US 2187752 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 23, 1940. A, C. OLSEN BUILDING STRUCTURE Original Filed July 7,y 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet l' BUILDING s'rncTUnE Original Fiied July 7, 1.936 4 Sheefcs-Sheet 2 l Jan. 23, 1940. A. c. oLsEN BUILDING STRUCTURE 4 sheets-sheet s Original Filed July '7, 1936 Jan. 23, 1940.
ff? L A. c. oLsEN i BUILDING STRUCTURE Original Filed .July 7, 1936 4 sheets-sheet' 4 Patented Jan. 23, 1940 UNITED STATES;
PATENT OFFICE spontanea .ma "1,1936, sensi im. .sans Renewed October 2s, 1938 27 claims.
units fabricated of wood, which is a material the.
properties of which are Well-known to all, and
which may be easily and conveniently shaped as l desired. The tendency in present-day construction, however, is to substitute for the wood, which is highly inflammable and subject to decay and attack by insects, more durable materials. Various attempts have been made to devise building structures formed entirely of fire-resistant materials but practical dilculties of numerous kinds, together with increased costs of such materials, have retarded such developments. It has been suggested, for instance, that light-weight studding of steel may with advantage be employed'in the erection of buildings of smaller sizes instead of the customary wooden studding. It has also been suggested that coverings of asbestos, gypsum or other non-inilammable and insect-resisting materials may be used, such coverings being built up oi individual members such as panels, clapboards, shingles, or the like, the individual units of which are successively applied to the supporting members in the erection of the structure.
The costs of such materials in many cases are not unduly high when the durability thereof ls kept in mind but many practical problems of assembly are presented since, as is obvious, the various supporting and covering members may not readily be secured together, if at all, by the usual securing means, such as nails, customarily made use of in the erection of wooden buildings.
The general purpose of the present invention is to provide a'low cost and readily assembled building structure the individual elements of which are formed of materials which may not be lreadily secured together quickly, conveniently, and at low cost by means now available vto the public. v 7 i.; t Primarily the invention relates to outside wall constructions and to partition constructions, but certain of its features may be availed of in the .construction ot roofs and elsewhere in erecting buildings. In the erection of walls and partitions in accordance, with the invention, light-weight studs oi metal are employed and preferably. the inside and outside coverings comprise panels or clapboards formed of material such as gypsum,4
asbestos, or the like, although the invention is not necessarily limited to such material and conteming may be more clearly perceived;
(Ci. Z2-16) plates the use, in combination with the metal studding, of wooden panels or clapboards or similar building elements fabricated of light-Weight inammable materials. Novel means is provided for securing to the steel studding the various o covering elements, this means being of such charactor that the ordinary skilled worker may am to the steel studding, with great ease and rapidity, the various elements which together comprise the two covering layers. Various forms of the se l@ curing means may be made use of and by way ofv example several forms are illustrated in the accompanying drawings and will be hereinafter described in detail.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of portion of an outside wail construction, looking from an inside point, portions of the inside wail covering having been omitted in order that the outside wall cover- Figure 2 is a partiai vertical section through the same;
Figure 3 is a perspective view showing upon .a larger scale certaindetails or the outside covering structure and securing means;
Figure 4 is a perspective view showing a modied form of securing means;
Figure 5 is an end view oi portion oi one of the metal studs, showing one form of the means employed for attaching to the stud certain oiA the inside panels;
Figure 6 is a section on line @-6 oi Figure 5;
Figure 6a. is an elevation of a small portion of one of the panels, showing a slot formed therein for cooperation with the securing means;
Figure 7 is a perspective view of a. small portion of a modified form of stud;
Figure 8 is a vertical section through portion of a partition or wall showing a modified form of panel securing means; I0
Figure 9 is a section on line @-9 of Figure 8; Figures 10 and il are perspective-views of two elements of the ,securing means illustrated in Figures Sand 9; Figure 12 shows in elevation portion of an interior wall of the built-up panel type, and primarily intended to support a plaster coating, a furtherformcf panel securing means being illustrated;
Figure 13 is a section on line I3-I3 of 'Figure Figure 14 isa section on line ll-M of Figure 12;
Figure 15 is a perspective view of the retaining` ll means made use of in the construction shown inFlgures 12, 13 and 14;
Figure 16 is a transverse section through a clapboard construction of novel type adapted for use as an element of the invention;
Figure 17 is a partial vertical transverse section through an outside wall construction showing a further type of securing means for the attachment of the covering boards or panels to the studding;
Figure 18 is an elevation of portion of a stud, as viewed from the edge, one of the securing clips being shown; and l Figure 19 is a view of such securing clip from 1g the outside, this clip being also illustrated in dotted lines in one of the positions which it assumes while being applied to the studs.
