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Publication numberUS2192594 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 5, 1940
Filing dateApr 17, 1937
Priority dateApr 17, 1937
Publication numberUS 2192594 A, US 2192594A, US-A-2192594, US2192594 A, US2192594A
InventorsAyres Waldemar A, Samuel Brand
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Printing machine
US 2192594 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1940- 5. BRAND ET AL 2,192,594

PRINTING MACHINE Filed April 17, 1937 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVEZEQRA ATTORNEY March 5, 1940. 5. BRAND ET AL PRINTING MACHINE Filed Apl 'il 17, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 March 5, 1940. 5. BRAND El A1.

PRINTING MACHINE Filed April 17, 1937 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 6Q QQ $0 as INVENT I33 gf '46.

m ATTO RN EY March 5, 1940. 5. BRAND ET AL PRINTING MACHINE Filed April 17, 1957 6 Sh'eets-Shee t 6 lNVENT Rs ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 5, 1940 PATENT OFFICE 2.192.594 rrmrrmo. momma Samuel Brand, Binghamton, Ayres, New York, N. Y.,

and Waldemar A. assignors to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N. Y., a. corporation of New York Application April 17, 1937, Serial No. 137,468

27 Claims.

This invention relates generally to improvements in printing machines and more specifically to an electrically operated typewriter controlled by a combination 6 board.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a typing machine with less than the usual number of keys and yet wherein it is possible to print in one stroke, words of four or five letters. Direct stenographic recording is thus made possible at high speeds.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a key arrangement making it possible to represent four and five letter words with a simul- 5 taneous operation of the digits of the two hands.

A feature of this invention is the arrangement of special control keys for operation along with the letter keys by the same digits to select the capital shift, shift lock, space, back space, tabulate, and ;0 carriage return controls.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved permutational arrangement of keys involving the use of two fingers in cooper ation with six keys to depress thirty-five different combinations of the keys, each combination representing a letter, numeral or special I character. Heretofore, in the art, it was shown that the fingers and thumb of a hand may cooperate with five keys to depress them singly n or in combination to record one of a plurality of characters. That system has its limitations. however,because evenwhen two hands are used, no more than two characters may be set up at a time. In the present case, two similar fingers of both hands are worked in combination with six keys, three finger. For example, both index fingers cooperate in the making of a permutational setup of one or more of six keys. Thus, by the use of the five pairs of fingers andthumbs it is possible to set up five character combinations simultaneously where heretofore only two combinations were possible.

An objectof the invention is the' provision of electrical contact devices operated by a set of keys depressed by fingers of both hands for selecting the printing of one of. a plurality of characters greater in number than the number of keys. lected three keyswhich are operated singly or in pairs by similar fingers of both hands. Four or five of, such sets of six keys 'may be operated at once to control the prising a word.

key stenographic keysecond letter, the two of which are associated with each One of thirty-five characters may be seby six keys arranged in two columns of typing of'a group of letters com- A feature of the invention is the distally controlled sequence of character representation. The stronger pairs of inner digits, the thumbs and index fingers, serve to select frequent short words and first letters of all other words while 5 the'outer fingers only come into play on longer words. The sequence of letter representation is in the following order: the thumbs, the index fingers, the middle fingers, the ring fingers, and .the small fingers.

An object of the invention is the provision of typewriter timing devices adapted to be controlled distally by the setting of the keys. The sequence of operation of the related pairs of key groups is from'the center of the keyboard out 16 to the right and left. For example, the two index fingers control the selection of the first letter of a word, the two middle fingers select the ringfingers pick out the two small fingers select 20 thirdletter and the the fourth letter.

.An object of the invention is theprovision of a type bar operating timer that is released only by keys associated with certain fingers. The timer controls the sequence of operation of thetype- 5 writerto print selected letters from left to right across .a record sheet. The sets of keys associated with the middle and ring fingers call in the timer for operation when more than one letter is to be typed, but'when only the index fingers are depressed to select one letter, the timer is notreleased. An object of the invention is the provision of a clutch between the timer and a driving motor for the timer. The clutch. is connected only when a plurality of letters are to be printed.

Another feature of thepresent invention is-the provision of means for locking the keys in a depressed position and a device for disabling said locking means when the operating switch is in 4 the off position, This is done'to prevent in- I stantaneous printing when the switch is thrown on, due to keys being depressed and locked down while the machine current is shut off.

of means to enlarge the character representing capacity of a printing device controlled .by com-- binations of keys. It is made possible to print a certain character under control of a certain combination of keys depressed by one pair of fingers, 50 and then print another character under control of the same combination of other keys depressed by another pair of fingers.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved form of clutch between a 5 Another object of the invention is the provision Q driving means and a contact timing device for controlling the sequence of letter printing. The clutch is released by an escapement which requires both the depression and restoration of control keys before the clutch is restored in preparation for another'cycle. The arrangement is provided in order to prevent repeated printing when keys are held down after printing is accomplished.

A further object of the invention is the provision of devices for printing more frequently occurring characters under control of key combinations that are fingered with relatively greater ease in a typewriter controlled by a combination key keyboard.

The foregoing objects and otherfeatures of the invention will become more apparent as this disclosure continues with reference to the drawings which accompany and form part of this specification.

In the drawings:

Fig, 1 shows an arrangement of keys for controlling the recording 'of five characters simultaneously by the use of the fingers and thumbs of both hands. A pair of control bars are placed near the index finger keys and operable by the index fingers to selectspecial characters. Fig. 2 illustrates an arrangement of keys somewhat similar to that in Fig. 1, but with the further provision of a capital selection bar between the thumb keys.

Fig. 3 discloses an arrangement of keys differing from the arrangements in Figs. 1 and 2 in the provision of a space bar to the right of the thumb keys and placement of a capital selection bar at the left of the thumb keys.

Fig. 4 reveals a simplified arrangement of keys for controlling the selection of four characters simultaneously using only the fingers and reserving the thumbs for operation of shift, shift lock and space bars.

Fig. 5 shows an arrangement of keys like that of Fig. 4 with the addition of back space, tabulate and carriage return control bars positioned for operation by the thumbs. I

Fig. 6 is a sectional elevation view of a remote control stenographic keyboard and timer device for operating a typewriter.

Fig. '7 is a plan view of-the device'shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8 is an elevation view of a stenographic keyboard and timer built within the cover of a typewriter.

Fig. 9 is a sectional elevation view of the timer clutch.

Fig. 10 is a detail view of the clutch engaging plate. i

. Fig. 11 is an end view of the timer clutch.

Fig. 12 is a section of the clutch showing the engaging rollers and slots.

Fig. 13 is an elevation view of a column of keys cooperating with key locking and timer releasing links.

Fig. 14 is a wiring diagram of the machine.

The keyboard arrangements disclosed in Figs. 1-5 are described hereinafter with an explanation of the key combinations and character se-' lections, especially of the combinations of key in Fig. 5 which is the modification illustrated herein in connection with a typewriter of the kind known as Electromatic."

The five keyboards illustrated have certain features that are common to all of them. For example, each one comprises three groups of keys,

a left group of keys adapted to be'operated by the four fingers of the left hand, a center groupof keys which are to be operated by thetwo thumbs, and a right group of keys designed to be depressed by the fingers of the right hand. Three keys are provided for each finger, the finger tip being normally poised above the center key but a short forward movement brings it over the edges of both upper keys and a further forward movement brings it over the upper key; a short rearward movement positions the finger tip over the two lower keys and another rearward increment of movement serves to select the lower key alone. The keys are positioned to coincide with the natural placement of the finger tips and thumbs of outstretched hands, all finger tips and thumbs normally resting over the center keys of the vertically arranged sets of three keys. A character selection is made by the actuation of two similar digits of the two hands in cooperation with six keys. For example, in Fig. 1 the left thumb'cooperates with keys a, b, and c, and the right thumb cooperates with keys I, 2, and 3 to select the first letter of a word. The second letter of a word may be selected by the permutational operation of keys d, e, f, 4, 5, and 6 by the two index fingers. And the fifth letter of a word is selected by the depression of one or more keys m, n, 0, l3, l4,and l5 by the small fingers of both hands. From the foregoing it is obvious that the sequence of character selection is fingered distally, that is, from the center of the keyboard out towards the sides, the pairs of sets of keys nearest the center selecting the first letter of a word and the two end sets of keys selecting the fifth letter of a word. Thus, in selecting keys to represent the word black, the

two thumbs would select B, the two index fingers L, the two middle fingers A, the two ring fingers C and the two small fingers K. Through.

the cooperation of two fingers with six keys to depress various combinations or permutations of one, two, three or four keys, different settings may be made and related to letter, numeral, punctuation mark and specialcharacter representation.

