|Publication number||US2192933 A|
|Publication date||Mar 12, 1940|
|Filing date||Jun 30, 1937|
|Priority date||Jun 30, 1937|
|Publication number||US 2192933 A, US 2192933A, US-A-2192933, US2192933 A, US2192933A|
|Inventors||Arthur D Saborsky|
|Original Assignee||Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (30), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
ch l2, 1940.
A. D. sABoRsKY 2,192,933
4HEAT INSULATION Filed June so. 1937 2 sheets-sheer 1 l2 y zz 2512. 25/
IN V EN TOR. A iozborsfy,
BY l ,I f
. D. SABORSKY HEAT INSULATION Filed June 30, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 A TTo MEYS.
Patented Mar. l2, 1940 UNITED-STATES HEAT INSULATION Arnimn. sammy, more, omo, minor, by meme assignments, to Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Application June so, 1931, serial No. 151,100
'I'he present invention relates to heat insulation for any suitable" application such as iceboxes, refrigerators, ybottle coolers, refrigerator cars, house insulationwarehouse and building insulation, etc., and relates more particularly to a novel method and construction for preventing or inhibiting the condensation of moisture withinA the insulation itself.
An object of the invention is to inhibit or pre- There are at least two factors contributing to the passage of moisture into an insulating panel from the humid warm side thereof, (l) a tend- 2 ency to equalize vapor pressures between two adjacent gaseous bodies having a differential of vapor pressures therebetween, this tendency being present irrespective of the total pressures and temperatures of the said adjacent bodies. As a 2d corollary, nature abhors dryness in air similarly as it abhors a vacuum; and (2) convection currents caused by variations in density, pressure and temperature in adjacent gaseous bodies.
At the present time, refrigerators or the like 3o are being constructed with an impermeable outer shell, and a ventilated inner shell. The purpose of said construction is to provide a breathing into the interior of the refrigerator, that is, toward the cold side of the insulation, and thus prevent 35 a condensation of moisture Within the insulation. Breathing from the cold side tends to permit the insulation itself to remain dry owing to the lower relative humidity of the cold side as compared with the warm side. On the other hand, if the 40 cold side were left impervious, and breathing communications were made with the warmer side, the air of relatively higher humidity on .the warmer side would tend to inltrate into the insulation, where it would be lowered in tempera- 46, ture, and moisture condensed therefrom.
In forming breathing vents for refrigerators, these are generally placed, if at all, along the upper edge of the refrigerator, for two general reasons, (l) so that they may be hidden from 50 the housewife who might suspect a flaw in the icebox if she were to see holes in the inner shell" of the box or food cabinet, and who would also consider such holes unsightly, and (2) to eliminate any openings along the lower edge of the Il box through which water or the like might leak into the insulation when the icebox is cleaned or washed, or if any liquids or the like were spilled inside of the box. Accordingly, breathing of the insulation, if done at all, is generally accomplished through these holes along the up- 5 per part of the refrigerator. However, occasionally breathing is sometimes provided by porosity in the breaker strip around the door opening of a refrigerator. Similar reasons dictate the location of breathing holes in the upper Part of l0 the Walls of cold storage rooms, although not necessarily so.
Moreover, in view of the limitations in manufacture, the outer shell or cabinet may contain some small plnholes which defy the best skill in 15 attempting to seal the outer shell or cabinet of the box perfectly. These pinholes in the outer shell permit a small amount of air from the outside to penetrate into the insulation where the moisture carried therein may be condensed.
Ordinarily, if the temperature both inside and outside of the cabinet remains constant, the passage ofl moisture laden air through these pinholes may be minimized, since the uniform temperature would prevent expansion or contraction of the air both Within and without the panel, and thus would prevent inhalation from occuri ing through the pinholes caused by convection. However, such ideal conditions do not exist, and under normal conditions there is a continual temperature variation both within and without the panel. As the temperature thus varies, the air both within and without the panel expands or contracts in -accordance therewith, and thus causes a pressure differential on each side of the panel walls, thus permitting an influx of moisture laden air through the pinholes. Moreover, apart from convection, passage of moisture into the insulation by the urge of vapor pressure alone takes place to a certain extent.
When moisture laden air enters through the pinholes into the insulation which is remote from the breathing holes leading to the cold side, I have found that moisture may condense and collect in substantial quantities because it is prevented from making its way to and through the breathing holes owing to the obstruction to the passage of air caused by the mass of insulation itself.
