US 2193340 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
.March 12 1940- T. MccoNNELL.
METHOD OF TRENI-ING FABRIC original Filed Nov. 21, 193e INVENTOR I BY70MAS MGA/ELL 62g@ l M ATTORNEYS Patented Mar. 12, 1940 VUNITED STATES PAT-ENT OFFICE METHOD F -TBEAT'ING FABRIC Application November 21, 193s, serial No. 112,001
Renewed November ZZ, 1939 7 Claims.
This invention relates to the manufacture of fabrics such as pliss crepe in which localized shrinkage of the cloth is employed to produce the. characteristic puckered or crinkled appearance.
Fabrics of this general character have inthe past been produced by a series of substantially independent manufacturing operations each completed separately. As far as I am aware, no method has heretofore been proposed by which the production of these fabrics could be carried out as` a continuous and unitary operation, or without subjecting the fabric to uneven tension or pressure conditions which created irregularities in the final product. Among the diiiiculties which have been encountered in attempting a continuous operation of this character are'the mechanical diiliculties of Asynchronizing the vari-- ous machines conventionally used in carrying out the various treatments to which the cloth must be subjected. A further diiiiculty has arisen in previously proposed processes in that the fabric has been subjected to uneven strain or pressure as by drawing it through guide eyes While condensed laterally intorope form, or by piling it in folded condition in boxes in which it remained during the intervals'between operations.
It is one object of the present invention to provide a process which will permit the production of fabrics of the above character as a continuous operation in a way to avoid the dimculties heretofore encountered. Other and further objects relating to improvements in the quality of the product resulting from details of the method will be made apparent in the followingspeciiication and claims.
The accompanying drawing shows diagrammatically one suitable arrangement of mechanism for carrying out the method of this in vention.
Figs. 1 and 2 ,show successive portions of a unitary machine for carrying out the method.
Referring to the drawing the supply of cloth to be processed is indicated at III in the form of a roll. The cloth is drawn from roll I0 in fiat web form 'Il over a guide roll I2 and between a printing roll I3 vand an endless belt I4, preferably of rubber. Belt I4 passes around drums or cylinders I5, one of which is driven. A web of liner" or backing fabric I6 is fed from a supply roll I'l over a guide roll I8 and between the belt I4 and the web II; the liner, after the webs have passed through the printing mechanism, being separated from web II and directed by suitable guide rolls I8 to a windup indicated at 20.
" the back or unprinted side of the web. Due to 'Ihe printing rollI I3 may take the form of an engraved copper roll rotating in a box 2| containing a shrinking agent such as caustic sodal y with a gum carrier. As the roll I3 brings yup this caustic paste, the excess is scraped oif by a doc- I tor 22, leaving the engraved part lled. The roll I 3 is positioned to act against the web and belt at a point where the latter is backed by one of the cylinders I5. The pressure applied by the printing roll is suiiicient to transfer the paste from 10 the engravings of the roll to, and part way through, the cloth. As will be understood theaction of the caustic paste is to shrink or mercerize the cloth Ilocally at the areas covered by the paste, the puckering of the cloth occurring 1B between vthe printed areas.
The web II after leaving the printing device passes over guide roll 23 to a finely divided water Ispray generally indicated at 24 which moistens the hygroscopic action of the caustic soda the latter is drawn through the cloth at the printed portions. The spray is not heavy enough to Wet the cloth thoroughly, being suiiicient only to cause penetration of the cloth by the caustic, providing a sharp definition of the borders of the printed areas without diluting the caustic soda or causing it to run over the unprinted portions. 'I'his treatment of the reverse side of the web as part of the printing operation is believed novel and a0 results in a product of improved appearance and more uniform quality.
After moistening, the web passes -to feeding rolls indicated at 25 which ripples the web into a J-box as shown at 26. The J-box is of a size suilicient to allow time for local mercerization and shrinking of the cloth during its passage through the box. A slow moving conveyor may be used at this point if preferred.
From the J-box the web is directed through driven rolls 21 which deliver the web to a net conveyor 28 which is enclosed by a housing 29. The conveyor` 28 is driven at less speed than the normal advance of the web so that the web ripples ontol the conveyor. Hot air is supplied to the housing from any suitable source, not shown. The hot air passing through the cloth during the passage of the rippled web through housing 29 is insuflicient to 'completely dry the cloth, but heats the cloth and partially dries it to complete the shrinking reaction.