In the keyboard illustrated in Fig. 1, the six keys a, b, c, l, 2, and 3 operated by the thumbs may be studied with regard to the various combinations of keys which may be set. An assignment of characters to depressed key combinations may be made as follows:

Key ey Character selections combina- Character selections combinations ions From the foregoing it is apparent that thirty different combinations of depressed keys may be chosen by the two thumbs cooperating with six keys. In a similar way the other finger key groups may have control to select corresponding characters.

Keys d, e, ,f, 4, 5 and 6 being operated by the two The numbered keys are operated by the fingers of the right hand, the lettered keys are depressed with the left hand. Each vertical row of three keys on the right side is operated in combination with the corresponding vertical row of keys on the left side. Therefore, the five sets of six keys control the selection of five sets of thirty characters each, totaling one hundred and fifty characters.

Two special bars SI and S2 are provided to select infrequently used characters. These bars are placed alongside the keys operated by the index fingers and are operated therewith to select special characters.

An assignment of thirty special characters copy thereof.

and control operations may be made as follows:

to be recorded in two strokes. If there are more than ten letters in a word, three strokes are required, etc., in multiples of five letter groups. Since a large proportion of words comprise five letters or less from the standpoint of frequency of use, and since a great majority of words are ten letters or less, it is obvious that this method of representing words in five letter groups lends itself to a very rapid recording operation making 1 it possible to take dictation and type a direct The key tops may be blank or provided with characters such as the reference numerals shown to aid in remembering the key combinations or for practice and training purposes.

In Fig. 3, there is disclosed a key arrangement very much the same as the arrangements in Figs.

1 and 2, but differing therefrom in the provision of a space bar I1 at the right of the thumb keys, and differing in the rearrangement of the caps bar I6 to the left of the thumb keys instead of between them. The space bar I! may be operated by the right thumb along with the depression of one or two of the keys I", 2", and 3" or it may be operated alone. Then too, the keys Character and opera- Character and operaons tion selections may be operated without operating the space bar OHS Back space...

4S Carriage return. 6 Exclamation S1, 6S2, d olon .1. S1, 6-82, d, 2 Beginning parenthe- 6-S2, e sis. S1, 6-82, 2,1 Ending parenthesis.. Apostrophe... 6S2, f Dollar sign Underline 1, 4, 5 And sign (60.... S semicolon S1, 4, 5-82, :1 Shilling mark (l) S Question mark 51,4, S2, d,e Per cent (95).. S

Asterisk .I

The fingers of the righthand are normally positioned on keys 2, 5, 8, II, and I4 and the rest positions for the digits of the left hand are over keys b, e, h, k and n.

Words are represented exactly as they are spelled in groups of five letters or less, or by syllable, the order of letter sequence from left to right being selected by the fingers of the right hand from left to right.

Fig. 2 shows an improved key arrangement involvingthe provision of a capital selection bar I6 between the vertical rows of thumb keys. Since all sentences start with a capital letter, the first letter of a word is frequently capitalized. In' order to readily provide for this, the caps bar 16 is placed between the keys operated by the thumbs. Since the first letter of a word is selected by these keys, depression of bar I6 by either thumb will capitalize said first letter so that no additional operation is necessary for capitalizing at the beginning of a sentence. This method of capital selection may also be used for the capitalization of proper names, places, dates, etc., wherever the first letter of a word is to be capitalized.

'Inall other respects the keyboard of- Fig. 2 is the same as the keyboard described with reference to Fig. 1. Both are designed with the intention of representing five letters of a word simultaneously in a single downward stroke of the fingers. If more than five letters are included in a particular word. it then would have is not capitalized or when the are merely part of a long for the second or third part of This improved arrangement involving a space bar adds to the capacity of the" keyboard in adapting it to select five letters and a space simultaneously. The other two arrangements in Figs. 1 d 2 are limited to'four letters and a space th, stroke.

A urther advantage in the construction of Fig. 3 lies in the fact that the extra space bar I! frees each of the five sets of keys from the necessity of providing a combination to select space control. The combinations of keys 2", 3"a", 1)", etc., may be used for another character orcontrol selection. Furthermore, the space tion control is concentrated in one bar instead of depending for operation on any one of five sets of keys.

The key arrangements shown in Figs. 4 and 5 are like the previously described arrangements in the broad aspect but difier considerably in many ways. They are similar in retaining the v idea of using six'keis in two sets'of three keys selecoperable in combinations by the two similar fingers of a pair of hands. But the arrangements of Figs. 4 and 5 differ fromthe design of Figs.

1, 2, and 3 in the use of a smaller number of character .selection keys, only four instead of five characters being selected at one time. This is so because the thumbs are used for control selection only, rather than character selection. An-

. other difference is in the rearrangement of key combinations with respect to letter selection along more scientific lines as a result of a study of letter occurrence in words combined with an observance of comparative finger dexterity. A

further difierence is in the attainmentof a larger number of character selections in all four fingers positions and a full set of shift capitals and characters in all positions rather than in only the thumb and index finger positions as previously.

The differences mentioned hereinbefore and the desirable key arrangements in Figs. 4 and 5 resulting therefrom are the product of a line of reasoning and logical conclusions flowing therefrom in a manner about to be described.

Before turning from the five-letter system as 5 shown in Fig. 3 to the four-letter system disclosed in Fig. 4, it is well to show how the comparative speeds of the two systems may be figured and also disclose why useful speeds may be attained on both keyboards because it is pos- 3 0 sible to execute a number of strokes per second productive of fast word representation.

The computation of the average number of strokes per word is based on the study made by Mr. Godfrey Dewey at Harvard University and 35 published in his book Relative Frequency of English Speech Sounds. This study determines the words used most frequently in written and spoken English text and constitutes approximately 80% of English from the standpoint of 40 use.

The following table shows the frequency with which words of varying length occur including words having only one letter and those up to 45 fourteen letters in length:

Word length (number of letters) Frequency of use 60 On the five-letter keyboard words up to five letters may be, written in one stroke, words up to and including ten letters require two strokes,

and words up to and including fourteen letters require three strokes. Adding the frequencies 65 of these three groups we find the following:

1 stroke 2 strokes 3 strokes 3. 275 3, 984 139 to 19,088 2, s49 78 22, 685 1,467 23 15, 608 952 39 With the four-letter keyboard words up to and including four letters in length can be written in one stroke, words up to eight letters in length require two strokes, words up to twelve letters in length require three strokes and words up to 5 fourteen letters in length require four strokes. Adding the frequencies with which such words occur in the same manner as before we have:

1 stroke 2 strokes 3 strokes 4 strokes s, 125 952 23 a, 984 394 as 2, 849 139 5 In order to find the average number of strokes 20 Five-letter keyboard or 1.13 strokes per word.

In the same manner the average strokes per word for the four-letter keyboard may be computed:

Four-letter keyboard xw 98,443- M-- 1.250768fi do or 1.25 strokes per word. The maximum potential speeds of the two keyboards may be estimated by using figures obtained 65 .from actual tests with combination key stenograph keyboards of a design not as advanced as the designs set forth in this application. In

1882 Mr. Bartholomew ran tests on a combination key stenographic machine and found that a numher of expert operators could perform combinational fingering at the rate of from 760 to 795 strokes per minute. 780 strokes per minute equals 13 strokes per second. Dividing the strokes possible per minute by theaverage strokes per word for the two keyboards will reveal the potential maximum speed for each keyboard.

