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Publication numberUS2187646 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 16, 1940
Filing dateAug 4, 1936
Priority dateAug 16, 1935
Publication numberUS 2187646 A, US 2187646A, US-A-2187646, US2187646 A, US2187646A
InventorsGeorges Darrieus
Original AssigneeBbc Brown Boveri & Cie
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Separator
US 2187646 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

G, DARRIEUS Jan. 16

SEIARATOR Filed Aug- 4 1936 Patented Jan. 16, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Aktiengesellschaft Brown,

Baden, Switzerland Boveri & Cie.,

Application August 4, 1936, Serial No. 94,185 In Germany August 16, 1935 12 claims. (ci. 12e-43s) 'I'he present invention relates to a method and means for separating gaseous matters from liquids, more particularly to methods and means making use of centrifugal forces and in which 5 the energy needed for setting up said centrifugal forces in the liquid and gas mixture is recovered.

It is well known to separate liquids and gases or vapors by conducting the mixture tangentially into a hollow, rotund body in which separation l is eiected by the diierence of the centrifugal force set up in the heavier liquid and in the lighter gas. In order to increase the separating effect, the mixture must be introduced into the hollow body at high velocity. The energy needed 15 for doing this was, up to the present, considered to be lost.

The present invention is based on the perception that theoretically the pressure obtained when retarding the liquid after it has released 20 the gas originally contained therein is greater than the pressure required for accelerating the liquid. 'I'his is due to the smaller specic volume of the liquid as compared with that of the mixture, no matter whether there was a mixture of 25 gas and liquid before the entrance of the accelerating nozzle or whether the mixture originated by vaporizatlon caused by the expansion in the nozzle. It is therefore possible to raise the pressure of the liquid higher than was the 30 pressure of the mixture before entering the accelerating nozzle or nozzles.

An object of the present invention resides in the provision of a separator for separating by centrifugal force a liquid and a gas from a liquid 35 and gas mixture, whereby the energy imparted to the mixture for generating the centrifugal force is used to raise the pressure of the liquid freed from the gas higher than the pressure prevailing in the separator. The regained pressure 40 head may be used to supply the power for circulating the liquid, for example, through a system of heat exchangers, and to save the otherwise necessary circulating pump or at least to substantially assist such pump.

45 A further object of this invention is to provide a separator as set forth and having nozzles in which the mixture is accelerated and also nozzles in which the speed of the liquidis retarded and in which last mentioned nozzles re- 50 compression is accomplished, whereby said nozzles are of particular shape in order to improve the efliciency of the recompression. I have found that the accelerating nozzles should be as straight as possible in order to assure good acceleration of the two components of the mixture and that said nozzlesare preferably arranged in the form of a hyperboloid. There is a certain preferable proportion between the length of the nozzles and their cross section, the length of nozzles of rectangular cross section being at least four times as much as the small side of the rectangle. Of similar importance is the arrangement of the retarding channels. The best form is an annular channel in which the liquid moves from the inside to the outside and in which the circumferential component of the speed of the liquid is the smaller, the larger the radius on which the liquid particle moves. Guide vanes or diffuserlike channels may also be used.

Further and other objects of the present invention will be hereinafter set forth in the accompanying speciilcation and claims and shown in the drawing which, by way of illustration, show what I now consider to be a preferred embodiment of my invention.

In the drawing:

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic, longitudinal, cross sectional view of a separator according to the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a top view of a separator as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic, longitudinal, cross sectional view of another embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is a cross sectional view of the separator shown in Fig. 3 and taken along line 4-4 of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic lay-out of a separator and fluid circulating system according to the present invention.

Like parts are designated by like numerals in the drawing.

Referring more particularly to Fig. 1 of the drawing: I is the inlet for the liquid-gas mixture. This inlet terminates tangentially in the spiral casing 2. In an accelerating means in the form of a channel 3 the mixture is accelerated to high velocity. 'I'he total length of channel 3, through which the mixture must pass, is approximately four times as great as the width of the channel, so that liquid and gas leave the channel at approximately the same speed. The

vertical central section of the channel is of approximately hyperbolic configuration. The absolute path of the mixture is almost straight, so that an advance separation by centrifugal force is avoided in the accelerating channel. I represents the cylindrical separating chamber. 5 represents the surface of the rotating liquid, which liquid is pressed against the outer part of chamber 4, whereby the vapor or gas contained in the mixture leaves the mixture at the surface 5, i. e., the inner parts of l the path of the mixture through chamber 4. Pressure recovering means I are provided in the form of a disc shaped annularchannel in which the liquid flows outwards. The cross sectional dimension of the channel available for the flow of the liquid becomes greater, the further outwards the liquid ows; its speed is thereby retarded, and the kinetic energyof the liquid is transformed into pressure. The liquid is collected in spiral casing 8 and removed through 'outlet 9. The separated gas exits from the apparatus through outlet 8.