In order to eliminate condensation within the insulation, of moisture from air which may have iniiltrated `thereinto, especially into that insulation which lies remote from breathing holes, I provide air ducts or conduit means communicating from the breathing holes in the cold side to all parts of the insulation, however remote. These ducts or conduits automatically prevent differentials of pressure from existing between the cold side and the various regions v within the insulation, and they simultaneously permit all .portions of the insulation to breatheor ventilata through the vent holes into the cold side. By thus preventing differentials of pressure from existing on the insideof the insulation andv facilitating ai convection of moisture laden air into the cold side, I eliminate moisture laden air from all pants of the insulation and prevent its accumulation to a. degree which would permit condensation.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings, in which: Figs. 1 to 8 are fragmentary cross-sectional plan views of house or building walls showing various sections of insulation lying between conventional studs of the wall, each of the views illustrating an embodiment of my invention as applied to this type of insulation;
Fig.9 is a fragmentary part sectional, perspective viewr of a building wall embodying my invenvided with a core embodyingthe present inven- Fig. 13 is a fragmentary enlarged perspective view ofthe core of the fold bat illustrated in Fig. l2; and Y Fig 14 is a fragmentary cross-sectional plan view of a' refrigerator showing a modification.
Referring more particularly to Fig. 1 illustrating a conventional building wall embodying the present invention h1 various forms, reference character III designates upright studs, faced on the outside with sheathing II of any suitable type having on overlying layer of siding I 2 of clapboard, shingle, stucco, bricks, or other sultable types. The studs I divide the wall into individual panel sections, each provided with its own insulation. Along the inner surface of the wall are laths and plaster or other inner wall surface I3.
Spaced between the sheathing II and the wall surface I3, is a body of insulation I of any suitable type such as glass Wool, rock wool, asbestos, balsam wool, hair felt, wood pulp insulation, kapok, or the like. The insulation Id may be in bat, mat or felt form, or it may be in modulated form which is generally used when the insulation is blown or poured into place.
In the panel section between adjacent studs, I have provided a spacer serving to provide a thin, vertical air column 2| between the sheathing II and the insulation I4. The spacer 20 is provided with a plurality of perforations 22 communicating with the air column 2I and the insulation I4 throughout the surface thereof. The spacer 20 may be of any suitable type such as perforated sheet metal, expanded metal, a screen, perforated cardboard, asphalt, paper or the like, and may be substantially coextensive vertically with the wall or wall section in which it is installed.
The vertical air column 2I may communicate with the outer atmosphere directly through the sheathing II and the siding I2, either through perforations purposely made through these members, or through the natural crevices and cracks which ordinarily and inherently form in the construction. I
In Fig. 2, the same construction 'is used with the exception of the form of the vertical air chan- `nels. -In this view the insulation I4 has been provided with vertical channels 25, which may be of thin sheet metal of inexpensive construction, and which may be perforated at Intervals throughout theirv length, in order to provide air conduit means to the insulation throughout its vertical length. As a practical matter, however, I have found that generally there is sufficient leakage of air between the channels 25 and the insulation-I4 to obviate the perforations. The
panel section 25 may benailed or otherwise afiixed to the sheathing AII as shown, or to the studs I0, or may even be embedded directly in the insulation itself.
As another embodiment of the present invention, I have shown in Fig. 3 a vertical channel be held apart from the sheathing II, without Referring to Fig, 5, I have shown tubular perforated members which may be in the form of cylindrical screens placed in the corners of the panel formed by the studs Iii-and the sheathing II, or embedded directly within the insulating material I4 itself. i
Referring now to Fig. 6, I have illustrated another embodiment of the invention more particularly adapted to building wall insulation such as a warehouse wall formed with a plurality of upright studs 4G "in the form of steel channel members. 'Ihese are spaced apart at intervals to form panel sections adaptedto contain insulation It therebetween.
In order to provide air Ventilating means for the insulation Id, I have provided foraminous members d2 extending between the anges of each channel stud dll, thusk causing the spaces between the flanges of the studs to providea vertical communicating means 43.
In Fig. 7, a further embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in which the foraminous member has been. arranged in the corners formed by the channel studs 4I) and the sheathing II, thus forming vertical channels 4B communieating with the insulation I4 throughout the vertical length thereof.
tion I4 itself. 'I'he channels 48 may be perforated or provided with holes 49 at intervals throughl out the length thereof as desired.
Fig. 9 is a perspective view, certain'parts of which have been broken away for the sake of clarity, showing a buildingl wall, embodying the present invention. of Fig. 5 has been incorporated into Fig. 9, although any of the other embodiments shown in Figs. 1 to 8 or modifications thereof, could likewise be used.
In Fig. 9, it will be noted that the sheathing i I has been perforated by means of a series of holes 5l which permit ventilation of the insulation il to the outer atmosphere or cold side. 'I'he `ordi-- nary clearances and cracks found in the siding il are. generally adequate to provide suillcient ventilation therethrough and through the holes 50 into the insulation from the outer atmosphere, although, if desired, additional Ventilating means may be provided through the siding wall through to the insulation I I. The vertical perforated member 35 thus provides a more or less direct communication for the air and moisture within the insulation, throughout its entire vertical length with the holes 5U leading to the outer atmosphere, and thus inhibits an accumulation of moisture within the insulation.
Referring now more particularly to Figs. to 13, I have illustrated the invention as applied to a refrigerator or cooler 55 composed of insulating panels having outer walls 56 and inner wall-s 51,
lbetween which is provided insulating means 58.
The insulation may be and preferably is in the form of a fold bat such as the one illustrated in Fig. 12, comprising a bat of insulation which is folded over a core 59-to form a double thickness to the insulation.