The five-letter keyboard 760 to 795 strokes per minute 1.13 strokes per word 760 to 795 strokes per minute 1.25 strokes per word 608 to 636 words per minute The word writing speeds which we'need are about 100 words per minute for personal use, 150 words per minute for business use and 300 words per minute for the fastest and most exacting court reporting work. From the foregoing computations, it is apparent that both keyboard arrangements are adapted for fast operation such as writing directly from dictation.

The four-letter keyboard as in Fig. 4 not only is fast enough for allpurposes but also involves advantages over the other forms. On this keyboard itis clear that the thumbs are not used for representing characters, but serve only to select the three control operations: shift lock, space and shift. Since the thumbs are not as dexterous as the fingers of the hand, it is desirable to make their work more simple than that of the fingers. With the operations of the thumbs -simplified, an increase in the ease of learning how to operate the keyboard may be expected as :vell as an increase in speed and ease of operaion.

In order to devise a combination key arrangement that may be operated at the highest average speed, it is first necessary to determine the relative ease of the 35 fingering combinations possible with six keys operated by two fingers, and then assign the most frequent operations to the key combinations easiest to perform. In setting up the series of fingering combinations, certain basic assumptions are made in the order set forth as follows: 7

1. That the use of one hand is easier than the use of both hands.

2. That the right hand in general is more dexterous than the left.

3. That keys beneath fingers in their "rest positions are more easy to operate than keys where the fingers haveto be moved away from their rest positions.

4. That a short movement of the fingers away from their "rest positions is easier than a greater distance of movement.

5. That it is easier ,(very slightly) for the operator to move his fingers away from than toward him.

'It is also assumed that in Fig. 4 the fingers normally rest on keys 22, 25, 28, 3|, 2b, 2e, 2h, and 2k and the thumbs rest on the space bar 11'.

The keys 2|, 22, 23', 2a, 2b, and 2c, Fig. 4, may be taken as a typical set of six keys operable by two fingers. The foregoing assumptions, plus experience gained in experimenting with fingering combinations, result in the following arrangement of a; series of fingering combinations in order of relative difficulty, No. 1 being the easiest combination to finger, and No. 35, the most difflcult:

Relative ewe Egg Relative ease {$22,322:

1 2b 21 2 22 23 3-- 22-2!) 22-20 4.- 20, 25 22-241 5.. 2b, 2c 21-2b 6- 21, 22 232b 7-. 22, 23 21, 22-2a 8.. 22-211, 20 21, 22-2: 9" 22-20, 20 22, 23-2a 10. 21, 222h 22, 232 22, 23-20 21-2a, 2b 222a, 23-211,.26 22, 23-20, 20 21-2b, 26 21, 22-20, 26 23-2b, 26 22, 23-2 21-2(l 2a 23-20 26 21-2 The relative frequency of letters, punctuation and keyboard operations per 100,000 words may now be combined with the foregoing sequence of key combinations.

It is noted hereinafter that the space operation is the most frequent. This is because there is a space after every word and two spaces between sentences; 100,000 word spaces plus 5,446 sentence spaces, equals 105,446 spaces.

The capitalizing of a first letter may be computed as to frequency by adding:

Beginnings of sentences Proper names An equal number of Mr., Mrs, first and middle names and one or two initials 6,404

Lower case letter frequencies and punctuation frequencies per 100,000 words with related key combination selections on keyboard 0] Fig. 4

Lower case Operation frequency Keys depressed gtiace bar 17 1st cap. ber 33 Question mark Exclamation.

It is noted in the foregoing table that the nine most frequent punctuation marks are assigned to key combinations along with the lower case letters. Punctuation marks are nearly 'always written one at a time, so the nine most frequent marks may be written in the first letter position by the two index fingers. while the remaining eight special characters are to be written in the second letter position by the two middle fingers as explained hereinafter.

It is to be understood that the letter selections pointed out with reference to the index finger keys 2|, 22, 23, 2a, 2b, and 2c are also possible with the same relative sequence of fingering on the other three sets of six keys each associated with the middle, ring, and small'fingers. For example, the letter s may be represented by keys 25-2d and 2e; f may be written by keys 21, 28, 2g and Zn; and m may be selected by keys 3|, 32, 27' and 27a.

When operated with the shift bar 34, the combinations of keys are designed to select upper case characters comprising capitals and numerals. The frequency with which capital letters and numerals occur inwritten and spoken En lish text is not taken into account, because it is far more desirable that the key combinations for capitals be the same as for lower case letters rather than the capitals be in. order of frequency. Since the capital 0 and the zero are of the same form, it is possible to include the other nine numeral digits on the same shift as the capitals, the 26 capital letters and 9 numerals totaling characters which is just the selective capacity of one bank of the keyboard. Thus, in the keyboard -of Fig. 4, each pair of fingers may select a numeral so that four numerals may be represented with one stroke which is a distinct advantage over the manner of representing single numbers written one at a time with the keyboards in Figs.

The key ,cofibinations for selecting the capital letters and numerals are noted in the following table:

Capital and numeral representation with. related key combination selections on keyboard of Fig. 4

Operation Keys depressed Shift and 2b Shift and 22 Shift and 22-217 Shift and 2a, 2b

Shift and 21, 22-241, 2!)

Shift and 22, 23-212, 2c Shift and 21, 22-211, 26 Shift and 22, 23-2a, 2b Shift and 2a Shift and 22-20 Shift and 21-211 Shift and 23-211 Shift and 2!, 22-241 Shift and 21, 22-26 Shift and 22, 23-21 Shift and 22, 23-20 Shift and 2l-2u, 2b Shift and 23-241, 212 .Shift and 21-21), 26 Shift and 23-21), 20 Shift and 21-20 Shift and 23-20 Shift and 2l2c Shift and 23-20 As explained hereinbefore, certain infrequent punctuation marks and special signs may be represented under control of the keys depressed by the middle fingers. They are selected by key combinations similar to the combinations used by the index fingers to select frequent punctuation marks. The special selections are as follows:

Infrequent punctuation marks and special signs and related key combination selections on keyboard of Fig. 4

' Keys Operation Frequency depressed Beginning parenthesis 122 Ending parenthesis- 122 24, 25-212 Dollar sign 76 24, 25-2] And sign (& 23 26-21 Shilling mar (l) 16 24-241, 20 Per cent 13 26 2e Aste sk 24-26, 2] Any other character 26-20, 2!

is moved further to the left to operate only bar 33 for the capitalization of the first part of a first word. The right thumb may be moved to the left to cooperate with both bar l1 and shift bar 34 when it is desired to represent a series of capital letters or numerals followed by a space. For the first portionof a long series of capitals or numerals, the right thumb is moved further to the right to depress only bar 34 to shift without a space.

The keyboard illustrated in Fig. 5 is similar to that shown in Fig. 4 in all respects except for the provision of three extra controls for operation by the thumbs. These three controls, back space, carriage return, and tabulate, are ordinarily scattered in location on the ordinary typewriter, but in the present design they are grouped close to the other thumb bars. A rearward movement of either thumb away from the space bar l1" places it over a carriage return bar 36 which may be depressed along with the space bar or alone. A left oblique movement of the left thumb to the rear places it over the back space control bar 35. And a right oblique movement of the right thumb towards the rear places it over the tabulating control bar 31.

From the foregoing portion of the description it is apparent that 30 keys and bars arranged as shown in Fig.- 5 may be used to control a typewriter to print words. In Figs. 6 and '7 such a keyboard is shown incorporated in a remote control unit for a typewriter. The keys close contacts which are electrically connected to solenoids such as solenoids Ii and Cc, Fig. 8, for operating key levers of ordinary typing mechanism. The showing in Fig. 8 is a modification wherein the keys are assembled under the same cover as the typing mechanism. The remote control unit in Figs. 6 and '7 will be described first because the parts are shown larger and in greater detail in these views.

The unit is built upon a base plate 56 over which there is secured a cover'51. The keyboard frame comprises a top plate 58 and a bottom plate 59 held together by four spacing posts 60. The bottom plate 59 is supported above the base plate 56 by a series of sixstuds 6| which fasten the keyboard to the base.