In the modified separator as per Figs. 3 and 4 of the drawing, I represents the inlet for the gas-liquid mixture. This inlet leads into chamber 2. The mixture is accelerated in the nozzles 3', of which there is a great number annularly arranged adjacent to the outer wall of chamber 2. Separation takes place in the separating chamber 4'. 5' represents the surface of the rotating liquid body. The separated gas exits through conduit 6' and the liquid through the diffuser channel 'I' which is tangentially attached to chamber 4' and in which the kinetic energy of the liquid is partly converted into pressure due to the increase in cross sectional area available for liquid flow in the diffuser, which increase causes a retarding of the speed of the fluid and transformation of kinetic energy into static ener- There, due to the reduction of pressure, vapor isl generated and separated and withdrawn for further use through outlet I5 which corresponds to outlets 8 and B' in Figs. 1 and 3. 'I'he liquid returns to the evaporator through conduit I 2 for being further heated and vaporized. The kinetic energy recovered in separator II takes care of the circulation through circuit II-IZ-I'I-II-I I,

and, as soon as the process is in operation, no circulating pump or the like is required. If, due to variable supply of heat, the vapor produced in heater I3 varies, an approximately proportional multiple amount of liquid is automatically circulated through tube system I1. The evaporated liquid is replaced by liquid pumped into the system by means of feed pump I6. To assist circulation, for example, when starting up the system, a circula ing pump I8 may be provided.

In casing Il of the apparatus shown in Figs. 1 and 2 or 4' of that shown in Figs. 3 and 4, additional space may be arranged which serves as liquid storage room and/or as mud separator.//

Since the mud, ue to the centrifugal action? moves towards the\outer wall of chamber 8 pr 4', separation of mud fiom the liquid leavine apparatus may be atta ned by attaching the outlet Sin the apparatus according to Figs. 1 and2 or the pressure regaining nozzle 'I' of the separator as per Figs. 3 and 4 insuehgnanner to the casing 8 or 4', respectively, that the outer layers of the liquid which contain most of the mud are oomparatively stagnant, and liquid is withdrawn from the inner layers. In the embodiments of my invention shown in Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive, this is attained by attaching outlets 8 and 1' at a comparatively smaller diameter, whereby dead spaces I9 and 2q are created in which undesired mud collects.

While I believe the above described embodiments of my invention to be preferred embodiments, I wish it to be understood that I do not desire to be limited to the exact details of method, design, and construction shown and described, for obvious modifications will occur to a person skilled in the art.

I claim:

1. The method of separating gas from a liquid in a high pressure gas liquid mixture, comprising the steps of first setting up a tangential flow of the gas liquid mixture to cause subsequent rotational movement thereof, thereafter progressively increasing the rotational speed of the moving liquid by progressively restricting the cross sectional area of the flowing liquid and then causing centrifugal separation of the liquid from the gas, and in thereafter progressively and gradually reducing the rate of flow of the liquid by progressively and gradually increasing the cross sectional area of the flowing liquid to transform the kinetic energy of the liquid into static pressure energy.

2. The method of producing and separating vapor from a liquid consisting in subjecting the liquid to heat, in thereafter accelerating the vapor-liquid mixture by progressively restricting the cross sectional area of the flowing mixture, in setting up centrifugal forces in the mixture and thereby separating thevapor from the liquid, and in thereafter progressively and gradually retarding thlilte of flow of the liquid freed from the vapor for thereby transforming the kinetic energy of the liquid into static pressure, and in then again heating the liquid under pressure.

3. A separator for separating gas and liquid in a gas-liquid mixture, said separator comprising a housing dening a stationary gas and liquid inlet channel, said housing having a stationary circular outer Wall, a separating chamber directly connected with said gas and liquid inlet channel and including a second stationary outer wall which has a circular interior and which forms a continuation of the outer Wall oi' the aforesaid housing, the interior of said second outer wall affording a surface along which the gas liquid mixture emerging from the inlet channel is passed circumferentially at high speed to afford separation of the liquid from the gas by centrifugal force, a pressure recovering section comprising another chamber directly connected with the aforesaid chamber to receive flowing liquid therefrom, said other chamber having wall portions which provide a gradually increasing area for liquid flow for gradually retarding the speed of flow of the/liquid separated from the gas whereby the pre/ssure of the liquid is gradually raised to transform the kinetic energy of the liquid into static ressure energy.