'I'he light-weight steel studs I0 are preferably rolled sections and may have in cross-section any m one of a number of different shapes. A very satisfactory light-weight steel stud may be formed,
, however, of two channel members, as indicated in Figures 6 and 7, the webs of the channels being cut away so as to be lattice-like in appearance.
15 Preferably two oi these channels are placed web to web, as shown, to form a single stud. This gives the stud a cross-section resembling that of an I-beam, and hence having a maximum strength as a column for a given weight of metal. The studs may be spaced apart as found convenient or necessary, and are secured at their upper and lower ends by any suitable means, which means is not illustrated, as it comprises no part of the present invention. The two channel members comprising each stud may be secured to each other or not, as desired, and in certain instances, the channel members may be spaced apart slightly, as indicated for instance in Figure 14. By the term "stud" as used hereif@ in, is meant any suitable type of upright designed and constructed in such manner that one form or other of my improved panel securing means may cooperate therewith.
As clearly shown in Figure 1 a covering of ilat relatively large panels It all disposed in a common vertical plane is secured to the studs upon one side of the vertical plane defined by the studs, and a second covering, comprising a plurality of clapboards i2, is secured to the studs upon the opposite sides thereof. This last mentioned covering is suitable for the outside wall covering of a building structure while the coverlng which comprises panels I l is primarily intended for an inside wall covering and in most cases will itself be covered with a thin layer of plaster.
The various clapboards I2 may have various lengths as in the case of the ordinary wooden clapboards, and are arranged in overlapping relationship for weather resisting purposes. Each of these boards has formed therein, adjacent its lower edge, a longitudinally extending kerf or slot, such as indicated at I3 in Figures 3 and 4, this slot extending to the inside face of the board and being inclined to this face, the inclination `being such that, when the board is disposed substantially vertically as shown in Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4, the slot extends upwardly and outwardly from the lower margin of the inner face of the board. The slot is made suiilciently deep to receive a securing member hereinafter to be described but is not extended to such an extent that the clapboard is materially weakened. The securing elements by means of which this outside clapboard covering is attached to the ver-w tical structure comprising the studs I0 comprises a plurality of elongated members or elements I4 each of these elements having a marginal portion I 4 which ts snugly within the kerf or slot formed in the clapboard with which it is associated, the main portion of the element, however, projecting rearwardly of the clapboard in a generally horizontal plane and extending from a point closely adjacent one stud to a point closely adjacent the next stud.
At its ends, each element I4 is provided with slots, one of which is indicated at |42 in Figure 3, and these slots t around and closely engage the opposite faces of adjacent anges of studs I0, being thereby locked against movement normally to the plane of the studs. As clearly shown in Figures 2 and 3, a mid-portion of each securing element or member I4 engages and rests upon the upper edge of the clapboard immediately below the same.
In assembling a number of clapboards and securing elements in the formation of a wall, the lowermost board or boards is of course iirst positioned-being based upon any suitable firm support. A series of securing elements I4 are next applied, along the upper edge of this tier. The second clapboard or tier of clapboards is next positioned, the flanges I4 of the securing elements I4 being slid or inserted into the grooves I3 provided for their reception. Following this, a further series of securing elements I4 are positioned intermediate the studs I0 along the entire length of the wall and a further clapboard or series of clapboards applied, this process being repeated until the wall covering is completed from bottom to top. Once the bottom board I2 has been positioned, the assembly of the remaining boards may be very quickly effected. The completed wall covering is rigidly secured to the studding, each board overlapping-the next lowermost board and preventing outward movement thereof, and the lower edge of each board being secured firmly by the securing elements to the studs.