The two keyboard plates 58 and 68 are slotted to'guide the eight columns of characterkeystems such as stems a, 5b and 5c and also guide six similar keystems depending from the control bars at the center of the keyboard. Taking keystem 50 for an example it is noted that a coil spring 62 around its lower end presses between the bottom plate 59 and shoulders on the keystem to urge the key up to a normal raised position. An extension 83 on the lower part of the keystem acts as an upper limiting stop. The slots 64 in the lower plate are long enough so that the lower part of the keystems may pass therethrough when assembling the keyboard, but after all the keys are in the frame they are pushed to the rear of the slots by a locking plate 65 which abuts against the front edge of the keystems to position them with extensions 63 under a solid part of plate 59. Looking plate 85 is secured to plate 59 by nuts 66 on threaded ends of posts 68.

A shoulder 8! is out in the edge of the keystem to abut against the top of plate 58 and limit the downward movement of the key.

The keys associated with the middle, ring and little fingers are provided with locking means for holding them in a depressed position because they do not cause immediate operation as the index finger 'keys do, but must await sequential timing control in the order named. The keys of ing from the upperedge of link 19 are three 70 be operated alone to print the middle and ring fingers operate a linkage to release the timing'devices and at the same time look all keys except the index finger keys in normal or depressed positions. The index finger keys 2|, 22, 23', 2a. 2b and 20' (Fig. 5) may one character without being locked and without operating the timer. The special control bars I1", 33, 34', 35, 36 and 3'|.may also operate without being locked down and without releasing the timer. However, when 'a'word, part of a word, or a plurality of characters are to be printed in one operation, then either of the middle or ring finger keys 44, 25', 267', 2d, 2e, 2i and 21', 28', 29', 2g, 2h', 2z" are operated to release the timing and locking control linkage as shown in Fig. 13.

Referring to Fig. 13, it is noted that all three keystems 5a, 5b and 5c of the right hand ring finger keys 29', 212. and 22" are provided with shoulders 68 projecting over the top of lugs 69 extending from one side of a horizontal timer release link Ill which is pivoted at the front end on a stud H on a bell crank 12 and articulated at the rear on a stud 13 on a bell crank 14. The middle lug 69 extends at 15 around the side of keystem 5b to prevent link 18 from swaying on pivots H and I3 and getting out of the path of shoulders 88. A spring 16 urges the link normally up against the underside of shoulders 58.and alsoserves to restore the entire linkage on bell cranks 12 and 14 when depressed keys are unlocked. Bell crank 12 is loosely pivoted on a. short shaft 82 which is supported on a pair of brackets 83 riveted to plate 59, and bell crank 14 is attached to a long shaft 84 turning in a pair of brackets 85 secured to bottom plate 59.

The upper ends of bell cranks 12 and 14 are pivoted at 11 and 18 to a horizontal key locking link 19 extending between the cranks. Projectoffset extensions "bent at an angle to cooperate with either the upper orlower sides of points 8| formed-on the keystems.- 'Jfa key is depressed when link |9.moves to the'right, then extension 8|! cooperates with the upper face of point 8|. to hold the key locked down, but if the keystem 7 is in normal position when link I9 is moved to the right by another key, then extension 80 passes under the lower face of point 8| to prevent subsequent depression of the keystem.

Whenever one or a pair of the three keys are operated, shoulders 88 press down on timer link 10, and as the linkis lowered, bell cranks I2 and 14 are rocked in a clockwise direction, carrying locking link 19 to the rightto lock down any depressed keys and hold up any keys that are not depressed. Parts 10, 12, 14 and 19 comprise a linkage parallelogram wherein movement of one part induces movement of the other parts.

There are four columns of parts such as shown in Fig. 13, two columns being under the middle and ring fingers of the right hand, Fig. '7, and the other two'columns being'operated by the middle and ring fingers of .theleft hand. Shaft 84 is long enough to extend across both the right and left hand groups of keys. Two shafts suchas shaft 82 are provided, one under the front of the.

right group of keys and the other beneath the left group of keys.

The little finger keys are also locked when shaft 84' is rocked by operation of any of the middle or ring finger keys. This is done by means of a plain crank 14, Fig. 6, fastened to shaft 84,

and carrying a locking link 19 pivoted thereon at 18'. The front end of link 19' is pivoted at 11' on a crank 12 loosely pivoted on shaft 82. Link 19' is formed with three extensions 88 adapted to move under or over the points 8| on the three keys. Although the link 19' and the connections thereto are shown in Fig. 6 as associated only with the keys operated by the little finger of the right hand, it may be pointed out that there is provided a similar set of connections at the left end of shaft 84, Fig. 7, for cooperation with the little finger keys of the left hand.

It may be noted that the six index finger keystems and the six control bars are not locked,

nor do they operate a timer release link, these keystems being free from any association with control parts such as links 10 and 19 because the contacts these keys operate are effective immediately and the setting thereof need not be held.

As seen in Fig. 6, each column of three related keystems 5a, 5b and 5c cooperates with ten contacts to open and close them to establish selective circuits for controlling typing. It is explained more fully hereinafter how two of such sets of ten contacts operatedby two similar fingers of both hands, cooperate to select a certain one of 35 characters on one shift or a certain character of 35 others on the other type shift.

The contacts are suspended under and attached to top plate 58 by screws 86 and are separated from the plate and from each other by insulation spacers 81. Certain of the contacts are operated directly by a single keystem while'others rely on the depression of a combination of twokeys for operation. The contacts for one column of keys are arranged in three groups, two of the groups being placed on the left side of the-bank of keys and the other group placed adjacent the right side of the keys as seen in Fig. '7.v Pins project from the sides of the keystems and cooperate with the flexible blades of the contacts to move them, or to allow them to move, toopen or close I time, as pin 4| moves down itreleases the lower blade of contact 4JR which is then free to open. In the same way, a pin 43 on keystem 5b operates to close contacts 40R and open contacts 4gR when the key is depressed; and keystem 50 carries a pin 46 which closes contacts 4eR and opens contacts 4hR.

Keystem 5a carries another pin 40 upon which rests the center blade of a related pair of contacts 411R and 4bR'. This center blade not only rests on pin 40, but it also overlies a pin 42 on keystem 512 so that both keys 29'" and 2k must be depressed before the center blade may lower to open contacts 4bR. and close contacts 4bR'.

In the same fashion, pins 44 and 45 on keystems 5b and 50, respectively, both support the center blade of contacts MR, and 4dR', so that both keys 2k and 21' must be depressed together before contacts 411R are opened and contacts 411R are closed.

The eight sets of contacts cooperating with the eight columns of keys are similar in construction and operation, so that the foregoing description referring to the contacts associated with the keys of the little finger of the right hand, applies as well to the other seven sets of contacts. The sets of contacts are distinguished from each other by the ending reference letters R and L denoting right and left hand operation, and the beginning numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 denoting operation by the index, middle, ring and little fingers, respectively.

Each of the six control bars at the center of the keyboard has associated therewith a separate pair of contacts which are operated indi-' vidually. When shift bar 33 (Fig. 7) is depressed a pin 50 thereon closes contacts SHC. Space bar I1" lowers pin 5I to close contacts SPC. Contacts BSC are closed by a pin 53 on the back space bar 35. Carriage return bar 38 controls the closing of contacts CRC through a pin 54, and a pin 55 on the stem of the tabulate bar 31 closes contacts TBC. Contacts SLC are closed by a pin 52 on the shift lock bar 34. The keystem of this shift lock bar is notched at 88, Fig. 6, to engage with a. cover plate 89 and lock it depressed to hold contact SLC closed as long as the operator desires shift control. Plate '89 is suitably supported above top plate 58 and covers the space between keys under an opening 90 in case 51 through which the key tops protrude.

When selected combinations of contacts have been operated they are held in operated position by the cooperation of locking links 19 with the keystems. They are held thus until contact timing devices have made a seriatim distribution of impulses through the contacts, starting with the index finger contacts, next the middle finger contacts, etc.

The impulse timing device comprises a series of cam disks IT, 2T, 3T, 4T, 2Ta', 2Tb, 2T0, 2Td

and AT (Fig. '7) made of insulation material and which is supported by.

mounted on a shaft 9| bearing brackets 92 fixed to base 56. This shaft 9I is driven through a clutch 93 which is selectively connected to a shaft94 supported on bearing block 95 and driven by a motor M through a speed reduction gearing unit 96.

