|Publication number||US2191417 A|
|Publication date||Feb 20, 1940|
|Filing date||Jan 18, 1939|
|Publication number||US 2191417 A, US 2191417A, US-A-2191417, US2191417 A, US2191417A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
2,1915417 ARN Feb. 20, 1940. v. WOOLLEY MEANS FOR PRODUCING FUZZY OR IMITATION FIBER Y FROM CONTINUOUS FILAMENT YARNS Filed Jan. 18, 1939 INVENTOR lgAsse-R Woo:
50 a guide Patented 20, 1940 TION FIBER YARN FROM FILAMENT YARNS CONTINUOUS Vasser-Woolley, Atlanta, Ga., assignmto Seydel- Woolley & Company, Atlanta, 6a., a copartnership of Georgia Application January it, 1939, Serial No. 251,505 6 Claims. (o1. 57- -2) The production of artificial'silk or rayon and similar yarn has developed extensively in the past few years. The ordinary continuous filament yarn consisting of a bundle of minute fibers how- 5 ever is smooth and too shiny for some purposes.
In order to overcome the objection to the shiny surface it has been proposed to break up the continuous filaments into short lengths and then spin the short lengths in a manner similar to the ll} spinning of other short fibers. It has also been proposed to roughen thesurface oi the continuous filaments sumciently to produce a fuzzy or imitation short-fiber yarn.- The first method, however, involves a much greater expense and it dimculty in the production-of the finished yarn.-
My invention accordingly is directed to the roughening of the surface of the continuous filaments without materially weakening them or breaking up the bundle into short-lengths. German patent to Schulke No. 343,223 discloses a process of roughening by abrasion. I have utilized this principle-in a special manner so that the'continuous filament yarn is passed over or through an abrasive guide which is vibrated as the yarn passes over, through or across it.
One object of the invention is to produce a yarn that is'oi uniform texture, good in appearance and of good breaking strength.
Another object is to provide a method that is 39 readily controlled.
Fig. 1 shows one form of mechanism for treating continuous filament yarn in accordance with my invention.-
Fig. 2shows another means for vibrating the 35 abrasive across which the yarn passes as it is being twisted.
Fig. 3 shows a third method of vibrating an abrasive guide for the yarn.
Fig. 4 shows still another method of vibrating an abrasive. It should be understood, however,
45 The invention as shown in Fig. 1 is applied to a conventional type of ring twisting apparatus in which the yarn 1 is wound upon a spindle 8 driven in the usual manner. The untreated yarn passes betweenfeed rolls 9 and i0 and through II and atraveler I! mounted on a rin support l3 which is actuated in the usual manner.
The balloon guide II is provided on its interior with an'abrasive surface I. This surface may 2 be formed by roughening the surface or the guide or by applying an abrasive such as carborundum, emery or the like. This guide is vibrated laterallyat high speed as the yarn passes through it so as to alternately engage the'yarn on opposite sides as it twists in passing to the traveler ring. This vibration may be eifected in any suitable manner, as for instance, by means of the crank l and connecting rod It. It will be seen that any suitable form oftwisting machine may be readily modified to provide for the toughening action desired by simply substituting a suitable abrasive guide and providing means for vibrating the guide to and fro.
In the form shown in Fig. 2,- the abrasive member I! is vibrated by electromagnet l8 havinga core it. Such a magnet may be actuated by an alternating current or by using a. direct current with an interrupter and a spring 2%. In t form of construction, the abrasive by the vibration is moved diagonally with respect to the travel of the yarn so that there are transverse and longitudinal components oi. the abrasive action.
In the form shown in'Fig. 3, the abrasive guide rin 2! is vibrated laterally by a, m 22 and a spr ng 23, the guide ring having a shaft 2% and a roller 25 which engages the cam. The cam is rotated at a high rate'of speed so as to vibrate the guide 2i as the yarn passes through it.
In the form shown in Fig. d, the yarn is drawn over a support or guide 23 and acted-upon by a roller or wheel 27 having an abrasive surface.
This/wheel is rotated in any suitable manner and is vibrated by means ofa striker 28 which rotates against a roller 29 on the end of a rod 38 which carries the wheel. A spring 3! presses the rod 30 and the wheel in one direction and the striker moves it in the opposite direction. The striker being rotated at high speed vibrates the abrasive roller back and forth so that it engages the yarn at intervals as the yarn travels across the guide 26.
In Fig. .5, I have shown diagrammatically an abrading member actuated by an electric motor 36 such as is used in an electric razor. This is applied between the reed rolls 9, l0 and the guide 31 where the yarn is twisting. A guide such as II or M may be vibrated in the same manner. The effect of the vibration seems to be to breakup the periodic oscillations set up in the yarn. As a result some of the filaments are roughened and a fuzzy appearance is obtained without undue weakening oi the yarn.
thus causing quick, short, positive strokes by the abrasive or cutting elements across the filament resulting in a better roughening.