Each securing element I4 also comprises a weathering strip, bridging the joint between the lower inner face of one board I2 and the upper outer face of the board I2 immediately above it, and thereby preventing the entrance of air or moisture. Where the wall is to be insulated interiorly, it is not necessary to so design the elements i4 that they function as weathering strips, and instead of continuous members I 4 extending fromstud to stud, the members may be relatively short, as for instance cut off along the dotted line I6 of Figure 3. It is desirable also in the event that short members of this type are made use of to provide each with a flange such as indicated in dotted lines at I'I, this flange being preferably struck downwardly out of the body of the member I4 and at right angles thereto, the flange being intended to Contact with the inner face of the boardv I2 immediately below and to comprise a limiting stop preventing any outward movement of that end of the securing member remote from the stud.
In such cases also intermediate locking members such as indicated at I8 may be employed, member I8 comprising a relatively' short metallic' securing element having a portion I8' adapted to enter a groove formed in a board I2, a horizontally disposed portion |82 adapted to rest upon the upper edge of the next lowermost board and a tongue or flange I 83 adapted to engage tne inner face of this board. The upper Where the wall covering Just described is of great height, is may be desirable to positively secure one or more horizontal rows of supporting members Il to the studs in order that thei entire weight of the coveredA structure may not be transmitted downwardly to the lowermost board. Thusin Figure 1 the uppermost row oi securing members are shown to have their ends provided with upturned anges |43 which flanges are positively attached toA the studs ID and hence may not move vertically. In actual practice, however, it is found that if the slots Il' in the members Il are made of such width that the edges thereof contact closely with the ilanges of studs l0, there'is little necessity for attaching f any oi' the securing members I4 positively to the studs, inasmuch as the frictional engagement of the securing members and the studs is substantial and a considerableportion of the each. board is transmitted directly to the studs instead of to the boardbeneath it.
'I'he inner panels i l of the wall structure shown in Figure l are attached to the studs by means of .clips 2b. These clips are preferably formed as shown clearly in Figures 5 and 6, so as to t closely around the aligned flanges at one edge'of the stud, but are siidable vertically along the stud. The clips are i'ormeol of sheet metal and each is provided with two inclined, outwardly and upwardly projecting, tongues 20' vthese tongues belng disposed substantially at angles of 90 to each other.I The ends of the panels I i are provided with tongue receivingkerfs, also inclined, one of these kerfs being indicated at Ii' in Figure 6a. In assembling the panels, the end of each is brought into position so that the corresponding tongues m.- oi two vertically spaced clips are caused to enter the kerfs Il l oithe panel. The end of the horizontally adjacent panel is then hung upon the second or remaining tongues 2o' of these same clips, the adjacent edges of the panels meeting along a vertical plane intermediate the tongues.
. In positioning the panels, the clips are moved vertically of the studs .to the desired positions and, after a panel is iinallyl placed in proper position, the clips are permanently secured against movement longitudinally of the studs by any suitable means. cured against downward movement by a small ear, such as indicated at 22, comprising a portion of the outer margin of one of the iianges oi the stud upon which it is mounted. A small metallic ear such' as 22v may be readily turnedout oithe plane of the stud flange by a suitable tool. the metal of the iiange being ductile and relatively thin. The panels ii meet end to end'only at the studs l0 and, where panels are employed which are of greater lengths than the distances between adjacent studs, intermediate clips are unnecessary, the panels'being secured only at their ends andnot 'at intermediate points.` In assembling the panels, the lowermost panelsare o! course ailxed nrst, and thereafter the panels weight of Preferably each clip is seare built up in successive horizontal rows until the wall covering is completed. The wall covering may be formed ci' panels such as plaster board panels,` and may be conveniently covered with plaster.
In certain standard types oiconstruction, the use of clips 20 may be avoided and the panel s'upporting tongues `formed directly upon the studs, as indicated for ainstance in Figure 7, the supporting tongues being indicated at 23. These tongues may be formed upon the studs at the point of. manufacture of the studs or may be lstruck outwardly from the studs after the studs are positioned in a building, by means oi' a suitable tool, the metal .of which the studs are fabricated being sufficiently ductile andl thin tov permit this.