The timer clutch 93 is released to. connect the constantly running shaft 94 with the timer shaft 9| every time more than one character is to be printed by one stroke of the hands; i. e., whenever any of the middle or ring fingers are operated to depress a link 10, Fig. 13, and rock shaft 84 in aclockwise direction. Attached to shaft.

84, Fig. 6, is an arm 91 to the end of which there is loosely pivoted an escapement link 98. This link is guided in a slot cut in an extension 99 on a bracket I00 fastened to base 56. Extending from link 98 is a tab IOI which normally underlies a lug I02 on clutch release disk I03 to prevent the clutch from operating. A spring I04 between link 98 and bracket I00 tends to hold the link in normal position. However, as soon as one of the middle or ring finger keys is operated, shaft 84 is rocked, and link 98 is drawn to the left, moving tab IOI away from lug I02 which is then free to swing down in a counterclockwise direction to connect the clutch.

The clutch parts are shown in detail in Figs. 9, 15

10, 11 and 12. In Fig. 9 it is noted that two lugs I02 form part of disk I03 which is secured to another disk I05 by a pair of spacing rivets I06. Disk I05 is-fastened to a hub I01 that is fixed to shaft 9|. Disks I03 and I05, Fig. 12, are formed with three coinciding tapered slots I08 curving around the periphery of shaft 94. In these slots there are placed three hardened cylinders I09 which may rotate freely in the large ends of slots I08, or be wedged between shaft 94 and the small ends of slots I08 to create a driving connection between shaft 94 and disk I03 which is connected to shaft 9| through hub I01.

The three cylinders I09 are urged into a wedging position by a spring plate IIO, Fig. 10, which is loosely pivoted on shaft 94 in the space between disks I 03 and I05. A spring III connected to plate 0 tends to turn it in a counterclockwise direction so thatthree inwardly projecting feet II2 thereon, bear against the sides of cylinders I09 and press them towards the narrow ends of slots I08. The cylinders are normally prevented from being effective because the disk I03 is held positively by tab IOI, Fig. 6, from movement in a clockwise direction (Fig. 12). However, as soon as tab IOI moves away from lug I02, plate IIO shifts the cylinders into driving position in the slots, and timer shaft 9I is driven by shaft 94 through the clutch parts.

The ends of cylinders I09, Fig. 9, are confined between hub I01 and a cover plate II3 fastened against disk I03 after the cylinders are assembled therein. 4

The two lugs I02, placed opposite each other on disk I03 adapt the timer parts for a movement of per operating cycle. Astab IOI moves out of the path of one lug I02, another tab II4 on escapement link 98' moves into the path of the other lug I02 to hold the clutch if the keys fail to restore,-or if someone should hold the keys down at the end of an operation when they should be restored. When the keys are properly restored, shaft 84 swings link 98 back to normal position and a clutch lug I02 is brought against the top of tab I0l.

Depressed keys are released near the end of the timer operation by one of a pair of cam faces I15 on hub I01. These cams strike against the upper end H6, Fig. 6, of a latch lever II1 pivoted at II8 on the bracket I00. A spring I I9 pulls the lever in-a clockwise direction so that a tab I20 rests on the outer edge of a notched looking arm I2I fastened to shaft 84. When shaft 84 is rocked in a clockwise direction by the depression of any keys, arm I2I swings down and tab I20 is lifted against a stepped shoulder I22 on the arm. Thus arm I2! is locked from swinging back in a counterclockwise direction and shaft 84 is prevented from being restored as urged by springs 16 and I-04, and the depressed keys are held down by links I9 and extensions 89 until near the end of the 180 arc of movement of the timer shaft 9I when one of the cam faces II5 strikes end IIB of lever II! and rocks it in a counterclockwise direction to move tab I29 away from arm I2I. The arm and shaft 84 are then free to rock back in a counterclockwise direction carrying links I9 along therewith to release the keys. Shaft 84 serves two purposes, to control the locking and releasing of the keys, and to govern the escapement of the clutch. At the same time that released shaft 84 rocks in a counterclockwise direction to free the keys, attached escapement link 98 moves to the right to take tab II4 out of the path of lug I02 and bring tab IIII under the tab to stop the clutch in the normal released position.

An interlock is provided between a starting switch and the character keys to prevent the keys from being latched down when the machine is not operating, and then causing typing as soon as the switch is thrown on. 'An operating knob I25 of a toggle switch is confined between two offset extensions I26 of a switch lever I2'I pivoted at I28 on a bracket under the top keyboard plate 58. Another extension I29 is bent on the lower end of the lever which is out of the path of latch lever III when the switch is on as shown in Fig. 6. However as soon as the switch is moved to the dotted line oif position, exten sion I29 is moved over to abut against the top of a raised portion I30 on lever II! and prevent that lever from cooperating with latch arm I2I when keys are operated. Therefore, when keys are operated while the operating current is disconnected, such keys are not locked down, because if they were locked down they would cause immediate undesirable typing operation as soon as the switch is thrown on.

The timer cam disks IT, 2T, etc., on shaft 9| are turned in a counterclockwise direction (Fig.

6) to cooperate with rollers I3I on the ends of flexible lower operating blades I32 of sets of contact blades separated by insulation blocks I33 and mounted by screws I34 on an upturned flange I35 ofthe base 56. Thedisks IT, 2T, 3T and AT are formed with cam. extensions which are efiective in the order named to operate associated timing contacts in sequential order. There is provided an operating blade I32 (Fig. 7) and a set of contacts for each of the nine timer disks.

As shown in Fig. 6 it is apparent that the timer cam IT, relating to the index finger contacts, is normally positioned with a raised portion under roller I3I so that blade I32 is raised to close contacts IR and IL simultaneously by means of motion communicating insulation bars I36 and I31. When roller I3I is lowered by the passing of the cam face, both contacts open at the-same time. i

The three other sets of contacts associated with timer cams 2T, 3T and 4T are constructed the same as the IR,IL contacts, the only difference being intheir time of operation which is brought about by the placement of the timer cam shapes which take effect after cam IT in the cycle to close the contacts in succession.

The contacts associated with-timer disks 2Ta, 2Tb, 2T0 and 2Td are of a slightly different form. In these sets of contacts, upper contacts Zn, 21), 2s and 2uare normally open and lower contacts 2m, 20, 2g and 2c are normally closed. These contact positions are all reversed at the same time, at the same instant that the cam face on timer 2T is eifective. This is true because all these contacts relate to the selective operation of special characters by the middle fingers which are effective second in time of operation in the printing cycle. In order to close the upper contacts and open the lower contacts of these special banks, motion communicating bars I38 and I39 are placed between the lower operating'blade and the contact blades. These contacts are shown diagrammatically at the center of Fig. 14 in reference to which they are described more fully hereinafter.

Timer disk AT (Fig.- 7) is of the same form as disk IT and has cooperating therewith a single contact AC which is normally closed. This contact is opened as soon as typing is started to prevent the special operations of shift, space, back space, etc., from taking place at the same time.

'The modified form of keyboard and timing controls shown in Fig. 8 is of the same general construction and operation as the remote control unit already described with reference to Figs. 6 and 7. The few differences brought about by the rearrangement of parts in Fig. 8 are about to be pointed out. i

The lower keyboard plate 59' is not supported directly on thebase but it is secured to side frames I40 by screws passing through depending lugs I4I on the plate.

The clutch escapement release member is in the form of a bell crank 98' pivoted at I42 on a bracket I00. The upper arm of the bell crank has a pin and slot connection I43 with an arm 91' fastened to the release shaft 84. Clockwise rocking of shaft 84 serves to turn crank 98' in a counterclockwise direction and push a tab IIlI thereon out of the path of the clutch lug I02 to allow the clutch to turn.

Near the end of a cycle, a cam face II on the clutch strikes the end of a latch lever III is provided to lock shaft 84 in rocked position and hold depressed keys down until a cycle is completed. A spring I I9 holds the latch against a shouldered arni on shaft 84. The upper end of lever III' projects into the path of the lug I29 on the switch lever I21 so that when the switch is thrown off, the latch lever III is obstructed from counterclockwise movement and thus disabled from looking depressed keys.

