardless of the position in which the pen may be supported. Since the governor is The lower and outer end of the governor chamber is connected to duct 26 through slit H, which permits the ink in pocket 25, below the governor action, to drain back into the reservoir 21 through the channel 26, without traveling through the governor capillaries.

In filling the pen, the ink is drawn in through the breather hole 24 and thence, through the governor capillaries with a flushing action, which prevents the accumulation of foreign matter in the capillaries of the governor. If the governor capillaries are partially or wholly filled with ink, said ink is returned to the well 21 by contractionof the air in said well before any of the vent openings I6 permit air to enter the well. The size of the vent openings I6 is preferably equal to or smaller than the smallest governor capillary I9, whereby the capillary tendency to keep these vents closed to air, is greater than the capillary pull of the governor capillaries. This assures that all of the governor capillaries will be emptied before air will be vented through any of the vent openings I6 into the chamber 26, and thence to the well 21.

When using the pen in writing, the tip of the pen point being lower than the governor, and the duct 26 always being gravity-filled with ink, the capillary pull on the ink through the slitted nibs of the pen point and the slots 8 and I1, thereby causing substantially all of the ink in the governor to be drawn through the vent openings I6 ducted to the pen point, before air can enter the "well, and allow the ink to start to feed from the well 21. Continued writing will cause a light vacuum to form in the well 21, which will draw air into the feed duct 26 at some point along its length through one of the vent openings I6. This air will rise in the form of small bubbles through the feed duct 26 and into the well or reservoir 21. Because the duct 26 is large and inwardly flaring, the air entering it through the vents I6, will'remain in the form of small separate bubbles, instead of said bubbles combining into one relatively larger bubble or air pocket in duct 26, which might break the ink film over vent openings I6, and thus spoil their action. Any excessive flow of ink from the well into the channel 26 will immediately be absorbed by the capillaries I9 of the governor, independent of the writing needs of the point. Because the ink supply or ink pressure at the tip is maintained more uniformly than heretofore, more uniform writing may be accomplished with less ink fed to the paper, which results in quicker drying and economy in the use of ink.

Because of the relatively large number of vents I6, the pen may be quickly filled, whereby a better flushing of the parts of the pen section is obtained, which prevents the accumulation of foreign matter thereon, and practically eliminates the tendency of the pen to become clogged. This results for the reason that as long as one or more of the vents I6 remainsopen, the pen will operate in a normal manner.

- It is to be noted, by reference to Figure '7, that the slit 36 in the pen point does not terminate in an enlarged opening or vent hole, as is common in most pen points. Thus, there is little danger into the feed duct 26, through which it is conaromas ofink leakage at this point, in the event that the pen is shaken or dropped, either when writing or when capped. If the pen is dropped or disturbed, any ink shaken down within the pen section adjacent the pen point is quickly drawn back into the governor capillaries by capillary attraction, as hereinbefore stated.

The disc-like wall elements I4 are preferably disposed transversely to the axis of the pen, as shown in the drawing, so as to more readily support the ink therein and prevent it from discharging through the hole 24, in the event the pen is shaken or dropped, but it is to be understood that, if desired, these wall elements may be disposed lengthwise of the governor without departing from the scope of the invention.

Figures 8, 9, and 10 illustrate a pen of slightly different construction adapted to receive a conventional pen point. As shown in Figure 8, the pen section comprises a cylindrical shell 42 adapted to be fitted into a bore in the barrel ll against a shoulder 51. The bore in which the shell 42 is received, is provided with a recessed portion, as shown in Figure 9, adapted to receive a conventional pen point 4i, as clearly illustrated in Figure 8. The recess provided in the boreof the barrel cooperates with a portion of the wall of the shell 42 to provide a socket for receiving the upper portion of the body of the pen point, as shown in Figures 8 and 9.

A suitable governor, generally indicated by the numeral 44, is mounted within the shell 42 and comprises a plurality of spaced disks or wall elements 44' formed in a manner similar to the corresponding plates ll of the governor l4. The capillary walls 44 are tied together at their opposite edges by suitable ties or connections 45, and are progressively spaced wider apart in a direction from the inner end of the governor towards the pen point. By so spacing the elements 44', the capillaries or spaces 59 of the governor are relatively smaller at the inner end of the governor than they are at the outer end thereof, as shown and described with reference to Figure 3. A suitable plug 5| provides a closure for the rear end of the shell 42 to seal the adjacent end of the governor from the reservoir or well 52 provided in the barrel 40.