'Ihe core may be of any suitable sheet material, although I have found that for ordinary purposes. a corrugated board. such as the one illustrated in Fig. 13, is admirably suited to my invention. As brought out more fully in Fig. 13, the corrugated board is constructed with surface sheets 63 having a corrugated spacer 66 therebetween forming a seriesof vertical .tubes or channels Sli, communicating throughout the length of the board or core 59, and thus providing a simple and efficient Ventilating or conduit means for the insulation.
In order to enhance the accessibility of the moisture and air within the insulation 58 to the upper portions of the refrigerator, and more particularly to the ventholes 54, which may be as shown in the drawings or other communication openings between the insulation and the inner cold chamber, as, for example, openings through the breaker strip'in the door opening'of the refrigerator. I preferably provide a series of openings 62 through the board or core 59, thus causing the tubes 60 to communicate with the insulatin, throughout substantially its entire volume.
In Fig. 14, I have illustrated a modification of the present invention in which the refrigerator walls are provided with insulation 65, and aspacer element 66, placed along the inner wall 51. providing vertical conduit means 6l. I'he spacer 6B is preferably corrugated, and perforated with the perforations 68 so that the insulation may readily breathe through the holes 68, the conduits or vertical tubes 61, andthrough the holes 54 'I'he particular construction.
or other openings into the low temperature zone within the refrigerator cabinet.
In the operation of my invention, I have discovered that the vertical or horizontal conduit means as embodied in the various forms of the present invention, facilitate ventilation and breathing of all parts of the insulation through to the cold side, and also inhibit air from entering the insulation from the warm outside, thus lalso inhibiting the passage of air through pinholes or cracks which may exist in the outer wall surfaces 56.
Modifications and variations may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined in the appended claims.
Iclaim: 1. A heat insulating panel having side walls spaced apart, fibrous heat insulation between said 'side walls, and air conduits in said insulation adapted to provide ventilation throughout said insulation through to the cold side of said panel. 2. An insulating panel comprising side walls spaced apart, one of said side walls being on the cold side and having perforations along certain portions thereof, fibrous heat insulation means between saidwalls, and air conduitV means embedded in said insulation communicating with said perforationsadapted to equalize pressures between the atmosphere lying on the cold side and the pressures within said insulation, and
vthe studs on the outer surface thereof, and an inner wall surface secured to said studs and spaced apart from said' sheathing, said means comprising heat insulating material filling said walls between said inner wall surface and said sheathing, and vertical air channels embedded in said insulating material permitting air ventilation throughout said insulation to the upper portions of said sheathing.
5. Means for insulating a heated house Wall having studs spaced apart, sheathing overlying the studs on the outer surface thereof, and an inner wall surface secured to said studs and spaced apart from said sheathing, said sheathing being provided with perforations along the upper portions thereof adapted to permit breathing therethrough from the outer atmosphere, said means comprising heatv insulating material filling said walls between said inner wall surface and said sheathing, and vertical air channels embedded insaid insulating material permitting air ventilation throughouti said insulation to the upper portions of said sheathing.
6. An outside insulated wall structure for heated buildings comprising upright'studs spaced apart, an inner wall surface on the inner side of the wail dened by said studs, porous sheathing on the outer side of the wall defined by said studs, heat insulation material in the spaces between the studs and between said) sheathing and inner Wall surface, and perforate vertical air channels embedded in said insulation between said studs and between said sheathing and inner arsaoas 8. A wall structure which comprises an inner wall surface having periorations along the upper portions thereof, an impervious outer wall surface spaced from said inner wall surface. ilbrous insulating material filling the space between said wall surfaces, and a core embedded in said insulation providing air communicating means throughout said insulation to the upper portions of said insulation adjacent to said holes in said inner wall surface.
ARTHUR D. SABORSKY.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2427937 *||Jul 18, 1941||Sep 23, 1947||Corwin D Willson||Space enclosure|
|US2613509 *||Sep 22, 1948||Oct 14, 1952||Nash Kelvinator Corp||Refrigerating apparatus|
|US2645824 *||Sep 13, 1949||Jul 21, 1953||Titsworth Edwin J||Ventilated wall|
|US2703442 *||Oct 15, 1949||Mar 8, 1955||Nash Kelvinator Corp||Refrigerator door|
|US2718210 *||Mar 30, 1949||Sep 20, 1955||Frank Vlchek Jr||Combination incubator and brooder|
|US2782464 *||Jul 27, 1954||Feb 26, 1957||Joppich Robert H||Ventilating vent for wall of building|
|US2804657 *||Sep 30, 1952||Sep 3, 1957||Munters Carl Georg||Heat insulated walls of cold-storage rooms|
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|U.S. Classification||52/302.3, 62/DIG.130, 220/62.11, 220/592.26, 220/592.9, 52/404.3|
|International Classification||F16L59/02, F25D23/06|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S62/13, F16L59/02, F25D23/068|
|European Classification||F25D23/06C3, F16L59/02|