US 2191648 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 27, 394@ N. J. A. GALLIOT Er AL RECOIL ABSORBER 4FOR FIREARMS Filed July 28, 1957 wmJm/f Patented Feb. 27, 1940 Unirse sm'rss autres 2,191,643 macon. ABsoRBER ron FIREARMS Noreenl Jules Andr Gallier,
Jeanne Adrienne Victorine Anna Chable, Paris,
France Application July 28, 1937,
In Switzerland August 3,
' Ihe present invention relates to muzzle brakes or recoil absorbers for firearms, of the type including one or several convergent divergent nozzles, xed to the end of the barrel of the arm, coaxially therewith, and intended to increase the kinetic energy of theV gases, which are subsequently deviated and discharged outwardly by means of a stationary system of blades, either simple or multiple, produced by the revolution, about the longitudinal axis of the arm, of one or several arcs of curves having their concavity turned toward the rear of. the arm. The energy ofthe gases which react against this system of blades is utilizedvfor exerting a tractive force in a direction opposed to that of the'force producing the recoil of the arm.
II he invention is more especially concerned with a recoil absorber of this type'made according to our French Patent No. 798,213, of February 13,
1935. v In this recoil absorber, the gaseous streams,
discharged in a rearward direction by the device, are given a rotative movement about the axis of the arm in such a manner that, under the action of the centrifugal force thus generated, they are urged in a direction transverse to said axis and strike a deflecting system at an angle so that they are deviated outwardly toward the front of the arm. This deflecting device is constituted by rings forming small truste-conical cups having `the large base located on the side of the front end f the arm and the cups are located one behind the other about the axis of the barrel of the arm.
The present invention relates to the mounting .of these cup-shaped rings.
In the recoil absorber according to the above mentioned French patent, the various cup-shaped elements are rigid with one another so that their relative arrangement cannot be varied.
The essential feature of the present invention consists in making these cup-shaped elements in the form of individual rings slipped behind one another around the barrel of the firearm, with spacing means interposed between two consecu-y tive rings for keeping the desired intervals be` tween the successive rings, and means for holding all these elements applied against one another.
According to an embodiment of our invention,
these rings are supported by ribs formed both on `the outer surface of a sleeve tted on the barrel' and on the outer surface of the first nozzle.
According to this embodiment of the invention,
each of the cup-shaped rings is provided, on its back face, with a removable spacing piece, constituting the spacing means above mentioned,
Serial No. 156,226
which permits varying the spacing of each of the cup-shaped elements with respect to the other cup-shaped elements.
Other features of the present invention will appear from the following detailed description of some specific embodiments thereof.
A preferred embodiment of the present invention Will be hereinafter described, with reference to the accompanying drawing, given merely by way of example, and in which:
Fig. 1 is an external view, partly in axial longitudinal section, of the barrel of a firearm fitted with the recoil absorber according to the present invention; l
Fig. 2 is av separate view of a ribbed sleeve,y fitted upon the barrel, said sleeve being shown in cross section on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a view on an enlarged scale of a detail of construction; and
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatical View explaining the operation oi the recoil absorber.
In the drawing, reference character a designates the barrel of the firearm; b is a convergentdivergent nozzle screwed to the front end of the barrel;' c and d are two other convergent-divergent nozzles, mounted ahead of the first one b and xed to the envelope e as it will be hereinafter explained; f designates an inward flange, located ahead of the third nozzle d and provided with a ribbed cylindrical axial conduit f1 for the passage'of the projectile; b1, c1, d1 designate annular conduits or grooves, generated by the revolution, aboutl the longitudinal axis xof the arm, of the curved profile of the rear face c2, d2, f2, turned toward the arm, of nozzles c and d and flange j, respectively. These conduits or blades b1, c1, d1 constitute, so to speak, stationary blades. Nozzles b, c, d are rifled, in such manner as to impart to the gases passing through said nozzles, a rotary movement about the axis thereof. Preferably, the helical partitions or fins b3, c3, d3 of nozzles b, c, d, which correspond to the rifiing of these nozzles, have a pitch in the same direction as that yof the rifling of the bore of the barrel, and this pitch preferably varies in a gradual manner. In this case, the pitch of the partitions b3 of nozzle b is slightly smaller than that of the riings of the bore of the barrel. The pitch of the partitions c3 is smaller than that of the partitions b3, and the pitch of the partitions d3 is still smaller than that of the partitions c3 of the second nozzle c. K
The gases, which are thus given an extremely rapid movement of rotation about the axis ar-ar of the arm, escape through blade systems b1, c1,
d1 and are deflected and discharged toward the rear, passing between streamlined helical partitions h, i, y provided on the outer faces of nozzles b, c, d. The rear part of envelope or casing e is provided with screw threads in its inner wall, adapted to engage corresponding screw threads provided on the outer edges of the ribs or partitions h of the rst nozzle b. As for nozzles c and d, they are each made of twoy parts screwed in each other, to wit an external part integral with casing e through partitions z' and y', and an internal part forming the nozzle proper, These partitions h, z', 7' have a pitch depending upon the pitch of the riflings of the bore ofthe barrel, in such manner as to give the minimum resistance to the helical movement of the gaseous streams leaving the recoil absorber andto maintain itand even accelerate it, if possible. But `this pitchl of the partitions is opposed tothat of the rifllngsof the bore.