The upper wall 60 of the governor is spaced downwardly from the upper wall of the shell 42, when viewed as shown in Figure 8, to provide a main ink channel 56, which establishes communication between the well 52 and a slot 54 provided in the forward end of the shell 42 and the slit 58 provided between the nibs of the pen point. The wall 60 is preferably disposed at an incline to the axis of the pen barrel, whereby the channel 56 is relatively larger at its receiving end than it is adjacent to the pen point, as clearly illustrated in Figure 10.

The lower edges of the capillary wall elements 44' are spaced upwardly from the lower'wall of the govemor to provide a channel 48 extending from the inner end of the governor and terminating in an enlarged chamber 41 adjacent to the pen point. The chamber 41 communicates with a breather opening 46 provided in the front inclined wall of the shell 42, as best shown in Figure 8. The lower edges of the capillary wall elements 44' are so arranged with respect to the bottom wall of the governor that the channel 48 is flared, or in other words, enlarges in size from the inner end of the gov ernor in a direction towards the chamber 41.

The upper wall 60 of the governor is recessed at opposite sides, as best illustrated in Figures 9 and 10, thereby to provide longitudinally extending grooves or ink channels 49 leading from the reservoir 52 to the forward end of the governor, whereby they communicate with the slot 54 in the upper wall of the shell 42. A plurality of elongated vent openings 50 are provided in the inner walls of the grooves 49, as best illustrated in Figure 9, and establish communication between the capillaries 59 of the governor and the ink channel 56. The elongated vent open ings 50 are spaced apart lengthwise of the governor, as shown at 6| in Figure 8.

The structure illustrated in Figures 8, 9, and 10 operates in substantially the same manner as the structure disclosed in the previous figures. However, it is so constructed that a conventional type pen point may be used, and no nib-stiffener is employed.

I claim as my invention:

1. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, a pen section comprising a hollow member, a feed duct connecting the reservoir with the pen point, and means within said member forcontrolling the flow ofink from the reservoir to the pen point by capillary attraction, said means comprising a plurality of closely spaced cells communicating with the feed duct and with the atmosphere through a small breather opening.

2. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, a feed duct connecting the reservoir'with the pen point, and means for controlling the flow of ink through the feed duct, comprising a plurality of closely spaced cells progressively increasing in size from the inner end of the control means in a forward direction towards the pen point, said cells being adapted to absorb or collect, by capillary 31751230131011, excess ink delivered into the feed 3. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, a pen section comprising a, hollow member, a feed duct connecting the reservoir with the pen point, a plurality of closely spaced wall elements within said member forming a cellular structure, and means establishing communication between the feed duct and said cellular structure, whereby excess ink is collected in said structure by capillary attraction to prevent flooding of the pen.

4. In a fountain pen, a reservoir, a pen section comprising a hollow member having a feed duct therein for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, means for controlling the flow of ink to the pen point comprising a plurality of closely spaced transverse wall elements disposed within said member, means establishing communication between the feed duct and the cells or capillaries provided between said elements, and a breather opening in a wall of said member, whereby surplus ink in the feed duct may readily enter said capillaries, thereby to prevent flooding of the pen.

5. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, a pen section comprising a hollow member having a feed duct therein for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor for controlling the fiow of ink through said duct, said governor being disposed within said hollow member and comprising a plurality of capillaries, and a breather channel common to all of said capillaries and communicating with the atmosphere at one end.

6. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, a pen section comprising a hollow member having a through a vent hole in a wall of the hollow member, said channel gradually enlarging in a direction towards said vent hole.

7. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, a pen section having a feed duct therein for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor for controlling the flow of ink through said duct, said governor extending substantially the length of the pen section and comprising a plurality of closely spaced capillaries gradually increasing in size in the direction of the pen point, a breather channel common to all of said capillaries and communicating with'the atmosphere, and a plurality of vents connecting the capillaries with the feed duct.

8. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, a pen section having a feed duct therein for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a

governor for controlling the flow of ink through said duct, said governor comprising a plurality of capillaries gradually decreasing in capillarity from the inner end of the pen section in a direction towards the pen point, a breather channel spaced from the feed duct and common to all of said capillaries, said breather channel communicating at one end with the atmosphere, and a plurality of vents connecting the capillaries with the feed duct and through which air may enter the feed duct at any point along the governor, said vents also permitting excess ink in the feed duct to be absorbed by said capillaries, thereby to prevent flooding of the pen.

9. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, means for supporting a pen point, a duct for feeding ink from the reservoir to the pen point, and means for controlling and regulating the flow of ink through the feed duct to the pen point, said means comprising a cellular structure disposed adjacent to the feed duct and extending the major portion of the length thereof, said cellular structure having a longitudinally extending breather channel open to the atmosphere at one end, and communicating with the feed duct through the capillaries of the cellular structure, whereby air may enter the feed duct at various points along its length, when the pen is in use.

10. In a fountain pen, an ink reservoir, a feed duct connecting the reservoir with the pen point, and having its inner end adjacent the reservoir relatively larger in cross sectional area than its outer end, a governor disposed adjacent to the feed duct and communicating therewith, said governor comprising a cellular structure adapted to absorb excess ink from the reservoir and temporarily store it therein to prevent flooding of the pen, the capacity of said governor being relatively greater than the capacity of the feed duct, and means whereby the ink absorbed by the governor may subsequently be returned to the feed duct.

11. In a fountain pen, a reservoir, a pen section having a feed duct therein for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor for controlling the flow of ink from the reservoir through said duct to the pen point, said governor extending lengthwiseof the feed duct and comprising a plurality of relatively deep capillaries communicating with the feed duct through relatively small vent openings, and operable by capillary attraction, to control feeding of the ink through the feed duct to the pen point, whereby a constant, uniform flow of ink is delivered to the pen point, without danger of flood ing, regardless of variations in the normal volume of the ink in the reservoir, caused by expansion or contraction, as a result of extreme variations in temperature. or atmospheric pressure.

12. In a fountain pen, a reservoir, a pen section having an elongated feed duct therein for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a wall of the feed duct having amultiplicity of vents of substantially uniform width and means connecting said vents with the atmosphere, said vents being disposed along the length of the feed duct and controlling the supply of air to the reservoir in a manner to regulate the rate of feed of the ink to the pen point, when writing.

13. In a fountain pen, a reservoir, a pen section having a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, the forward portion of said feed duct being substantially narrower than its rear portion, and a cellular structure in direct communication with said feed duct and the atmosphere acting as a governor to control the supply of air to the reservoir in controlled amounts, and also to absorb excess ink in the feed duct to prevent flooding of the pen.

14. In a fountain pen, a reservoir, a pen section having a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor located adjacent to and in communication with the feed duct, and adapted to positively prevent leakage of ink from the pen, caused by internal pressure, said governor comprising a plurality of relatively thin wall elements arranged in closely spaced relation to provide a plurality of capillary cells communicating with the feed duct, and a breather throat common to all of said cells and gradually enlarging in size from the inner to the outer end of the governor.

15. In a fountain pen, a reservoir, a pen section having a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor providing a cellular overflow and ink collecting chamber located adjacent to and in communication with the feed duct, said governor comprising a plurality of closely spaced metallic walls, disposed transversely to the axis of the pen.

16. In a fountain pen, a reservoir, a pen section having a feed duct therein for conducting ink from the'reservoir to the pen point, a governor comprising a. plurality of closely spaced capillary cells, and a plurality of vents connecting said capillary cells with the feed duct, said vents being so proportioned with respect to said cells as to form a film of ink over said vents which will cause the drainage of all of said cells before air can enter the feed duct through said vents, as a result of suction created in the feed ,duct by ink being withdrawn from the pen,

with a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor in the pen section comprising a plurality of capillary cells formed by folding or plaiting a strip of sheet material to form a plurality of closely spaced parallel wall elements, and means for supporting said wall elements in fixed relation.

19. A fountain pen comprising a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, a pen section provided with a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor in the pen section comprising a plurality of capillary cells communicating with the feed duct, and a breather throat or channel common to all of said cells, and communicating with the atmosphere-at one end.

