US 2192150 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H. M. PIERCE ET AL 3,192,150
SOLE PLATE Feb. 27, 1940.
Filed Aug. 25, 1938 INVENTORS Howard M P/erce BY Jo/m H Hermon 4/ 4 45 Wmt3w Patented Feb. 27.
PATENT OFFICE SOLE FLA Howard M. Pierce ind Jolm B. Hermaon, Brooklyn, N. 1., alaignors to A. G. Spalding & Bros. Inc., New York, N. 1., a corporation of Delaware Appllcation All!!! 25, 1938, Serial No. 226,614
The present invention relates to improvements in devices for securing a cleat to the sole of a shoe.
In athletic shoes, and particularly in those intended for use in different sports or on difierent ground, it is usually the practice to provide the sole with a, plurality of elements adapted to secure cleats or the like removable to the sole so that different types of cleats can be applied or a faulty cleat can be replaced by a new one.
Prior to this invention it has been a problem to find a simple manner of securing cleat-holding elements to the soles of a shoe so that the elements cannot gradually work deeper into or even through the outer sole during normal we or when thecleat is subjected to considerable pulling force. It has been a further problem to find a simple manner of securing the cleat-holding elements so that they cannot be turned or twisted relative to the soles when the cleat is subjected to considerable twisting force.
It is, therefore, an important object of the present invention to provide a cleat-holding device of simple construction which is secured to the sole of an athletic shoe in such a manner that it can neither be twisted or turned relative to the sole nor be pulled therefrom.
Another important object of the invention .resides in providing an athletic shoe with a steel plate which is placed between the inner and outer soles, and in locking such a plate in fixed position relative to the soles.
Various proposals have been made prior to this invention for solving the above-mentioned problems. Some of these proposals consisted in providing eccentrically located prongs on the heads of the cleat-holding elements and a plurality of apertures in the sole plate for receiving such prongs and the shank portions of the elements.
Other proposals consisted in providing'noncircular enlarged portions or projections on the shanks of the cleat-holding elements and apertures in the sole plate substantially corresponding in size and shape to the noncircular portions of the elements. For inserting the cleat-holding elements according to either of these prior proposals fully into therespective apertures in the sole plate and thereby locking the elements against rotation relative to the sole plate, it was necessary to center the prongs or noncircular portions accurately relative to the corresponding apertures in the sole plate. Such centering is, however, a very difllcult operation particularly ifthe sole plate is located between two soles which are provided with coaxial bores for receiving the shanks of the cleat-holding elements. In such event,
the cleat-holding elements must be inserted after the soles and the sole plate have been secured together and when the sole plate and its'apertures are hidden from view. Even if by mere chance a highly skilled worker might succeed at one time or another to place a cleat-holding element into the mouth of the bore of the inner sole in an accurately centered position relative to the noncircular aperture in the sole plate, it may easily occur that by driving the element into the bore of the inner sole, the element is slightly turned or twisted so that the position of the noncircular portion thereof does not anymore correspond with the position of the aperture in the sole plate. In such event, the cleat-holding element cannot be fully driven into the soles, its head projects above the inner sole rendering the shoe uncomfortable or even unfit for use. Furthermore, if the noncircular portion of the cleat-holding element is not centered relative to the corresponding aperture in the sole plate and then inserted therein, the cooperating means on the cleat and the cleat-holding element for securing the same together, which usually consist of a screw on one of the two members and a threaded bore in the other member, could either not be brought into engaging position at all or the engagement would extend only over a very few screw threads and be insecure.
, Finally, since the cleat-holding element would not be locked against turning when the noncircu-- lar portion thereof rests on the sole plate rather than within the corresponding aperture in the sole plate, the cleat would also not be secure against turning; and if during normal use of the shoe the cleat is subjected to considerable turning or twisting force, both the cleat and the holding element may turn until the noncircular portion of the element is in a centered position relative to the aperture in the sole plate. When this occurs, the force'with which the cleat is.
applied to the holding element and particularly the bending force to which the cleat is subjected during normal use 'of the shoe, will pull the cleat-holding element into the soles and the noncircular portion into the aperture in the sole plate. Consequently,. the upper surface of the cleat, if at all, will not anymore be uniformly in contact with the face of the outer sole, the cleat will be able to turn freely and twist or wiggle together with the holding element relative to the sole. Even if only one of the cleats is in such loose condition during use of the shoe, this causes unsure footing which, in turn, may result in serious injury to the athlete wearing the shoe.
It is an important object of the present invention to overcome the above-described disadvantage of prior proposals and to provide means for automatically centering the cleat-holding elements in a locking position relative to the sole plate.
An important feature of the invention, attaining the above objectives, is the provision of a steel plate between the outer and inner soles of a shoe with suitable noncircular apertures within which cleat-holding studs are seated, which are of a shape to cooperate with the apertures in the plate so as to turn and slip of their own accord, and without manual centering, into a predetermined position within the plate in which theyare automatically locked against turning.