A further means studding is indicated in Figures 8 to 1l inclusive. The studs l0 are of the lattice type and the individual panels otwhich each stud is composed are slightly spaced apart as shown in Figure 9. An anchor plate 30, clearly illustrated in Figure 10, is adapted to be inserted through one pair of apertures in the lattice-like webs of .adjacent studs, this plate being so dimensioned that it may be moved laterally through these apertures, which apertures are aligned, when being inserted, occupying a shown in dotted lines in c Thereafter the anchor the position in which it is Figure 8, slots 30 and 302 formed in the lower and upper margins ofl theI anchor platebeing providedfor the reception of portions oi the parallel t anchor plate being Figure 8.
plate 30 is moved to thereby permitted to move to itsnal position, the body of the plate resting upon one pair of upwardly and outwardly inclined web members |02. When so positioned the anchor plate locks the panels in fixed spaced relationship and thereby strengthens the stud against forces which tend to deilect it as a column. Anchor plate 30 has an inclined flange 303 along one margin and this flange, when the anchor -plate is nally positioned as shown in Figure 8, extends upwardly-in a substantiallyy vertical direction. v
Panels are indicated at 3i and each of these panels has its vertical edges slotted, as at 3i', the adjacent panel edges -being spaced apart as shown in Figure 9. Panel edge securing clips are indicated at 32, each of these clips having a tongue 32' which enters the slot 8|' of the adjacent panel and a portion 32 which is provided at its lower end with a notch, having an inclined edge 323. It is the function of these clips to secure the panel edges to the anchoring plate 30 and in the assembly of the panels and securing means a portion 32' of each clip is inserted into the slot 3|' of the adjacent panel and thereafter moved downwardly so that the upper edge 303 of the anchor plate 30 is caused to enter the notch formed lin the clip.
As previously pointed out, of this notch is inclined to the vertical and hence if clip 32 is forced downwardly, this edge will act as a cam surface, 'drawing the clip rearwardly, and hence drawing the associated panel firmly against the outer face of the adjacent panel forming portion of the stud I0.
After both clips 32 have been positioned, a resllientmember oi' box-like cross-section, indicated at 35, may be inserted within the slot intermediate the panel edges, this stripbelng so designed as to u s for securing panels to metallic l position substantially as w shown in full lines in webs of the channel members and the the inner edge s g5 ornamented.
'apertures in the webs thereof.
automatically interlock with the clips 32 when finally positioned, as shown in Figure 9. When thus positioned, it comprises means for preventing accidental displacement of the clips and also means for completely iilling the slot intermediate the panel edges. 'I'he outer face of member 35 may be decorated if desired. In order to secure a panel-like effect, including horizontal joints, as well as vertical joints, a similarly formed horizontally extending member 35, may be inserted into a bridging member 36 extending horizontally between vertically spaced panels. Bridging member 36 has flanges 36 adapted to enter slots formed in the parallel horizontal edges of the vertically spaced panels and serves to maintain these panels in xed spaced relationship, also providing a housing for the reception of the resilient decorative illling strip 35.
If it is not desired that the panels be separated by the horizontally extending members 35, these members and the bridging members 36 may be omitted and the horizontal edges of the panels allowed to meet. The panel attaching means just above described may be'employedv for the attachment to the studding of plaster boards, or may be employed for the attachment of decorative panels not intended to be covered by plaster coatings. When this last eiect is desired, the nller strips may be of decorative nature and An inexpensive means for and methodof securing panels in place is illustrated in Figures 12 to 14, inclusive, this means and method being particularly advantageous in erecting wall coverings' which are in turn intended to be coated with plaster.