After leaving the conveyor 28 the web passes through driven rolls 30 and downwardly between perforated pipes 3| that constantly spray H2504, preferably having a sp. gr. of 1.03, to saturate tll'e u ment.
cloth as it ripples onto a belt conveyor 32 which is traveling at a speed sumciently low to allow time for the NaOH to be neutralized. Over conveyor 32, which maybe formed of a plurality of narrow belts or a single wide belt of perforated material, are positioned perforated rubber trays 33 which are kept filled with the same acid solution as is used in pipes 3|. The solution from the trays falling downwardly on the rippled web on the conveyor furthers the neutralization and assists mechanically in the removal of the gum by the downward wash. Conveyor 32 is set with the delivery end higher than the receiving end to promote drainage and reduce the carry-over of acid to the succeeding washing compartment. The acid from pipes 3| and trays 33 is collected at the bottom of housing 34 in which the spraying mechanisms are located and is recirculated by a pump 35 through suitable piping 38. A small feed line, not shown, enters the system at any suitable point to introduce strong acid in sufficient quantity to maintain the neutralizing solution at a uniform strength.
From the neutralizing conveyor the web passes over a bow bar 31 to eliminate the possibility of scrimps and then over a rubber covered drum 33 which is driven to advance the web, still without tension. Rolling freely on top of drum 38 is a small wooden roller 39 that by its weight eliminates slippage of the web on the drum.
The neutralized web passes over a guide roll 40 and into a rippled formation on a belt conveyor 4|, similar in construction to conveyor 32 and positioned in suitable tank structure 42. Above the conveyor 4| are located a plurality of perforated trays 43, which shower the advancing rippled web with water to Wash the acid from the cloth. 'Ihe length of conveyor 4| and its speed of travel are made such that all traces of acid are removed.
After washing, the web is fed from conveyor 4| by feed rolls 44 and 45, similar to rolls 38 and 39, and over supporting rolls 46 :and 41 to a two-bowl mangle shown at 48--49 which removes excess moisture from the cloth. n leaving the mangle, the web is folded by suitable mechanism as at 63 into a box 84.
Several important features of novelty should be particularly noted. The cloth. at no time is condensed transversely, in other words it is kept in full width web form throughout its treat- The advance of the web is continuous without either warp-wise or weft-Wise tension, and actually at a substantially uniform rate.
.The necessary variations in time for the various operations are secured by rippling the fabric through J-boxes or on slow moving conveyors. The material is moved through the J-boxes or on the conveyors at a slow rate but in a large bulk per unit of length. When the material is moving in iiat form it travels at a higher speed but in a less bulk per unit of length. Moreover, by alternating these two conditions of the web and adapting the various operations alternately to these conditions, no elaborate synchronizing devices are required, simple variable speed drives being adequate, in cooperation with the tolerance allowed by the rippled accumulations of the web positioned between the several sets of web driving rolls, to compensate for minor speed variations and for progressive shrinkage o'f the web and its relaxing during washing and other moistening steps.
Pliss crepe is obtained by the foregoing means in a better and more uniform quality than has hitherto been possible. The localized shrinkage produced by the caustic paste or other shrinking agent creates intermediate puckered areas in which the web has a greater apparent thickness or loft. This loft being due to the local waviness of the web and not to any increased thickness of the fabric, it is particularly susceptible to injury if the web is subjected to uneven or local pressure or tension. In prior processes where the web has been gathered transversely into rope form for transfer from one operation to another, the drawing of the rope through the guide eyes gave an uneven tension in diil'erent portions of the web which was clearly traceable in the iinished product. In ordinary cloth finishing this would not be important, `since the cloth is straightened under a relatively heavy tension in the tenter. Such a tension is not possible in the manufacture of pliss crepe, as it would destroy the fullness or loft of the puckered areas. For this reason the process described herein produces a crepe of improved quality, since the web is never subjected to irregular tension.