4. A separator for separating gas from liquid in a high pressure gas liquid mixture, said separator being composed wholly of stationary parts including an inlet chamber housing, a separating chamber housing connected thereto, and a pressure recovering housing connected to said separating chamber housing, means for introducing the gas liquid mixture into the inlet chamber alarme l housing, means for withdrawing the liquid from terior surfaces of which are so shaped that said rotational movement of the flowing mixture brings about centrifugal separation of the gas from the liquid, said pressure recovering housing having wall portions which are shaped to progressively and gradually increase the cross sectional area of the liquid flowing to the withdrawing means whereby kinetic energy of the flowing liquid is transformed into static pressure energy.

5. A vapor separator and generator for producing'vapor from a liquid comprising, in combination, a heated tube system having an outlet and an inlet, a stationary vapor separator comprising a housing defining a stationary gas and liquid inlet channel, said housing having a stationary circular outer wall, said inlet channel being connected with the outlet of said tube system to receive heated gas and liquid therefrom, a separating chamber directly connected with said gas and liquid inlet channel and including a second stationary outer wall which has a circular interior and which forms a continuation of the outer wall of the aforesaid housing, the interior of said second outer wall affording a surface along which the gas liquid mixture emerging from the inlet channel is passed circumferentially at high speed to afford separation of the liquid from the gas by centrifugal force, a pressure recovering section comprising another chamber directly connected with the aforesaid chamber to receive flowing liquid therefrom, said other chamber having wall portions which provide a gradually increasing area for liquid flow for gradually retarding the speed of flow of the liquid separated from the gas whereby the pressure of the liquid is gradually raised to transform the kinetic energy of the liquid into static pressure energy and a conduit connecting said pressure recovering section and said inlet of said tube system for fluid ow, the liquid being caused to flow through said tube system by the pressure recovered in said pressure recovering section.

6. A separator for separating gas from liquid in a gas-liquid mixture, said separator being composed wholly of stationary parts including an inlet chamber housing, a separating chamber housing connected thereto, and a pressure recovering housing connected to said separating chamber housing, means for introducing the gasliquid mixture into the inlet chamber housing, means for withdrawing the liquid from the pressure recovering housing, said inlet chamber housing including wall portions arranged to first set up tangential flow of the incoming gas-liquid mixture and then to direct such mixture with a rotational movement into the stationary separating chamber housing, said inlet chamber housing including wall portions of substantially hyperbolic configuration to form a substantially hyperbolic mixture accelerating chamber for progressively increasing the rotational speed of the flowing mixture, said accelerating chamber having a large diameter end into which the gasliquid mixture is tangentially introduced from said inlet chamber housing and having a small diameter end from which the flowing liquid tangentially enters said separating chamber housing, said separating chamber housing having stationary outer wall portions the interior surfaces of which are so shaped that said rotational movement of the flowing mixture brings about centrifugal separation of the gas from the liquid, said pressure recovering housing having wall portions which are shaped to progressively and gradually increase the cross sectional area of the liquid ilowing to the withdrawing means whereby kinetic energy of the flowing liquid is transformed into static pressure energy.

7. A separator for separating gas from liquid in a high pressure gas liquid mixture, said separator being composed wholly of stationary parts including an inlet chamber housing, a separating chamber housing connected thereto, and a pressure recovering housing connected to said separating chamber housing, means for introducing the gas liquid mixture into the inlet chamber housing, means for withdrawing the liquid from the pressure recovering housing, said inlet chamber including wall portions arranged to first set up tangential flow of the incoming gas liquid mixture and then to direct such mixture with a rotational movement into the stationary separating chamber housing, said inlet chamber housing also including portions arranged to progressively increase the rotational speed of the flowing mixture, said separating chamber housing having stationary outer wall portions the interior surfaces of which are so shaped that said rotational movement of the flowing mixture brings about centrifugal separation of the gas from the liquid, said pressure recovering housing having wall portions which are shaped to progressively and gradually increase the cross sectional area of the liquid flowing to the withdrawing means whereby kinetic energy of the flowing liquid is transformed into static pressure energy, said portions of said inlet chamber housing which progressively increase the rotational speed of the flowing mixture being at least four times as long as they are wide.

8. A separator for separating gas from liquid in a high pressure gas liquid mixture, said separator being composed wholly of stationary parts including an inlet chamber housing, a separating chamber housing connected thereto, and a pressure recovering housing connected to said separating chamber housing, means for introducing the gas liquid mixture into the inlet chamber housing, means for withdrawing the liquid from the pressure recovering housing, said inlet chamber housing including wall portions arranged to first set up tangential ilow of the incoming gas liquid mixture and then to direct such mixture with a rotational movement into the stationary separating chamber housing, said inlet chamber housing also including portions arranged to progressively increase the rotational speed of the flowing mixture, said separating chamber housing having stationary outer Wall portions the interior surfaces of which are so shaped that said rotational movement of the flowing mixturebrings about centrifugal separation of the gas from the liquid, said pressure recovering housing having a liquid inlet portion which is concentric with said separating chamber housing and receiving the rotationally flowing liquid from said separating chamber housing substantially tangentially and having wall portions which are shaped to setup spiral outward flow of the liquid and to progressively and gradually increase the cross sectional area of the liquid whereby kinetic energy of the owing liquid is transformed into static pressure energy, said pressure recovering housing having an outlet section to which said withdrawal means are tangentially connected. i