Here the studs preferably comprise separated panels, as shown in Figures 12 and 14, which panels are of the lattice-type or provided with The panels are indicated at 40 and a panel securing element is indicated at 4|. 'I'his element is in the nature of a clip of sheet metal the midportion of which is adapted to lie within apertures formed in the webs of the channels comprising the stud, from which midportion project the reduced extensions Il' which in turn terminate in the heads H2. The clips are so positioned that the reduced extensions 4i' lie intermediate the horizontal edges of adjacent panels and the heads 4l lie without and contact with the outer surfaces of the panels. Th'e clips are somewhat resilient and, when positioned as shownin Figure 14, have sufficient spring to continually urge the panels against the outer vertical faces of the panels comprising the stud. The reduced extensions l I hold the panels in spaced relationship so as to provide horizontal slots therebetween and the vertical edges of two adjacent panels are likewise spaced apart as shown. Through these slots plaster will pass when the plaster coating is applied to the surface of the wall covering thus built up, and the plaster layer will be firmly bonded to the supporting structure. 'I'he locking heads 4 I2 will of course be covered by the plaster layer, which is indicated at 42, an inwardly projecting plaster rib or tongue being indicated at 42'.-
The locking means illustrated in Figures 17, 18 and 19 is primarily intended for use in securing clapboards to metallic studding. Each clip comprises a metallic plate which may have any desired shape and may conveniently be substantially rectangular as shown, portions of this plate being struck downwardly and inwardly to form retaining ilanges 5D and 5i)n each of these-anges having a portion extending parallel to the body of the plate and denning therewith a groove adapted. to receive an edge of the stud I0. The iianges are so spaced .relatively to each other that the longitudinal axis of plate 5D is vertically disposed when the flanges 50' and $0 are locked about opposite edges of the stud. To place the clip in this position, it is only necessary to move it into contact with the edge face of the stud when in some such position as indicated in dotted lines in Figure 19, the locking flanges I5 and 5l being spaced laterally of and at opposite sides of the stud. Thereafter the locking plate is revolved until it occupies the position in which it is shown in full lines, which is its operative position.
Each clip 50 has projecting from its lower edge a laterally extending portion or flange 503 which terminates in an upwardly and outwardly inclined portion 504 adapted to engage and snugly iit within a kerf or slot formed in a clapboard member Il. Portion 503 of the clip bottom ilange rests upon the upper edge of the clapboard 5l next below it and the several clapboards which together comprise the wall covering surface are supported in substantially the same manner, with respect to each other, and with respect to the stud I0. as in the case of the form' of the invention nrst described. After engagement oi the tongue i Within the kerf or slot formed for its reception, clip 50 is held firmly against rotation due to such interengagement with board 5l, and hence may not be detached from the stud HI. In the event that it is thought desirable to support one or more ofthe boards directly upon the studs instead oi' permitting the Weight thereof to rest upon the board or boards below, this may be readily brought about by nicking the edge of a flange of the stud and bending a portion of this flange edge laterallyl to form an ear such as indicated at l2. the upper edge of this ear contacting with the lower edge of the fiange 50 and preventing downward movement of the clip upon the supporting stud. Any suitable tool may be provided for performing this function and the operation may be quickly carried out in the field. v
All of the embodiments of the invention may be made use of in the erection of buildings embodying metallic studding, but it will be obvious that certain forms are more useful for certain purposes than are other forms of securing means disclosed. The parts are of such type that they may be readily and cheaply fabricated and large numbers may be boxed and shipped at small expense. The simplicity of the constructions suggested will appeal to the builder, and it is also clear that partition and wall structures can be erected rapidly. without the use of special tools or machinery, and without the use of welding apparatus, drills. bolts and the like. Furthermore, the panels and clapboards to be secured to the studs embody no aiiixed parts, metallic or otherwise, which might be injured in shipment or erection. The kerfs or slots formed in the clapboards or panel members may be very easily and with slight expense placed therein during or immediately after manufactured.
While I preferably make use of such material as asbestos or gypsum in fabricating the clapboards and panels, the invention contemplates all suitable materials. Thus a suitable clapboard may be formed by rst forming a copper covering plate, such as indicated at 60 in Figure 16, providing the same with an interior and upwardly and outwardly inclinedislot 8D', and thereafter filling this covering -plate with a material such as gypsum, indicated in 6I. The panels and clapboards 'of wood or any of the well-known iibrous materials may be readily secured in position by 4 the means shown, although I prefer to make use extending clapboards in overlapping relationship,
and means associated with each clapboard for attaching the same to the studs, said means including securing elements detachably connected to the clapboards and detachably connected to the studs.
