US 2187592 A
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Jan. 16, 1940. F PAUL 2,187,592
KEYBOARD Filed May 4, 1938 Patented Jan. 16, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFiCE KEYBOARD Frank L. Paul, New York, N. Y.
Application May 4, 1938, Serial No. 205,902
This invention relates to improvements in keyboards for writing and printing machines, particularly typewriting and typesetting machines.
It is an object of the invention to provide an improved keyboard in which the keys are arranged in an efficient manner so as to simplify the operation thereof, and in which letters and symbols are arranged on the keys in such a manner as to facilitate memorization of the arrangement.
A further object is the provision of. an improved keyboard in which the keys are concentrated and arranged in clusters so as to provide for economy of space and for increased efiiciency.
Among other objects is the provision of an improved keyboard for typewriting or typesetting machines, in which the letters are arranged on the keys in a predetermined sequence which not only facilitates memorization of the arrangement of the keyboard but also provides for increased speed in operation.
For a fuller understanding of the invention reference should be had to the accompanying drawing, in which i Figure 1 shows a plan view of one form of keyboard embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is an end view showing one manner in which the keys may be mounted so as to cause the operation of their respective levers, and
Fig. 3 is a plan view of a modified type of keyboard embodying my invention, showing a preferred arrangement of the letters and symbols and also showing the keyboard divided into two sections, one section to be operated by the left hand and the other section by the right hand.
In carrying out my invention I preferably provide a series of guide or rest keys upon which the fingers of the operator may normally rest when using the so-called touch system of operation, and which serve as guides in the operation of the machine. Disposed adjacent the guide keys are a plurality of other keys preferably smaller, and preferably arranged in clusters around each of the guide keys. The guide keys 5 have a series of letters arranged thereon in a sequence that can be readily memorized, and the remaining letters of the alphabet are arranged on the smaller or cluster keys, preferably in a predetermined alphabetical sequence with 50 respect to the letters on the guide keys, so as to facilitate memorization of the sequence and so as to simplify operation of the keyboard.
In the accompanying drawing the guide keys are indicated by the numeral 5, and I have found II that satisfactory results are obtained by providing ten guide keys, preferably in a horizontal row, five to be operated by one hand and live by the other hand. The guide keys 5 may be mounted directly upon the levers E which may r be similar to the levers employed in typewriting and typesetting machines, and the levers are connected in the machine to the usual type of mechanism.
When my improved keyboard is used in a type writing machine the depression of the guide keys 5 and of the levers 6 results in the operation of the type bars, while when my keyboard is used in connection with a typesetting machine such as a Linotype or a Monotype, depression of the keys and levers causes the extraction of a matrix or the perforation of a paper in the usual manner, for the purpose of forming type faces.
In addition to the guide keys, as stated above I also provide cluster keys as indicated at I, there preferably being four cluster keys disposed 20 around each of the guide keys 5. A convenient arrangement of the cluster keys is shown in the accompanying drawing, in which two cluster keys are disposed in front of, and two cluster keys are disposed in the rear of each of the guide keys. 25 All of my keys may be disposed in substantially the same horizontal plane, or, as shown, the guide keys 5 may be disposed slightly above the cluster keys l. If preferred, the keys may be arranged in stepped relationship as in the standard typewriter keyboard. Thus, the rear cluster keys will be in the highest plane, the guide keys in an intermediate plane, and the forward cluster keys in the lowest plane.
So as to provide a continuous upper surface 35 to the keyboard and also so as to provide for a wiping operation of the cluster keys, the cluster keys may be provided with forwardly extending arms 8 as shown, which extend around the sides of the guide keys 5 and are provided with cranks 40 9 at their ends, having pivotal connection with a shaft l0 which may be supported on the frame of the typewriter or typesetting machine in any desired manner. Levers H similar to the levers 6 engage the under surface of the cluster keys 1 so that when the cluster keys "1 are pivoted downwardly the levers H are depressed, causing the operation of the type bars in the case of a typewriting machine or the extraction of a ma-- trix or the perforation of a paper in a typesetting machine. The manner in which the levers & and H are connected to the operating mechanism of the typesetting or typewriting machine forms no part of this invention and any of the conventional types of connections may be employed. In addition to the guide and cluster keys a spacer key as indicated at I2 and also shift keys or the like may be employed.