Another feature of the invention is the provision of a steel plate which is inserted between the outer and inner soles of a shoe, with substantially diamond-shaped or oval apertures.
A complemental feature is the provision of such I apertures in the sole plate so that their major axis extends substantially parallel with the longitudinal axis of the sole.
A further object of the invention is to provide cleat-holding studs with outwardly flaring projections which are designed to penetrate into the inner sole and be located by and securely locked within the diamond-shaped or oval apertures of the steel plate.
A further object of the present invention is the provision of a metal sole plate which has less tendency to wear through the outer or tap sole than similar plates proposed prior to this invention.
For attaining this object, the invention provides a sole plate,a rear portion of which is more flexible than the forward portion thereof.
Another feature of the invention is the provision of a solid plate of short length with lateral rearwardly projecting arms which are provided with suitable apertures near their free ends for receiving cleat-holding elements.
A complemental feature is the provision of free end portions on such rearwardly projecting arms of a sole plate, which are curved or bent toward the inner sole and away from the flesh side of the outer or tap sole so as to reduce frictional contact of the ends with the outer or tap sole.
These and other objects, features and advantages will appear in greater detail from the following description of the invention, and from tlie drawing in which:
Figure 1 is an exploded view, partially in section, of the elements which are to be secured to one another. 4
Fig. 2 is a fractional view of a shoe with the device according to the invention in assembled condition.
Fig. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the stud member and sole plate.
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 but showing the stud member in locking position.
Fig. 5 is the sole plate per se.
Fig. 6 shows a modification of the sole plate.
Fig. 7 is a view of still another modification of the sole plate.
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section through the outer or tap sole of a shoe with a sole plate according to Fig. 7 applied thereto.
Before describing the present improvements and mode of operation thereof in detail it should be understood that the invention is not limited to in Fig. 2. In order to lock studs I2 within holes other embodiments, and the phraseology em- 5 ployedis for the purpose of description and not oflimitation. Y Referring particularly to the drawing, a plurality of cleats III or the like are-removably secured to the tread of the tap sole II of a shoe, by fixedly mounting a plurality of studs I2 within the main and tap soles I3 and I I and by screwing the cleats I0 thereto. For this purpose, coaxial holes I4 and I5 of circular cross-section are either drilled or punched into the soles II and I3 during the manufacture of the shoe.
Each of the studs I2 has a shank l6 of generally circular cross-section of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of holes I 4 and I5, and is provided with a threaded bore I! in its lower end into which the threaded stem l8 of v a cleat I0 may be screwed. A head I9 at the upper end of each of studs I2 has a flat upper surface 20 and a conical lower surface 2|, the
latter being designed to be drawn into the mate- 2 rial of the sole I3 when the stud is inserted and fixed within the holes I l and I5, so that the upper surface 20 of the head I! is at an even level with the upper surface of the sole II, as shown I4 and I5 to prevent turning thereof, as also to strengthen the studs, each of them is provided with a pair of diametrically opposite ribs 22 of triangular or wedgelike cross-section.
For strengthening the soles II and I3 and at the same time, for providing a locking element to secure the studs I2 in a fixed position, a flat steel plate 25, usually called a sole plate, is provided between the two soles II and I3. A series of apertures 26 are cut into the sole plate 25 the center of each of which is substantially coaxial with the center of the corresponding holes I5 and I4 in the main and tap soles. The apertures 26 are shaped to accommodate and receive the shanks I6 01' studs I2, and to permit at least partial insertion of ribs 22 into the apertures, see Fig. 4, so as to prevent turning of studs l2 within the apertures 26. Inasmuch as the greatest amount of stresses to which both the cleats as also the studs are subjected, is usually directed in longitudinal direction of the soles, it is desirable to provide the studs with a larger seating surface in such longitudinal direction than would be necessary in a transverse direction of the soles. For this reason, it is preferable to position the studs I2 within the soles II and I3 so that their ribs 22 extend in longitudinal direction of the sole, as shown particularly in Fig. 2, and to position the apertures 26 accordingly so that their axis A-A extends substantially parallel with the longitudinal axis 13-]! of the sole plate which, when the sole plate 25 is properly inserted between soles II and I3, substantially coincides with the longitudinal axis of the soles.
For inserting studs I2 into the soles II and I3, as also through apertures 26 in the sole plate 25, their bevelled edge 21 at the lower end of the cylindrical portion I6 is placed within the mouth of the hole I5 in the main sole II. Thereupon, the studs are driven into the holes I5 of the main sole II either manually or by means of a suitable ram, whereby the ribs 22 cut or wedge into the leather of the sole.