In other prior processes the web has been folded into a box for transfer from one operation to another. 'I'he folded cloth at the bottom of such a box would be subjected to the pressure of the cloth above it for a comparatively long time, the destruction of the loft of the fabric being especially pronounced at the fold lines. In accordance with the present invention, the fold lines are never subjected to pressure; and the location of the fold lines is changed from one rippling operation to another. Furthermore, the web is never subjected to tension either warp-wise or weft-wise, even those short runs where the fabric bears the weight of a short length of the web being of so short a duration that no injury to the loft of the fabric can result.
What I claim is:
1. The method of producing pliss crepe and like fabrics as a continuous operation which comprises continuously advancing a web of cloth in fiat form, applying a hygroscopic shrinking agent in a predetermined pattern to one side of the advancing iiat web of cloth, drawing the lshrinking agent through to the opposite side of the web from that upon which it was printed by supplying moisture thereto from the web to satisfy its hygroscopic action, rippling the web into a more slowly moving but continuously advancingA accumulated form, and continuing the advance of the web in rippled condition and without subjecting the web to warp-wise or weft-wise tension for a sufficient length of time to permit substantial completion of the action of the shrinking agent.
2. The method of producing pliss crepe and like fabrics as a continuous operation which comprises continuously advancing a. web of cloth to be treated, transferring a caustic mercerizing paste from the intaglio portions of an engraved roll to one face of the web under sufficient pressure to force the paste partway through the cloth, moistening the opposite side of the web to thereby cause the paste to complete the penetration of the web by hygroscopic action, feeding the web forward in flat form and rippling it into a more slowly moving but continuously advancing accumulated form, carrying out the mercerizing action and successive neutralizing and washing operations whilegthe web is in rippled condition and feeding the web in fiat form from its rippled condition whereby a substantially uniform rate of advance of the web as a whole is obtained without exact synchronization between the several advancing and feeding movements.
3. The method of applying a caustic mercerizing paste to cloth in the production of pliss crepe and like fabrics which comprises transferring the paste to one face of the cloth fom the intaglio portions of an engraved roll under sufficient pressure to force the paste partway through the cloth and thereafter moistening the opposite side of the cloth sufliciently to thereby cause the paste to complete the peneration of the cloth byV hygroscopic action.
4. 'Ihe method of applying a caustic mercerizing paste to cloth in the production of pliss crepe and like fabrics which comprises transferring thel paste to one face of the cloth from a printing roll under sufficient pressure to force the paste partway through the cloth and thereafter moistening the opposite side of the clothv sufficiently to cause the paste to complete the penetration of the cloth by hygroscopic action.
5. A method of making pliss or like fabrics which includes the steps of placing a shrinking agent in the form of a hygroscoplc mercerizing paste in the intaglio portions of an engraved roll, transferring the paste to the cloth by rolling the latter between the roll and a rubber backing member under sufflcient pressure to force the paste part way through the cloth, and drawing the shrinking agent through to the opposite side of the web from that upon which it was printed by supplying moisture thereto from ,the web to satisfy its hygroscopic action.
6. A method of making pliss crepe or like fabrics which includes the steps of placing a shrinking agent in the form of a hygroscopic mercerizing paste in the intaglio portions of an engraved roll, transferring the paste to the cloth by rolling the latter between the roll and a rubber backing member under sufficient pressure to force the paste part way through the cloth, drawing the shrinking agent through to the opposite side of the web from that upon which it was printed by supplying moisture thereto froml the web to satisfy its hygroscopic action, rippling the web into a slowly moving but continuously advancing accumulated form, and continuing the advance of the web in rippled condition and without subjecting the web to warp-wise or weft-wise tension for a suicient length of time to permit the desired action of the shrinking agent.
7. A method of producing pliss crepe and like fabrics as a continuous operation which comprisescontinuously advancing a web of cloth in flat form, applying a hygroscopic shrinking agent in a predetermined pattern to one side of the advancing flat web of cloth, drawing' the shrinking agent through to the opposite side of the web from that upon which it was printed by supplying moisture thereto from the web to satisfy its hygroscopic action, rippling the web into a more slowly movingbut continuously advancing accumulated form, continuing the advance .of the web in rippled condition and without subjecting the web to warp-wise or weft-wise tension for a sufficient length of time to permit completion of the action of the shrinking agent, and neutralizing the shrinking agent, washing, and drying the web all without subjecting the web to Warp-wise or weft-wise tension.