2. In a wall structure, in combination, spaced 'vertically extending studs, tiers of horizontally extending clapboards in overlapping relationship, and means associated with each clapboard for vattaching the same to the studs, said means including a securing' element connecting each board to a stud and resting upon the upper edge of the board next below.
3. In a wall structure, in combination, spaced vertically extending studs, tiers of horizontally extending clapboards in overlapping relationship, and means associated with each clapboard for attaching the same to the studs, said means in- Y cluding a securing element which projects into a recess in a clapboard and interlocks with a stud,
said means being readily detachable from both clapboard and stud.
4. In a wall structure, in combination, spaced vertically extending studs, tiers of horizontally extending clapboards in overlapping relationship, and means associated with each clapboard for attaching the same to the studs, said means in` cluding a horizontally extending metallic securing element interlocking with a stud and penetrating a clapboard lfrom the inside.
5. A wall structure comprising studs, claplooards, and' securing elements, a securing element resting upon the upper edge of each' board and directly connecting the stud to the lower margin of the board next above.
6. A'wall structure comprising iianged steel studs, clapboards arrangedin overlapping relationship, and metallic securing elements detachably interlocked with the iianges of said studs and extending into apertures formed in the rear faces of said clapboards. l
'1f The combination with a flanged steel stud of a clip thereon and having a ange projecting outwardly to engage within a recess in a clapboard having `a-'recess intermediate its edges, a clapboard penetrated by said flange, and a clap- .board beneath and supporting said ange.
' 8. The combination set forth in claim 7 in which the clip is normally vertically slidable but is restrained against downward movement by a deformed portion of said stud.
9. A clip for'attaching clapboards to anged studs comprising a metallic plate having a ange extendingat substantially a right angle thereto for engaging a clapboard and opposed flanges for projecting into a recess formedl in the rear face .of opposite edges of a stud.
with an insulating tions, each of edge, a lower 1 10In a wall structure, in combination, a stud comprising spaced parallel metallic members having aligned apertures, an anchor plate extending through said apertures and interlocking with said members, panels having adjacent edges paralleling said members respectively, and means securing said panel edges to said anchor plate.
11. In a wall structure, in combination, a stud comprising spaced parallel metallic members having aligned apertures, an anchor plate extending through said apertures and interlocking with said members, panels having adjacent edges paralleling said members respectively, and clips interlocking with said panel edges and said anchor plate whereby the panels are secured to said stud. y
12. In a wall structure, in combination, a stud comprising spaced parallel metallic members having aligned apertures, an anchor plate extending through said apertures and interlocking with said members, panels having adjacent edges paralleling said members respectively, spaced clips interlocking with said panel edges and said anchor plate, and a member intermediate said clips and normally holding them in interlocking engagement with said panels.
' 13. In a wall construction, in combination, a vertical stud, vertically spaced panels, and a clip passing around the stud and having portions projecting outwardly between the panels, each such portion having a head at its end engaging the outer faces of both panels. I f l I 14. In a, wall construction, in combination, a vertical stud, vertically spaced panels, a resilient metallic clip passing around the stud and having portions thereof projecting outwardly between the panels, and heads at the ends of said porwhich engages the outer surfaces of both panels, the clipresiliently urging both vpanels into vclose contact with the stud,
l5. A stiifener for walls having clapboard coverings' comprising a substantially i.shaped metallic member having a groove entering flange, a board edge engaging portion, and a board side engaging portion. v
16. In a wall construction, a. clapboard having a recess in its inner face and spaced from its lower -clapboard vthe upper margin of which overlaps said first clapboard and has its upper edge closely adjacent the recess in said rst board, and a metallic stifienerresting upon the upper edge of-said lower board and having aportion extending within said 'recess and a second portion resting against the face of said first board above said recess. y
1'?.l A wall structure comprising studs, clapboards arranged in overlapping relationship, and means supporting e'ach ciapboard upon the one below it and connecting the same to the studs, each such means likewise sealing the joint between two superposed clapboards.