Inasmuch as it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to center the studs I2 manually so u sole plate exactly that the transverse axis -0 of the studs l2 passing centrally through ribs 22, coincides with the longitudinal axis AA of the apertures in the sole plate, and to fit ribs 22 into the apertures 26, it is necessary that a selfcentering feature be provided whereby during the insertion of the studs, the latter automatically turn about their vertical axis until they assume their correctly aligned position relative to the apertures 26.
For this purpose, according to the preferred form of the invention, the wedge-shaped ribs 22 on studs l2 are of gradually reducing cross-section from their upper toward their lower ends so as to merge finally into the side wall of the shank 16, or in other words, ribs 22 flare diagonally outwardly from a point 26 on the side wall of shank [6 to the outer edge 23 of the head so as to merge with the latter. Furthermore, as shown in Figs. 3 to 5, apertures 26 are made of elongated diamond shape, and the corners 30 forming the apexes of the wider angles of each aperture are rounded off so that the general size and shape of each aperture is substantially the same as that of. a cross-section of the ribbed portion 22 of each stud taken substantially along line DD as shown in Fig. 4.
If,during the insertion of a stud l2 into the holes i of the main sole l3, the edges 21 of the wedge-shaped ribs 22 contact with the opposite walls 3| of the apertures 26, as indicated in Fig. 3, stud 12 takes the way of least resistance and slides with a turning motion automatically along the walls 3| into a centered position within the aperture 26, as shown in Fig. 4, in which the stud is positively locked against turning. If after the completion of the shoe, a cleat Ill is screwed into the stud l2, as shown in Fig. 2, the latter because of the wedge-like shape of its ribs 22, is locked the tighter into engagement with the sole plate 25 and within the holes and IS in the soles, the tighter the cleat is applied.
According to the modification shown in Fig. 6, the shape of the diamond-shaped apertures 32 differs from the cross-sectional shape of the ribbed portions 22 of each stud [2 in that the walls 33 of the apertures 32 are of equal length and each of these walls is curved outwardly from its center 34.
If upon insertion of a stud 12 into one of these apertures, the ribs 22 are not centered relative to the axis AA, as-shown at the left side of Fig. 6, and have their edges 21 closer to the corners 35 than to the corners 36, the curved wall surfaces 33 guide the ribs 22 into such central position. This modification also permits the insertion and locking of the stud l2 into a second position in which the ribs are directed transversally of the sole plate H. Therefore, when the stud i2 is inserted into one of apertures 32, the sliding of the ribs into a longitudinal or a transverse position relative to the sole plate ll merely depends on whether the edges 21 of the ribs 22 are located closer to the corners 36 or to the corners 36 of the aperture 32.
According to a further modification of the invention shown in Fig. 7, the apertures 31 in the 25 may be ovally shaped. In such event, the stud l2 may either be provided with ribs 22 of triangular or wedge-shaped cross-section shown in Figs. 1 to 4, or the ribbed portion thereof may be of oval gradually increasing cross-section in a manner similarly as described relative to Figs. 1 to 4.
It has furthermore been found in actual practice that the outer or tap soles of athletic shoes which are provided with the usual type of sole plates of substantially uniform flexibility or even higher rigidity at their rear portion than at their forward portion. and which extend considerably beyond the ball portion toward the shank, wear through quicker at the portion overlying the rear end of the sole plate than at any other place. This defect has been traced to the fact that the latter portion of the sole has a considerable tendency during normal use of the shoe to bend in upward direction due to the flexing of the shank portion of the foot. However, since the stiff rear end portion of the sole plate resists such tendency, only the rear end of the sole which is free of the sole plate, is able to bend relatively sharply about the rear edge of the sole plate, which, consequently, has the tendency to cut into the sole until the same is worn through completely by this rear edge.
In order to overcome this disadvantage the present invention, as shown in Fig. '7, provides a substantially central cut-out portion 38 in the sole plate 25' extending from the rear end thereof to a point 36 forward of the portion underlying the metatarsal arch of the foot. By such a cutout 33, a pair of lateral arms 40 and 4| are formed on the solid forward portion 42 of the sole plate 25' which possess greater flexibility than the forward portion, and which upon flexing of the ball and shank portions of the sole are able to flex likewise. In order to reduce still further the possibility of the rear edges 43 and 44 of the arms 40 and H of cutting into the sole leather, the end portions of the arms 40 and 4| toward the rear of the apertures 31 in which the studs supporting the ball cleats are secured, are made as short as possible, as this will be seen by a comparison of Fig. 7 with Fig. 5, which latter view indicates the length and shape of the usual type-of sole plate.
Such shortening of the end portions of arms 40 and 4| has the additional advantage of reducing the danger of ripping of the stitching across the rear or shank end of the tap sole since the free portion 45 of the tap sole which is subjected to considerable tearing stresses is enlarged and the stresses are divided over a larger area.