The printing devices about to be described are operated by solenoids which may be energized as controlled by keyboard contacts and timer contacts directly associated with the printer as shown in Fig. 8, or by impulses from a distance, said impulses being, initiated by a-re mote control keyboard such as that illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7. I

A plurality of solenoids such as solenoids Ii and 00' (Fig. 8) are arranged in two rows in-staggered formation on a bar I50 extending across the machine and fastened on side frames I 40. Sliding within each solenoid is a plunger I5I piv oted at I52 near its upper end on an operating arm I53 fulcrumed in a vertical rod I54. The

7 end of arm I53 is pivotally connected to a link v and recording machines.

The links I55 of the various key levers are all in one row, but the arms I53 connected thereas I with are attached alternately, first from one row of solenoids and next from the other row of solenoids.

The type lever mechanism operated by lever I51 is described in detail in Patents 1,945,847 and 1,873,512. The type bars I60 are operated by a constantly turning power driven roller I6I with which cams I62 are adapted to cooperate to actuate the type bars. The cams I62 are pivoted on bell crank levers I63 operatively connected with the type bars by means of links I64 which operate levers I65 which in turn are connected with the type bars by means of links I66. The cams I62 are normally out of engagement with the roller I6I but resiliently urgedinto engagement therewith by spring pressed arms I61 which engage projections I68 on the cams. The cams I62 also have laterally projecting lugs I69 which engage stops I10 on levers I1I pivoted on the bell cranks to hold the cams out of engagement with the roller against the tension of arms I611 The upper ends of levers I1I are provided with offsets I13 which are engaged by the bifurcated ends of arms on key levers I51. When a lever I51 is pulled down by a solenoid, it swings the lever HI and moves the stop I16 out of the path of the lug on the cam and permits the arm I61 to turn the cam into engagement with the power driven roller I6I to be turned thereby and thus, due to the eccentricity of the cam, the bell crank I63 is rocked and the type bar I66 is thrown against the record sheet and platen I12 to leave a printed impression.

Solenoids are provided not only to control the printing of letters, numbers and special characters, but also to control the typewriter operating functions. Referring to the wiring diagram in Fig. 14 it is noted that contacts SHC, SPC, SLC, BSC, CBC and TBC, previously pointed out as closed by the shift, space, shift look, back space, carriage return and tabulate bars, respectively, are wired in parallel, each connected to a related one of six control solenoids SH, SP, SL, BS, CR

and TB. All six pairs of solenoids and contacts are connected in series with the normally closed timer contacts AC making current through lines I and I16 available immediately upon the closing of any of the special contacts. The typewriter controls which are operated by the solenoids are set forth in detail in patents that are about to be pointed out. The solenoids SH and SL actuate a shift mechanism for selecting upper case type as set forth in Patent 1,945,097. The spacing or carriage escapement mechanism operated by solenoid SP is disclosed in detail in Patent 1,873,512. Back space control mechanism disclosed in Patent 1,873,553 may be operated selectively by solenoid BS. Carriage return operation is exercised by solenoid CR when it pulls down the operating lever of the mechanism detailed in Patents 1,753,450 and 1,955,614. Solenoid TB initiates tabulating movement of the carriage by means of mechanism such as that revealed in Patent 1,935,436.

Closure of the main power switch PS, Fig. 14 and machine switch I25, connects the main lines I15 and I16 to the source of electric current. Switch I25 is the one described hereinbefore with reference to the keyboard as having interlocking controlover the key locking means so that no keys are locked down while this switch is off. However, as shown in Fig. 14 and the other figures, the switch is on and the keys are latched down for seriatim operation.

The timer operating motor M is connected across lines I15 and I16 so that it is in constant operation after switches PS and I25 are closed.

Two lines of solenoids are shown at the middle of the wiring diagram. These solenoids are connected with key levers I51 (Fig. 8) of the typewriter to control type bars I60 to print letters, capitals, numbers, punctuation marks and special signs. Each solenoid is designated with the characters which the associated type bar is adapted to print. The first character of each designation is the upper case or shift selected figure, while the second character is the ordinary lower case unshifted character. For example, the solenoid 9! when energized ordinarily controls the printing of an exclamation mark, but if the shift bar 33 is depressed when this solenoid is energized, then a 9 is printed.

As indicated by the solenoid designations, certain of the numeral type are duplicated. This is so because associated with these numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are the infrequent special marks & and which may be selected instead of the more frequently used marks and These infrequent mark solenoids 1:, 2(, 3) 4$, 58:, 6/ and 7% are connected to timer contacts 2u, 2s, 2p and 211 which are closed only at the second instant in the cycle, which is the time that the middle finger contacts are effective through timer contacts 2R, so that these infrequent marks are selected only by the middle fingers as pointed out hereinbefore with reference to the chart showing the key combinations related to the infrequent marks. Even though these signs are printed as a second operation in the cycle, no back space operation is required because the index finger keys may be left undisturbed when printing the infrequent marks,

All other solenoids, except the seven mentioned, are wired between the main lines I15 and l16 in series with all eight sets of the keyboard finger contacts. Any solenoid may be energized by any of the four pairs of sets of keyboard contacts. The 35 ordinary solenoids are wired so that each may be selected by one of the 35 different combinations of contact closures brought about by the depression of combinations of the six related keys. The index finger contacts are effective first because these contacts are wired in series with the normally closed timer contacts IR, IL associated with timer cam IT. The other middle, ring and little finger contacts are wired in series with timers 2R, 2L; 3R, 3L and 4R, 4L and are made effective in that order by timer cams 2T, ST and 4T. Examples may be taken to point out the path of the current through the contacts, solenoids and wiring.

The letter e is selected by depressing key 21) (Fig. 5) which serves to close contacts IcR (Fig.

14) and open contacts I 9B. The print, controlling circuit may be traced from line I16 through contacts IR, normally closed contacts IdR, wire I80, normally closed contacts IbR, wire I8I, contacts IcR, wire I82, wire I83, solenoid Ee, wires I84, I85, I86 and I81, normally closed contacts IhL, IgL and I fL, wire I88 and through contacts IL to line I15. The energized solenoid Ee then pulls down the key lever to throw the type bar against the record sheet to print the letter e.

The letter in is selected by depressing the key combinations 22', 23' and 2a, 2b which serve to close contacts IcL, IeL, IdL', IaR, IcR, IbR and open contacts IgL, IhI, IdL, IfR, IgR and IbR. The circuit established thereby may be followed from line I16 through contacts IR, normally closed contacts IdR, wire I86, contacts I bR', wires I89, I90 and I9I, solenoid Mm, wires I92 and I93, closed contacts IdL', wire. I88 and contacts IL to line I15.

If. it had been desired to capitalize the letter 111 just selected, the shift bar 33 would have been depressed before the character keys and held depressed with the character keys until M is printed. When this M is at the beginning of the first word of a sentence, the remainder of the word may be printed directly thereafter by releasing the shift bar 33 and depressing combinations of middle, ring and little finger keys. The described form of operation is one whereby the shift bar 33 acts as a 1st capital control.

For the capitalization of an entire word or sentence, bar 33' maybe held down or the shift lock bar 34' may be latched down to free the thumbs for other control operations.

The shift lock bar 34' instead of operating through solenoid SL and thus being dependent on timer AT, may be considered to be the usual mechanically connected shift lock key provided in the typewriter. This ordinary mechanical construction may be used on machines for typing work with frequent lines of upper case letters and numerals.