18. A wall structure comprising in combination,
spaced studs, tiers of horizontally extending clapboards in overlapping relationship, and means associated Vwith each clapboard for attaching the same to thestuds, said means comprising elongated members spanning the spaced studs and having formed portions thereof detachably connecting to the Aclapboards and to Athe studs, respectively.
19. A clapboard wall facing comprisingoverlapping clapboards, the' rear faces of said clapboards being provided with inwardly and upwardly extending inclined slots, clip members having outwardly and upwardly extending inclined flanges adapted to enter the slots in said` clapboards, and means for detachably supporting said clip members and through them said clapboards.
20. A clapboard wall structure comprising spaced stud members, overlapping clapboards and means securing said clapboards to said studs, the upper portion of a clapboard being held against said studs by the overlapping lower' por- 10 tion of an adjacent clapboard, the securing means and each clapboard having mutually engaging inclined wedging surfaces whereby the wedging action thereof draws the lower portion of said clapboard inwardly toward the studs to clamp the upper portion of the next lower clapboard between the rear face of said first clapboard and said studs.
21. In a clapboard walll construction, clapboards, the lower margins of an upper clapboard overlapping the upper margin of a lower clapboard, the overlapping clapboard having in its rear tace an inwardly and upwardly extending inclined slot, and means for securing together the overlapping faces of said clapboard, the said means comprising a clip having an outwardly directed upwardly inclined ange thereon and spaced therefrom a second but downwardly directed flange, the overlapping clapboards being secured in contact through the engagement of the said inclined ange in the said inclined slot of the upper clapboard and the engagement of the downwardly directed ange with the upper margin of the lower clapboard.
22. In a wall construction, a stud, wall-forming material mounted thereon, and means outstanding from said stud and provided with outwardly and upwardly inclined flanges, said wall-forming material having inwardly and upwardly extending slots formed therein, said wall-forming material being secured against the said stud by mutual engagement of said slots and said anges.
23. A wall stud having a face portion against which sheet form wall-forming material is adapted to be mounted, the said stud being provided with outwardly and upwardly directed tongues extending outwardly beyond the plane of the said face portion adapted to receive the sheet form wall-forming material,`the inner face of the upwardly directed, outwardly extending tongue constituting an inclined cam face whereby upon mounting thereon a sheet of wall-forming material having a complementing slot, the action of the said cam face will be to continuously urge the sheet into engagement with the face portion of the stud.
24. In a wall construction, in combination, a stud having a web and oppositely disposed outwardly extending ilanges formed thereon, said iianges'being in substantially the same plane, and clips mounted against the outer face of said flanges and having portions extending around said anges and behind the rear faces thereof, said clips having outwardly and upwardly extending mounting means thereon.
25. A wall construction unit comprising a pair of channel form members spaced one from the other, the webs of said channel members having apertures therein, and slotted tie plates extending through opposed apertures, said tie plates having slots thereinl engaging the webs of said channel members, said channel members and tie plates forming a unitary structural member.
26. In a wall structure, studs, wall-forming sheet material inounted thereon, and clips securing said sheet material to said studs, each said clip comprising a body portion and a flange pori tion, said fiange portion being angularly displaced with respect to the body portion andl being adapted to engage said Wall-forming material, said body portion having a tapered slot extending upwardly therein, clip mountings supported on 3 said studs rearwardly of the face thereof and adapted to engage said slots in said clips, whereby when said clips are moved downwardly on said clip mountings there is etfected an approach of the flanges of said clips toward the face o! said l studs.
27. In a wall construction, spaced studs and sheet form wall-forming material mounted thereon, the sheet form wall-forming material spanning a pair of adjacent studs and having in its ,u rear face an inwardly and upwardly inclined slot therein, co-acting mounting means therefor, spanning between adjacent studs, its respective ends formed for mounting on the studs, said mounting means having an upwardly and outa wardly inclined lip portion complementing the slot, the engagement of the slot and llip constituting a mounting wedgingly engaging 'a sheet against the face of the studs.
ANDEras c. oLsEN. u