In using my improved keyboard the five guide keys on the left and their associated cluster keys are preferably operated by the left hand and the five guide keys on the right and their associated cluster keys are preferably operated by the right hand. The keyboard may be arranged as a single uniform unit as shown in Figure 1, or, if desired, the left hand set of keys may be provided with some means for readily distinguishing them from the right hand set, such as coloring the right hand keys differently from the left hand keys, or preferably, as shown in Fig. 3, by providing a space or gap between the right and left hand sets of keys. In this way the fingers of the respective hands can readily be placed upon the proper keys with very little danger of confusion.
To facilitate memorization and operation of the keyboard I arrange letters of the alphabet on the guide keys in a sequence that can readily be memorized. Thus the nine letters forming the words print face are disposed on the first nine guide keys and a symbol such as a period may be placed upon the last one. In operating the keyboard in accordance with the touch system the small finger of the left hand is placed upon the key bearing the letter p of print, and the first or index finger is placed upon the letter 11. The small finger of the right hand is placed upon the key bearing the period and the first or index finger is placed upon the key bearing the letter a. The words print face will be immediately retained in the memory of the operator and accordingly the arrangement of the letters on the guide keys will constantly be present in the operators mind. The remaining letters of the alphabet are arranged in a readily memorized manner on the cluster keys. Thus the letters following each of the letters in the words print face are placed on a cluster key disposed adjacent the guide key bearing the preceding letter. Thus, q is placed on a cluster key adiacent the letter p, s is placed upon a cluster key adjacent the letter r, etc.
To facilitate the operation and so as to take advantage of the natural movements of the hand, the letters q, s, j, o and u, which follow the letters p-r-i-n-t on the left hand side of the keyboard are disposed above and to the left of their respective guide keys as viewed in Fig. 3, so that in moving from the guide keys to the next consecutive letter the left hand of the operator moves in a direction towards the left. The letters g, b, and d which follow the letters f-a-c are arranged above and to the right of the respective guide keys on the right hand section of the keyboard as shown. In this way the right hand of the operator makes a natural movement towards the right when moving from the guide keys to the respective consecutive letters. The
remaining letters of the alphabet, h, "k, 1",
Um): 4V7, EIWS7 41X)! CyQ) (Z) arranged upon alternate cluster keys below the guide keys as viewed in Fig. 3. The arrangement of these remaining letters is from left to right on the right hand side of the keyboard, and from right to left on the left hand side of the keyboard as shown. The intermediate cluster keys both above and below the guide keys as viewed in the drawing, may be provided with numerals, fractions, punctuation marks and symbols as shown, preferably arranged in the indicated sequence so as to further facilitate operation and memorization.
It is to be understood that the letter, numeral, or symbol appearing on each of the keyboards represents the type bar or matrix which will be brought into operation upon the depression of the key. It should also be understood that the arrangement of letters, numerals, symbols and the like just described as indicated in Fig. 3 is also preferably employed when the keyboard is made in a single unit of the type shown in Figure 1.
Due to the close proximity of clustered keys necessitated by my layout, they are preferably tapered or graduated towards the striking faces. This results in clearance between the striking faces and in this Way when the finger of the operator strikes one key it will not interfere with the adjacent keys.
The arrangement of the present keyboard is highly efiicient and it is easy and simple to operate. In operation, the fingers of the respective hands are preferably placed upon. the guide keys in the manner heretofore described. Because of the logical arrangement of the letters the operator will have little difficulty in memorizing the keyboard. The guide keysare operated by direct impact or pressure and the cluster keys may be operated either by direct impact or pressure or by a wiping action due to the fact that they are pivoted from the shaft ill. t should be understood that modifications may be made in the illustrated and described embodiment of my invention without departing from the invention as set forth in the accompanying claim.
A keyboard for a typewriter or typesetting machine comprising a plurality of guide keys arranged in a row and having the letters P H ll NT F AC E arranged thereon, and a plurality of secondary letter keys arranged in row adjacent and in staggered relation. to the guide keys, the secondary letter keys disposed to the left of guide key "1" on the left side of keyboard and the secondary letter keys disposed to the right of the guide key F on the right side of the keyboard being provided with letters which in alphabetical sequence follow the letters on their respective guide keys.
FRANK L. PAUL.