20. A fountain pen comprising a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, a pen section provided with a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor for controlling the flow of ink through the feed duct, said governor comprising a plurality of closely spaced capillary cells communicating with the feed duct, and a breather throat or channel common to all' of said cells and gradually enlarging in size from its inner to its outer end and communicating with the atmosphere at its larger end.

21. A fountain pen comprising a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, a pen section provided with a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, a governor for controlling the iiow of ink through the feed duct, said governor comprising a plurality of closely spaced capillary cells communicating with the feed duct, and a breather throat or channel common to all of said cells and gradually enlarging in size from its inner to its outer end and communicating with the atmosphere at its larger end through a small breather opening.

22. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from the reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel and communicating with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of the member, means providing an ink duct in and extending substantially throughout the length of the projecting part of said member and through which ink from said reservoir is delivered to the pen point, and chamber means associated with said member and connected to said duct substantially throughout the length of the projecting part of said member for receiving and storing ink, when the amount of ink flowing through said duct is in excess of that required for writing purposes.

23. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from said reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel in communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by the other end of said member, means providing an ink duct in said member and through which ink from said reservoir is delivered to the pen point, and means associated with said member and connected to said duct substantially throughout the length thereof for receiving and storing ink, when the amount of ink flowing through said duct is in excess of that required for writing purposes.

24. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from said reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel in communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of'the member, means providing an ink duct in said member and through which ink from the reservoir is delivered to the pen point, chamber means associated with said member and connected to said duct throughout the major portion of its length for receiving and storing ink, when the amount of ink flowing through said duct is in excess of that required for writing purposes, and said member having a breather opening through which the chamber means is connected to the atmosphere.

25. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from the reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel in communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of said member, means providing an ink duct in the member and through which ink from the reservoir is delivered to the pen point, chamber means associated with said mem ber and connected to said duct throughout the major portion of its length for receiving and storing ink, when the amount of ink flowing through said duct is in excess of that required for writing purposes, and said member having a breather opening communicating with said chamber means substantially throughout the length thereof.

26. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from the reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel in. communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of said member, means extending lengthwise through said member and dividing it into an ink duct and an ink storage chamber, said dividing means having a plurality of restricted apertures therein connecting the.

feed duct to the storage chamber throughout the major portion of its length, and whereby surplus ink in the feed duct is absorbed by the storage chamber, said apertures also being adapted to admit air into the reservoir, when the storage chamber is substantially emptied of ink.

27. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from the reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel in communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of said .member, means extending lengthwise through said member and dividing it into an ink duct and an ink storage chamber, said dividing means having a plurality of restricted apertures therein connecting the feed duct to the storage chamber throughout the major portion of its length, and whereby surplus ink in the feed duct is absorbed by the storage chamber, and means establishing communication between the atmosphere and the feed duct, through one or more of said apertures, when the storage chamber or any portion thereof is substantially emptied of ink, whereby air may enter the reservoir and prevent the formation of a partial vacuum therein, and thereby insure free feeding of the ink to the pen point, in the correct amount required for writing purposes.

28. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from the reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel in communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of said member, a partition extending lengthwise through said member and cooperating with the walls thereof to define an ink duct and a relatively larger ink storage chamber, said wall having a plurality of restricted apertures therein connecting the feed duct to the storage chamber throughout the major portion of its length, and whereby surplus ink in the feed duct may pass into the storage chamber, means establishing communication between the atmosphere and the feed duct, through one or more of said apertures, when the storage chamber or any portion thereof is substantially emptied of ink, whereby air may enter the reservoir and prevent the formation of a vacuum therein, and thereby insure free feeding of the ink to the pen point,

in the correct amount required for writing purposes, said apertures being of such size that the surface tension of the film of ink closing said apertures, when there is excess ink in the ink storage chamber, will remain intact and prevent the passage of air through said apertures and into the feed duct and reservoir, until substantially all of the ink has been fed from the ink storage chamber.

29. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from the reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel in communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of said member, a, partition ex tending lengthwise through said member and cooperating with the walls thereof to define an ink duct and an ink storage chamber, said partition having a plurality of narrow elongated apertures therein disposed lengthwise of the member and connecting the feed duct to the ink storage chamber throughout the major portion of its length and whereby surplus ink in the feed duct may be absorbed by the storage chamber at any point along its length, and said apertures permitting the passage of air from the ink storage chamber to the reservoir, only when the storage chamber is substantially emptied of ink.

30. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein, means for controlling the flow of ink from the reservoir including a hollow member having one end mounted in said barrel in communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of said member, a partition extending lengthwise through said member and cooperating with the walls thereof to provide an ink duct and an ink storage chamber, means in 'said chamber providing a plurality of relatively small capillary cells disposed transversely of said member and gradually increasing in size from the inner end of the storage chamber to the opposite end thereof, said partition having a plurality of narrow elongated apertures therein disposed lengthwise of the member and connecting the feed duct with the capillary cells of the storage chamber throughout the major portion of its length and whereby surplus ink in the feed duct may be absorbed by the capillary cells of the storage chamber atanypoint along the length of said chamber, said elongated apertures being of such size and so related to'the capillary cells of the storage chamber that substantially all of the excess ink in the storage chamber will be drawn therefrom to the pen point of capillary attraction,

when writing, before additional ink is delivered to the feed duct from the reservoir.

31. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein and provided atone end with a pen point, means forming an ink storage chamber having a vent for supplying airthereto and a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, said means including a plurality of restricted passages connecting the feed duct to the storage chamber throughout the major portion of the length of the feed duct, and whereby surplus ink in the feed duct is absorbed by the storage chamber, said restricted passages also being adapted to admit air into the reservoir from the storage chamber, when the storage chamber is substantially emptied of ink.

32. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein and provided at one end with a pen point, means forming an ink storage chamber having a vent for supplying air thereto and a feed duct for conducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, said means including a plurality of restricted passages connecting the feed duct to the storage chamber throughout the major portion of the length of the feed duct, and whereby surplus ink in the feed duct is absorbed by the storage chamber, said restricted passages also admitting air into the reservoir from the storage chamber, when the storage chamber is substantially emptied of ink, and said restricted passages being so arranged that any surplus ink in the storage chamber is withdrawn therefrom into the feed duct by capillary attraction, to supply the pen point, before additional ink can flow from the reservoir to the pen point.

33. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein and provided at one end with a pen point, means forming an ink storage chamber and a feed duct, which duct establishes communication between the pen point and the reservoir, said means including a plurality of restricted passages connecting the feed duct to the storage chamber throughout the major portion of the length of the feed duct, said passages being of such size that when the flow of ink through the feed duct-to the pen point is normal, the ink will not enter the storage chamber through said passages, but upon excessive flow of ink in the feed duct, a portion of the ink will be absorbed by the storage chamber through said passages, and means whereby air supplied to the reservoir, as a result of ink being withdrawn therefrom to supply the pen point, must enter the feed duct from the storage chamber, through one or more of said restricted passages, thereby causing substantially all of the surplus ink received in the storage chamber to be returned to the feed duct, before air can enter the reservoir to permit additional ink to flow therefrom.

34. In a fountain pen, a barrel having an ink reservoir therein and provided at one end with a pen point, means forming an ink storage chamber and a feed duct, which duct establishes communication between the pen point and the reservoir, said storage chamber comprising a plurality of capillary cells extending along the major portion of the length of the feed duct and communicating therewith through a plurality of restricted passages, the size of said restricted passages being such that upon normal flow of ink through the feed duct, said restricted passages of ink from the reservoir including a hollow memher having one end supported in said barrel in communication with the reservoir and its other end projecting therefrom, a pen point carried by said other end of said member, and means forming in said member a feed duct forconducting ink from the reservoir to the pen point, and a governor for regulating the flow of ink through the feed duct, said governor having a vent opening which is independent of the feed duct, and also having a plurality of restricted passages connecting it to the feed duct along the major portion of the length of the feed duct, and said feed duct being so constructed that all air supplied to the reservoir, as the ink flows therefrom to the pen point. must be received from the governor through said restricted passages, and whereby if the governor has absorbed any surplus ink from the feed duct, as a result of excessive flow therethrough, said surplus ink is drawn back into the feed duct to supply the pen point, before normal flow of ink from the reservoir can be resumed through the feed duct.

RUSSELL T. WING.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification401/227, 401/250, 401/231, 401/242
International ClassificationB43K5/00, B43K5/18
Cooperative ClassificationB43K5/18
European ClassificationB43K5/18