The envelopefe of the recoil absorber may,`as shown by the drawing, beV provided withy a plurality of small ports e1,suitably inclined, through which a portion of the gases issuing from the blade systems b1, c1, dlis discharged into the atmosphere.
The gaseous streams leaving the recoil absorber pass along deep helical partitions or ribs lclpro,-
vided on the outer surface of a sleeve k xedto barrel a. Preferably, thissleeve is made of a light alloy of high thermic conductivity and the thermic expansion of which approximates that of the metal of the barrel, for instance an aluminium alloy containing a high percentage of silicon.
These helical partitions or ribs have a pitch opposed to that of the riflingsof the barrel bore, and are shorter at the. origin, that is'to say at the front. Preferably, this pitchvaries gradually, being shorter toward the rear. These helical partitions or ribs maintain and accelerate themovement of rotation of the gaseous streams about the axis :vof the arm. Underithe influence of the centrifugal force whichresults therefrom, these gaseous -strearnsaredriven away from theirinitial path and move in a direction substantially transverse to the. axis :v -:cof the arm.
These gaseous streams thus .strikey deflecting parts which are constituted by rings. in the form of small frusto-conicalcups Z the large base4 of which is located toward the front of the arm.
These cup-shaped elements, which are small andI numerous, are merely slipped, behind one another, about the barrelof the arm, on the ribs k1 of sleeve lc, They are kept in position'in the following manner. The first cup-shaped element, at the front end, bears upontherear 'edge of the envelope e of the recoil absorber proper. The last cup-shaped element, at therear, bears upon an abutment piece m, iixed to the barrel doffthe arm, between the latter and the rear end of sleeve 7c. This abutment piece m is provided witha recess m1 which constitutes an expansion chainber for the gases.
On the periphery of the back face of each cup-shaped element, from place to place, aresecured, in-a removable manner, through screws Z1, blade-shaped pieces Z2, against which bearsthe next cup-shaped element, in such manner as to provide the desired spacing between the cupshaped elements. With this arrangement, it is possible easily to adjust this interval between the cup-shaped elements, either by replacing these spacing blades Z by others of a dilerentsize and profile, or, more simply, by iiling off the spacing parts so as to obtain the desired spacing of the cup-shaped elements, according to the kind of arm that is employed, its bore and various other conditions.
These spacing blades Z may be disposed parallel to the axis of the arm or in a helical arrangement.
The cup-shapedr elements are preferably given, as shown, a lens-shaped transverse section.
The operation is the following. The gases discharged from the system of the blades of the recoil absorber and moving with a quick rotary motion about the axis :rz-x of the arm under the effect of the riiiing of the barrel bore, of the internal helical partitions b3, c3, d3 of nozzles b, c, d, of the external helical partitions h, i, j of these nozzles, andof the helical ribs k1 of sleeve 7c, are, under the effect v of the centrifugal force thus produced, projected outwardly, in a direction transverse to this axis :v -zr, and theystrilreO the internal faces of cup-shaped elements Z; The;v latter reflect them toward the from; ofgtheaarm. As shown in Fig. 4, the cup-shaped elements- Z` are spacedA apart fromv one another a distanceV such that a portion of the gaseous stream, vprojected rat @behind the rear edge ofa cup-shaped'- element, meets another portion of this gaseousv stream, projected at u against the internal faceu ofthe next cup-shaped element, which deviates this portion of the gaseous stream. This meeting of the gaseous streams produces eddies in the gases. This second portion of thegaseous stream drives the first portion towardthe front part of thegarmf.
The gases, leavingy thev recoil absorber, arethus:
dividedintoagreat number of streams, which are deviated` towardthe front, and which cannotinjure thecrew of the arm, as might takeplace, especially inthe case of arms of largebore.