The printing ofa period may be selected by depressing key 2| to close contacts IaL and open contacts IfL. The circuit maybe followed from line I16 through timer contacts IR, normally closed contacts lfR, IgR and "IR, wires I94, I95, contacts 2m closed at the 1st, 3rd and 4th instant of the printing cycle, wire I96, solenoid 2., wires I91, I98 and I99, closed contacts IaL, normally closed contacts IbL and I dL, wire I88, timer contacts IL and line I15. It may be noted that this is one of the key combinations that selects infrequent marks in the 2nd instant of the printing cycle when set up by the middle fingers. That is why the period circuit goes through contacts 2m which may be opened and contacts 2n closed at the 2nd instant to select the bracket 'mark'( instead of a period. In other words, depression of keys 2|, 21' or 30' (Fig. 5) selectsthe printing of a period, while depression of the corresponding key 24' in the middle finger row selects the printing of a bracket mark. The circuit set up by the depression of key 24' and the closure of contacts 2aL may be traced to point out how a is printed instead of a period. From line I16 the current passes through timer contacts 2R closed by cam 2T at the 2nd instant in the cycle, thence through normally closed contacts ZfR, 29R and MR, wires 200, 20I and I95, contacts 211 closed at the 2nd instant by timer cam 2Ta, wire 202, s6lenoid*2(, wires I91, I98 and I 99, contacts 2aL, 2bL and 2dL, timer contacts 2L closed at the 2nd instant by cam 2T, and line I 15. In the same manner the other cams 2Tb, 2T0 and ZTd switch connections at the 2nd instant to connect one of the six other infrequent mark selection solenoids into the circuit instead of the solenoids controlling the typing of frequently occurring signs and marks. Directly before, and immediately after the 2nd instant in the printing cycle, the timer cams permit contacts 2m, 20, 2q and 211 to close to make available the frequently used solenoids if the index, ring or little fingers should select such solenoids.

An example may be given to illustrate the mode of operation when a plurality of combinations of keys are depressed on the keyboard simultaneously to print a word with one stroke of the hands, To represent the word pure the keys 2b, 2e, 21, 2h, 21" and 210', Fig. 5, are depressed 1 1, by the fingers of the right hand while the keys 2|, 24', 25' and 28' are depressed by the fingers of the left hand. This results in the closureofcontacts IcR, ZdR, 3dR', 4cR, IaL, 2bL and- 3.cL. Then there follows the initiation of four impulses in rapid succession to control the printing of'the vfour letters p u r e as follows:

The first impulse travels through line I16, normally closed contacts IR and I dR, wire I80, contacts IbR, wire I8I,

I82 and I83, solenoid Pp, wires I91, I98 and I99,

closed contacts IcR, wires manipulated contacts IaL, normally closed contacts IbL and IbL, wire I88, contacts IL and line I 15. Immediately after the letter p is printed, contacts IR. and IL open and contacts 2R, 2L close to initiate the. printing of the second letter.

The second impulse passes from line I16 through contacts 2R, closed contacts ZdR', wires 205, 206 and 201, solenoid U11, wires 208, 209, 2l0' and 2H, manipulated contacts 2bL, normally closed contacts ML and contacts 2L to line I15. Thus control is exercised to print u after which contacts 2R and 2L open, and contacts 3R, 3L

close to print the third letter.

Starting through line I16 and contacts 3R the third impulse passes through manipulated contacts 3dR', wires 2I2, 206 and 201, solenoid Rr, wires 2I3, 2M, 2I5 and 2I6, manipulated contacts 3cL, normally closed contacts 3bL and 3dL and contacts 3L to line I15. After the r is printed, contacts 3R, 3L open and contacts 4R, 4L close to control the printing of the fourth letter.

The fourth impulse is directed from line I16, through contacts 4R, normally closed contacts MR and 4bR, manipulated contacts 40R, wires I82 and I83, solenoid Ee, wires I84 and I85, normally closed contacts 4hL, 49L and UL, contacts 4L and line I15. This last circuit controls the printing of the last letter e of the word pure". Directly thereafter the contacts '4R, IL are opened and the contacts IR, IL are closed as the timer clutch is disconnected and held in normal position in preparation for anew printing cycle.

Contacts AC open after the first part of a printing cycle to prevent the operation of any of the controls by, solenoids SH, SP, SL, BS, CR

and TB while successive printing is taking place.

While the illustrative machines are fully shown and described in pointing out the fundamental novel features of the invention, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions and changes in the form and details of the machines and their operation, may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention, therefore, to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims. I

What is claimed is as follows: v

1. In a recording machine, two parallel columns of keys, the keys of one column being located for operation in combination by one finger of the right hand, and the keys of the other column being located for operation in combination by a finger of the left hand, both fingers serving to set up one of a plurality of combinations, electrical contacts associated with the keys and closed and opened in accordance with the combination of keys operated, a set of type with each type related to a different combination of the keys, and electrical devices under control of said contacts for printing from the type selected by the operated combination of keys.

2. In a recording machine, a set of six keys arranged in two columns for operation singly and in combination by a pair of fingers, two groups ating means being of electrical contacts, one for each column of keys, with five normally open contacts and five normally closed contacts in each group, means under control of the keys for reversing the condition of the contacts, a set of typebars, a solenoid for operating. each typebar to cause printing, and wiring connections from said contacts to said solenoids so arranged that a different solenoid is energized for each difierent combination of keys operated.

. 3. In a recording machine, a plurality of sets of keys, the keys of each set being arranged in two parallel columns for operation in combination by two similar fingers of difierent hands, a set of type, one type for each key combination, electrical type operating means including connections between each of said sets of keys and said set of type, and means cooperating with said connections to make the sets of keys control said operating means seriatim.

4. In a recording machine, a printing means comprising a plurality of type, sets of keys, the keys of each set'being operable in combination to select type, there being a separate set of keys for the index, middle, ring and little fingers, and means under control of said keys for operating to print a record from the selected type, said opercontrolled distally, the index finger keys selecting the first type to print and the middle, ring and little finger keys controlling subsequent printing in the order mentioned.

5. In a recording machine, a plurality of type,

' a set of type selecting keys comprising two groups of keys, means under control of one group of keys operated singly or in combination by a finger of one hand to select a group of type, means under control of the other group of keys operated singly or in combination by a finger of the other hand to select one of said selected group of type, and means for making a printed impression of the selected type.

6. In a recording machine, a plurality of type, solenoids, one for each type for conditioning the type for printing, a set of type selecting keys arranged in two columns, a source of electrical energy, electrical contacts connected to different groups of solenoids and selectively closed by operation of the keysof one column, other electrical contacts connected to different solenoids in the groups and selectively closed by operation of the keys of the other column, and means for making a printed impression of the selected type.

'7. In a recording machine, a plurality of type, electrical devices for conditioning the individual type for printing, sets of type selecting keys arranged in pairs of columns, a source of electrical energy, pairs of groups of electrical contacts, each group associated with .a column of keys, the contacts of one contact group of each pair being connected to different groups of said conditioning devices and selectively closed by the keys of one column, the contacts of the related contact group of the same pair being connected to difierent conditioning devices of the selected device group and selectively closed by the keys of the related column, means for making the control from the different sets of keys effective seriatim, and means for taking printed impressions of the selected types.

8. In a recording machine, a set of character type, a plurality of special character type, sets of keys, each set operable in combinations to select a type for printing control, alternate connections between certain of said character type and said special character type, means for changing said connections to make possible the selection of said special character type at a certain time, means for timing the effectiveness of said sets of keys, one of said sets being effective at said certain time the connections are changed to select special type, and means for printing a record of said selected character type and other character type.

9. In a typewriter with a set of character type, sets of type selection keys, each set operable in combination to select a type, a plurality of sets operated simultaneously, means foroperating the selected type to print, timing devices to con-. trol the sequence in which the sets of keys are made effective, driving means for said devices, a clutch between said devices and said driving means, and an escapement release member controlled by the keys for connecting said clutch, said member disconnecting said clutch after one cycle of operation regardless of the position of the keys in operated or released condition.

10. In a typewriter with a set of character type, sets of type selection keys, the keys of each set being depressed in combination to select a type, means for operating the selected type to printa record, means for locking the keys in depressed or released position during printing, a' driving means for said operating means, a clutch between said operating and driving means, means for connecting said clutch, and means under control of the keys for operating said key locking means and said clutch connecting means.

11. In a power operated typewriter, a driving means, a control switch for said driving means, keys for controlling typing, means for locking said keys in an operated position, and means under control of said switch for rendering ineffective said locking means when said switch is moved to the off position.

12. In a recording machine, a set of six keys arranged in two columns, three keys in a column, the keys of each column being operable singly or in pairs by a finger, a plurality of type bars, means under control of said six keys for selecting one of said bars according to the combination of one, two, three or four keys operated, and means for recording an impression of the selected typebar on a record sheet.