9. A separator for separating gas from liquid in a high pressure gas liquid mixture, said separator being composed wholly of stationary parts including an inlet chamber housing, a separating chamber housing connected thereto, and a pressure recovering housing connected to said separating chamber housing, means for introducing the gas liquid mixture into the inlet chamber housing, said inlet chamber housing including wall portions arranged to first set up tangential flow of the incoming gas liquid mixture and then to direct such mixture with a rotational movement into the stationary separating chamber housing, said inlet chamber housing also including portions to progressively increase the rotational speed of the flowing mixture, said separating chamber housing having stationary outer wall portions the interior surfaces of which are so shaped that said rotational movement'of the flowing mixture brings about centrifugal separation of the gas from the liquid, said pressure recovering housing having wall portions which are shaped to progressively and gradually increase the cross sectional area of the liquid flowing to the withdrawing means whereby kinetic energy of the iiowing liquid is transformed into static pressure energy, said pressure recovering housing including diverging wall portions which are substantially tangentially connected with said separating chamber housing and progressively and gradually increase the cross sectional area of the flowing liquid to transform kinetic energy of the flowing liquid into static pressure energy. 10. A separator for separatinggas from liquid in a high pressure gas liquid mixture, said separator being composed Wholly of stationary parts including an inlet chamber housing, a separating chamber housing connected thereto, and a pressure recovering housing connected to said separating chamber housing, means for introducing the gas liquid mixture into the inlet charnber housing, said inlet chamber housing including wall portions arranged to iirstiset up tangential flow of the incoming gas liquid mixture and then to direct such mixture with a rotational movement into the stationary separating chamber housing, said inlet chamber housing also including portions to progressively increase the rotational speed of the flowing mixture, said separating chamber housing having stationary outer wall portions the interior surfaces of which are so shaped that said rotational movement of the owing mixture brings about centrifugal separation of the gas from the liquid, said pressure recovering housing having wall portions which are shaped to progressively and gradually increase the cross sectional area of the liquid iiowing to the withdrawing means whereby kinetic energy of the flowing liquid is transformed into static pressure energy, said pressure recovering housing including diverging wall portions which are substantially tangentially connected with said separating chamber housing and progressively and gradually increase the cross sectional area of the flowing liquid, and a mud collecting pocket disposed substantially adjacent to the point of connection of said diverging wall wall portions and said separating chamber housing.

11. A separator for separating gas and liquid in a gas-liquid mixture, said separator comprising, in combination, inlet channel means in which the gas-liquid-mixture is expanded and thereby accelerated, a separating chamber comprising a circular wall, said channel means and said separating chamber being so connected that the gasliquid mixture is passed at high speed around the interior of said chamber whereby the liquid is separated from the gas by centrifugal force, and a liquid flow retarding and pressure recovering means comprising a at annular conduit the inner part of which is connected for iiuid flow with said chamber, a liquid outlet conduit substantially tangentially connected with the outer part of said conduit, and a mud collecting pocket adjacent to the point of connection of said outlet conduit and said annular conduit.

12. A separator for separating gas and liquid in a gas-liquid mixture, said separator comprising, in combination, inlet channel means in which the gas-liquid mixture is expanded and thereby accelerated, a separating chamber comprising a circular wall, said channel means and said separating chamber being so connected that the gasliquid mixture is passed at high speed around the interior of said chamber whereby the liquid is separated from the gas by centrifugal force, a liquid flow retarding and pressure recovering means comprising a flat annular conduit the inner part of which is connected for fluid flow with said chamber, and a liquid outlet conduit substantially tangentially connected with the outer part of said conduit.

GEORGES DARRIEUS.

Referenced by
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US2424122 *Dec 20, 1944Jul 15, 1947Gen ElectricPressure recovery and gas cleaning device
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US2494427 *Feb 7, 1945Jan 10, 1950Gen Motors CorpDeaerator
US2571503 *Mar 19, 1945Oct 16, 1951Gen Motors CorpDeaerator and dirt separator
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Classifications
U.S. Classification95/261, 55/454, 122/488, 55/459.5, 188/264.00D, 96/210, 55/457
International ClassificationB01D19/00
Cooperative ClassificationB01D19/0057
European ClassificationB01D19/00P4B