The. construction above,` described permits av very easy and economical assembly,- adjustment, and disassembly. The structure is very strong. In order to take-it to pieces, itsuices to unscrew the envelope or casing (which carries nozzles cand d) from the partitions or ribs` h of the iirst nozzle b, and rings Z can then bev removed by merelycausingthemto slide along the ribs-k1l of sleeve k.
The cup-shaped elements can be kept in position on sleeve lc in any suitable manner otherthan that shown, for instance byscrewing on an external system of threads provided on the ribs k1 of sleeve 7c. The adjustable spacing betweenthe cup-shaped elements can also be obtainedin any suitable manner. The cup-shapedvelements can also bel maintained in position by a slight conicity. of the ribsklof sleeve k, the sizes `of'the aperturesv in-the cup-shaped members then varying from onecup-shaped elementto the next one;
TheY ribs lcllwhich support thepcup-shapedelements l, instead ofv being provided on a sleeve fixed to thebarreI'a of the arm, might'be formed` directly on said barrel. Instead of being helical, these ribs 13,1 might be-parallel to the longitudinal axis of the arm. As a matter of fact, it has been found that the pitch of the ribs -must be thelonger as the length of the apparatus is greater. Therefore, this pitch can be innitely great under certain-circumstances. In this casethe gases are projected against the cup-shaped elements by the centrifugal force imparted thereto in their rotary movement due to the riiiing of the bore and to the internal helical partitions b3, c3, d3`of= nozzles-b, c, d.
InA a generalmanner, While we have, in the 75,
above description, disclosed what we deem to be practical and efcient embodiments of the present invention, it should be well understood that we do not wish to be limited thereto, as there might be changes made in the arrangement, disposition, and form of the parts without departing from the principle o the present invention as comprehended within the scope of the appended claims.
What we claim is:
l. in connection with a firearm having a barrel, a recoil absorber which comprises, in combination, at least two convergent divergent nozzles fused in series to the end of said barrel coaxially therewith, a system of blades carried by said nozzles for deflecting the gases issuing from said barrel into a rearward direction and rotating them about the axis of said barrel, a plurality of truste-conical rings each having its large base turned toward the 'front of the iirearm mounted around the axis of said barrel at the rear of said nozzles so as to be struck by the gases thus delected rearwardly, said rings being individually slipped around said barrel, and means for keeping said rings in position.
2. In connection with a firearm having a barrel, a recoil absorber which comprises, in combination at leasttwo convergent divergent nozzles fixed in series to the front end of said barrel coaxially therewith, a system of blades carried by said nozzles for defiecting the gases issuing from said barrel into a. rearward direction and rotating them about the axis of Said barrel, helical ribs carried by said nozzles on the cuter periphery thereof, a tubular casing surrounding said ribs, a sleeve fitted on the front end of said barrel, including ribs in line with the iirst mentioned ribs, a plurality of frusto-conical rings each having its large base turned toward the front of the firearm individually slipped on said ribs around the axis of said barrel, so as to be struck by the gases thus deflected rearwardly, distance members interposed between two consecutive rings, and means for holding said rings with their distance memu bers applied against lJne another.
3. In connection with a rearm having a barrel, a recoil absorber which comprises, in combination, at least two convergent divergent nozzles xed in series to the front end of said barrel coaxially therewith, a tubular casing surrounding said nozzles, deiiecting surfaces carried by the second nozzle and the front end of said casing for deiiecting the gases issuing from the first nozzle into a rearward direction, blades carried by said nozzles, forming helical ribs between the outer peripheries of said nozzles and said casing, for rotating these deflected gases around the axis of said barrel, a sleeve tted on the front end of said barrel, including ribs prolonging the first mentioned ribs, a plurality of frusto-conical rings each having its large base turned toward the front of the firearm individually slipped on said ribs at the rear of said casing, so as to be struck by the rearwardly deflected gases, spacing members carried by each ring for cooperating with the next one, and means for holding said rings with their spacing members applied against one another.
4. A recoil absorber according to claim 3 in which each of said spacing members is removably carried by the corresponding ring.
5. A recoil absorber according to claim 3 in which each of said spacing members is removably carried by the back side of the corresponding ring.
6. A recoil absorber according to claim 3 in which each of said rings has in axial section the shape of a biconvex lens.
NORBERT JULES ANDR GALLIOT. JEANNE ADRIENNE VTCTORINE ANNA CHABLE.