13. In a recording machine, a plurality of sets of keys, the keys of each set being arranged in two parallel columns with a plurality of keys in each column, the keys of a column being operable singly or in combination with the keys of the other related column, the keys of one column being operated by a digit of the right hand, and the keys of the other related column being operated by a similar digit of the left hand, a recording means with a plurality of type each type relating to a combination of the keys, and means under control of operated keys for selectively impressing certain type against a record sheet to print a plurality of letters of a word.

14. In a recording machine, four sets of keys, each set arranged in two columns with three keys in each column, four columns operated by the fingers of the right hand and four other columns operated by the fingers of the left hand, the three keys of a column being operable by one finger singly or two at a time in combination with the keys of a related column operated by a similar finger of the other hand, printing elements,

means under control of each combination of operated keys for selecting one of said elements for recording operation. and means for taking an 2,192,594 impression of the selected elements on a record sheet.

15. In a recording machine, a plurality of groups of keys operated by pairs of digits, the keys of each group being operable singly or in combination to represent a character, a printing means with type representingcharacters, and means under control of thekeys for operating the printing means to print a plurality of characters, the left to right order of the characters printed on a record sheet being controlled by the roups of keys under control oi the pairs of index, middle, ring and little fingers in the order mentioned.

16. In a recording machine, a set of six keys designated 21, 22, 23, 2a, 2b and 20 arranged in two columns as follows:

the keys of each column being operable singly or in adjacent pairs by a finger, and being conjointly operable with keys of the other column, said six keys being operable in thirty-five combinations, printing devices witha set of alphabet type and aplurality of punctuation type, and means for selectively operating the type to print a record according to thelfollowing key combination selections:

22-2a 22-20 21-2b 23-2b 1'7. A recording machine as in claim 16 with 22, 23-2a 22, 23-26 21-2a, 2b 23-2a,2b 21-2b, 2c

23-2b, 2c 21-2a sets of upper case alphabet type and numeral type and a shifting means between the keys and type to select the upper case and numeral type to print a record according to the following key combination selections:

22, 23 22-2a, 2b 22-2b, 2c 21, 22-2b 22, 23-2b 21, 22-2a, 2b 22, 23-2b, 2c 21, 22-2b, 2c 22, 23-2a, 2b 2a 21 23 22-2a- 22-20 21-2b 23-2b 21, 22-2a 21, 22-2c 22, 23-2a 22, 23-2c 21-2a, 2b 23-2a, 2b 21-2b, 2c 23-2b, 2c 21-2a 23-2c 21-2c 23-2a 18. In a power driven typewriter, four sets of keys, each set arranged in two columns with three'keys' in each column, four columns oper-" ated by the fingers of-the right hand and the other four columns operated by the fingers of the left hand, the three keys of a column being operable by one finger singly or two at a time in combination with the keys of a related column operated by a similar finger of the other hand, a set of character typebars, power operated means for operating said bars to type on a record sheet, means including solenoids for each of said barsfor bringing selected bars under control of said operating means, a source of electrical energy, four sets of electrical contacts the contacts of each set being opened and closed by two cooperating columns of keys to form current paths between said source and any of said solenoids to which the contacts are wired, four pairs of timer contacts, each pair of which is connected between said source and the key contacts of two related columns of keys, a timer driving means, four timer cams designed to close said timer contacts in succession, first the pair associated with the index finger keys and then the contacts of the middle, ring and little finger keys in the order named, a clutch between said driving means and said cams, and means for connecting said clutch under control of the middle and ring finger keys.

19. In a recording machine, a set of type, sets of keys operable by pairs. of similar fingers simultaneously in combinations to select the type for printin timing devices between said keys and said type to make the sets of keys effective in succession, the set of keys operated by the index fingers being efiective immediately, means under control of said keys for calling said de-. vices into operation only when other sets of keys are operated in addition to the index finger keys,

and means for printing a record under control ofthe selected type.

20. In a recording machine, three lateral rows of keys arranged according to the natural positions of finger tips, the keys comprising a plurality of sets with two related columns of keys in each set, related columns of keys being equally spaced from the center to the left and right, and positioned under similar fingers of opposite hands, said keys being aligned longitudinally and closely spaced in the columns so that a combination of keys in tworelated columns can be depressed by each pair of fingers to select a single letter, and all fingers operated simultaneously to select a plurality of letters of a word, a recording means with a plurality of type, each type relating to a combination of the keys, and means under control of operated keys.

for selectively impressing certain of the type against a record sheet to print a plurality of letters of a word.

21'. In a recording machine, five groups of keys, one group for each digit, said keys of a group being operable singly or in combination by a digit, a printing means comprising a plurality of type, a difierent type for each combination of keys, means under control of the combinations of operated keys for selecting certain type, and means under control of said keys for operating to print a record from the selected type, said operating means being controlled distally, the thumb keys selecting the first type to print and. the index, middle, ring and little finger keys controlling subsequent printing in the ,1

Order mentioned.

22. In arecording machine, a plurality of sets of keys, each set arranged in two groups, related groups being equally spaced from the center to the left and right, and positioned under similar fingers of opposite hands, said keys of the groups being positioned adjacent each other in the groups so that a combination of keys in two related groups can be depressed by each pair of fingers, all fingers being depressed at the same time and each finger operating one or a combination of keys of the associated group, each different combination of a set of keys relating to a letter so that all sets represent a plurality of letters of a word, printing means with type representing the different letters, and means under control of the keys for operating the printing means to print a plurality of letters, the left to right order of the letters printed on a record sheet being controlled distally by the sets of keys.

23. A recording machine comprising three sections of keys, each section including a plurality of keys, a left section adapted to be controlled by the fingers of the left hand, a center section controlled by the thumbs of both hands, and a right section controlled by the fingers of the right hand, the thumbs depressing combinations of keys in the center section to select the first letter of a word, pairs of related groups of finger keys being in the left and right sections,

said related groups of finger keys being equally spaced to the left and right of the center section and positioned under similar fingers of the opposite hands, said keys of the groups being positioned adjacent each other in the groups so that a combination of keys in two related groups can be depressed by each pair of fingers to select other letters of the same word simultaneously, letter printing elements, means under control of each combination of depressed keys for selecting one of said elements for recording "operation, and means for effecting an impression of all selected elements to print a plurality of letters of a word on a record sheet.

24. In a recording machine, a set of six keys designated a, b", c", 1", 2", 3", arranged in two columns as follows:

said keys being operable by two fingers, in combinations, singly and in pairs, printing devices with a set of alphabet type and a plurality of punctuation type, record sheet spacing devices,

and means under control of said keys for selectively operating the type and devices according to the following key combination selections:

25. In a recording machine, a keyboard with fiye sets of keys, each set comprising two columns of three keys operable singly or in combination by two similar fingers or thumbs of both hands, the thumb columns of keys being arranged side by side at the center of the keyboard and the other columns spaced therefrom to the left and right in accordance with the natural positions of the finger tips, each combination of keys representing a letter, number or punctuation mark, all five combinations being settable simultaneously, and two selection bars placed adjacent the index'finger columns of keys, mechanism controlled by said bars to select an additional set of special characters, a recording means with a plurality of type, each type relating to a combination of the keys, and means under control of operated keys for impressing selected type against a recordsheet to print thereon a plurality of letters, numbers, marks or characters.

26. A recording machine as in claim 25 with a capital selection bar between the columns of thumb keys and shift mechanism operated thereby to capitalize the letter selected by the combination of keys operated by the thumbs.

27. A recording machine as in claim 25 with a capital selection bar to the left of the thumb.

keys and shift mechanism operated thereby to capitalize the letter selected by the thumb keys, and a space bar to the right of the thumb keys and sheet spacing mechanism operated when said bar is operated with the thumb keys or alone to select a spacing operation.

SAMUEL BRAND. WAL'DEMAR A. AYRES.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification400/94, 400/95, 400/51, 400/101, 400/373, 400/54, 400/479
International ClassificationB41J3/26, B41J3/00, B41J3/44
Cooperative ClassificationB41J3/44, B41J3/26
European ClassificationB41J3/26, B41J3/44