Furthermore, as shown in Fig. 8, the end portions of arms 46 and 4| are curved or bent upwardly and away from sole ll so that the edges 43 and 44 of the arms 40 and 4| will not be in contact with or at least not be pressed upon the sole when the foot rests fully on the ground, and will not come in contact with the sole ll until the shank portion 46 is flexed upwardly during the use of the shoe to a considerable extent. Therefore, the friction or cutting action normally produced during the use of the shoe by the rear edges of sole plates commonly used prior to this invention. is avoided.
Various modifications may obviously be made within the scope of this invention. For example, the shape of the ribbed portions 22 of the stud members as also of the apertures in the sole plates may be modified in any desirable manner. In place of the screw ii on the cleat l0 and the threaded bore II in the stud l2, any other suitable means may be provided for securing the cleat to the stud. Furthermore, the shape and extent of the cut-out portion 38 in the sole plate,
- the length and shape of the arms 40 and 4|, and
the degree of flexibility of the rear portion of of the improvements may be used without others..
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new is:
1. In combination with a shoe, a sole; a cleat;
means on said sole for securing the cleat thereto;
and cooperating means on said sole and said securing means for concurrently moving and guiding the latter into a predetermined position, and for positively preventing said securing means from turning relative to said sole when in. said predetermined position.
2. In combination with a shoe, a sole having a bore; a stud member; and means for concurrently moving and guiding said stud member into a predetermined position within said bore and for positively preventing said stud member from turning within said bore when in said predetermined position.
3. In combination with a shoe, a pair of soles having coaxial bores therein; a cleat; means within said bores for securing the cleat to one of said soles; and means intermediate said soles, cooperable with said securing means for positively guiding and moving the latter into a predetermined position and for locking the same therein.
4. In combination with a shoe, a sole having a bore; a plate on said sole having a noncircular aperture coaxial with said bore; a stud member; and means on said stud member, cooperable with the walls of said aperture for guiding the stud member into said bore and aperture and turning the same within the aperture into a predetermined locking position.
5. In combination with a shoe, a sole having a bore; a stud member; and means for automatically moving and guiding said stud member into one of a plurality of predetermined locking posi tions within said bore.
, 6. In combination with a shoe, a sole having a bore; a plate on said sole having a noncircular aperture coaxial with said bore; a stud member; and means on said stud member for guiding the stud member into said bore and aperture and cooperating. with the walls of said aperture for turning the stud member into one of a plurality of predetermined locking positions.
7. In combination with a shoe, a sole having a bore; .a plate on said sole having a noncircular aperture substantially coaxial with said bore and of larger size than said bore; a cleat; means for securing the cleat to said sole including a memher having a lower section substantially or a size and cross-sectional shape as the aperture in said sole, a head at the upper end of said member,- and an intermediate section having a portion substantially oi a size and cross-sectional shape as the aperture in said plate and gradually merging downwardly into said lower portion to cooperate with the walls of the aperture in guiding and turning the securing means into a predetermined position and locking the latter means against turningwhen in said predetermined position.
8. In combination with a shoe, a pair of soles having bores therein; a plate intermediate said soles having a substantially diamond-shaped aperture therein coaxially with the bores in said soles; a stud member having a head at the upper end, a shank portion at the lower end of a crosssectional size substantially the same as the width of the bores in said sole, and an intermediate portion of elongated cross-section and a size so as to fit tightly into the aperture in said plate to lock the stud against turning when in a predetermined position therein, and merging gradually into said shank portion to cooperate with the walls of the aperture in guiding and turning the stud into said predetermined position.
9. In combination with a shoe, a stud member having a head and a cylindrical shank portion, and a pair of diametrically opposite projections of generally triangular cross-section flaring outwardly from an intermediate point on the shank portion toward the head; a pair of soles having bores therein for receiving said stud member; a plate intermediate said soles having a substantially quadrangular aperture therein substantiallycoaxial with the bores in said soles, said aperture having walls curving outwardly from their center, whereby when said stud is inserted into said aperture, said projections abut against and slide along said curved walls to turn said stud into one or another locking position within said aperture. i
10. In combination with a shoe, a sole; a plate associated with said sole, having at least one aperture therein; at least one stud for securing a cleat to said sole, insertable in saidaperture; and means on said stud cooperable with said plate in said aperture to hold the stud against turning when in a predetermined position therein, said last named means and said aperture being so shaped as to automatically turn said stud to said predetermined position when the stud is inserted in the aperture.
11. In combination with a shoe, an outer sole; a sole plate comprising forward and rear portions, said forward portion being secured to and in contact with the inner face of said outer sole, and said rear portion being bent away from and normally out of contact with said outer sole.
HOWARD M. PIERCE. JOHN H. HERMSON.