. The rate of vibration or number of strokes o the abrasive per minute may be varied as well as the length of the stroke so as to modify the action of the abrasive in any suitable manner. By controlling the speed of movement of the yarn and the tension of the yarn various results may be obtained.
It will be understood that I have illustrated the various forms of vibrating devices as suggestive of the principle of the invention. I have found that the action of a vibrating abrasive is superiorto that of a stationary abrasive. in
that a continually changing surface of abrasive is presented to the yarn as the yarn travels and.
is twisted. A stationary abrasive tends to become clogged and ineffective and'in some cases tends to tear and destroy the filament or strands of the filament. While a somewhat irregular fuzziness is desired, the irregularity should not be so great as to damage the continuity of the .main body of the yarn. It is obvious also that any actlon which results in the breaking of a bundle of filaments is highly objectionable. By my invention such difficulties are eliminated.
Although the idea of vibrating the abrasive seems quite simple, I have found very marked improvements resulting from its use. For instance yarn was treated by passing it through a guide provided with an emery abrasive about 100 to 120 grit. In one set of tests the guide was vibrated rapidly by short strokes longitudinaliy of the yarn, e. g., .1" to .2" at the rate of say 7000 to 14000 strokes per minute, such for instance as may be produced by an electric razor motor. In the other set of tests the guide was held stationary;
Two samples of 150-60-0 acetate rayon were processed under the same conditions (except as to the guide). The traveler used in running both tests was #18/0 and in order to assure identical twist in each sample, both were run on the same spindle to produce a twist of approximately eight turns per inch. The same abrasive 'guide was used for both samples. The results showed that the yarn processed with the vibrating guide was more uniform in appearance, breaking strength and percentage elonga tion and had a greater breaking strength and elongation than the yarn processed with the stationary guide. Twenty-four tests were made with the guide stationary and twenty-four with a vibrating guide with the following results.
Yarn produced witl'Tthe stationary abrasive guide had a breaking strength varying from 85 to 125 grams with a maximum variation of 40 and an average of 106.2. The percentage elongation varied from 7 to 14.50 or 7.50 and with an average of 9.95. The vibration of the abrasive guide increased the average breaking strength to 113.1 between a minimum of 100 and a maximum of 130. Average percentage elongation was increased to 10.65 and there was a variation from 7.50 percent to 13.50 or 6% only.
An important feature of the improvement is to produce a reasonable amount of fuzziness with a minimum weakening of the yarn. 'It is desirable that at least some or most of the filaments of the usual raw bundle be scratched or broken at intervals but that the action be such that the interruptions in the-various filaments be distributed at irregular intervals along the length of the yarn. Some filaments may be broken at intervals of say one or two inches, and others at intervals of every two or three inches. Some filaments may not be broken for several inches. In this way itis possible to roughen all or practically all of the filaments and still retain desirable strength in the finished twisted yarn and yet produce the desirable appearance of fuzziness.
I have used the term rayon to include artificial filamentary substances in general such as are used in the place of and with silk and other fibers. Some viscose filaments are so tough or hard that very little if any roughening can be I accomplished with stationary abrasives. ment by my vibratory abrasive method however is quite eiIective. In fact this method may be employed successfully to give a fuzzy or nappy appearanceto almost any relatively smooth yarn with a minimum reduction in strength.
1. In a yarn machine, a guide for the yarn having an abrasive surface, means for vibrating the guide laterally of the yarn and intermittently engaging one side of lengths of the yarn and means for winding and twisting the yarn as it passes through said guide.
2. In a yarn machine, in combination, feed rollers adapted to receive yarn from a source of supply, a ring for twisting the yarn and a vibrator having an abrasive surface for intermit- Treattently and rapidly roughening the yarn simulof the .order of .1" to .2" at a rate of the order of several thousand strokes per minute and means for feeding twisting filaments past this abrader. 4. The method of roughening rayon yarn which comprises twisting abundle of continuous filaments of rayon, feeding the bundle of filaments in a substantially straight line and while so feeding and twisting said bundle applying an abrasive to one side only of the bundle longitudinally thereof over a distance of the order of one tenth to two tenths of an inch at the rate of the order of several thousand strokes per minute. 5. The method of treating a bundle of rayon filaments which comprises twisting the bundle and while the bundle is twisting applying an abrasive action intermittently longitudinally of the bundle to that part of it which is twisting.
6. .In a machine for producing roughened rayon-like yarn, the combination of.means for feeding a bundle of substantially continuous filaments, means for twisting said bundle of filaments to form twisted yarn and means for inter-' mittently andrapidly applying an abrasive to one side of the twisting yarn while the opposite side is free so as to roughen some of the filaments of the twisting yarn.
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