US 2193460 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 12, 1940.
J. LOUMIET ET LAVIGNE I SEPARATOR filed Sept. s, 1936 Fig. 3
Jean Loum/ef 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig. 4.
INVENTOR. e2 Laviqne.
Patented Mar. 12, 1940 UNITED STATES 2,193,460 SEPARATOR Jean Loumiet ct Lavigne, Playa de la Teja, Itabo,
Application September 3, 1936, Serial N0. 99,317
In Cuba March 10. 1936 '2 Claims.
This invention relates to the separation of the different constituents of a vaporizable liquid by fractional condensation together with mechanical separation of the condensate fractions from the r, vapor by means of centrifugal force.
To these ends vapors containing fractions which are liquefiable at difierent temperatures are made to pass through a progressively cooled helical coil. The progressive cooling of the coil induces the successive condensation of the constituents of the vapor beginning with those constituents which are-condensed at the highest temperature. The motion of the mixed vaporand liquid particles in the helical coil induces a centrifugal force which acts upon each particle in proportion to its mass, driving the condensed liquid particles toward the outer side of the coil thus separating them from the vapors which remain in the coil.
In order to obtain the highest efficiency a coil with a vertical axis is utilized. and the coil tubing should desirably be of a cross-sectional shape to incline downward and outward to a liquid collecting trough, the outer wall of the coil being so inclined as to intersect the resultant of grav ity and centrifugal force at a slight acute angle.
Other objects and advantages will hereinafter appear.
In the drawings forming part of this specification and illustrating certain preferred embodiments of the invention;
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view in front elevation of a fractional condenser and separator embodying features of. the invention;
Fig. 2 is a view showing a preferred coilshape;
top downward. The. .coil SI is disposed vertically 50 in tank BI through which cooling liquid is circulated from the bottom upward. .The cooling liquid may be, and desirably is, liquid which is being heated for vaporization. The cooling liquid is admitted to the bottom of the tank Al through 55 a valve LI and is discharged from theupper part of the tank. through a valve MI. Vapors given ofi from the cooling liquid. in the tank AI are carried away through a conduit DI. The vapors which are being condensed are. progressive- 0 1y deprived of their heat as they travel down- Figs. 3, 4 and. 5 are views similar to Fig. 2
ward through the coil SI so that the hottest part of the vapor is in the upper part of the coil SI. 'The cooling liquid gradually takes up the heat from the vapors traveling in the coil SI as the cooling liquid travels upward through the tank. Hence the hottest part of the cooling liquid is in the topof the tank and the coldest in the bottom. There is no tendency for convection currents of the cooling liquid to be set up in oppositionto this condition. Thevapors are therefore subjected to a progressive cooling effect as they travel downward through the coil SI.
Theleast volatile vapor fraction is condensed in the upper part of the coil SI, and the successively more volatile vapor fractions are condensed in-th'e successively lower turns of the coil SI. I
It is an important object of the present invention to so adjust the various factors which control the velocity of the vapors through the coil SI that the vapors will be caused to travel at a high velocity through all portions of the coil sufficient to effect a classification of the vapors-in part at least, and also to throw out at once to the outer side of the coil by centrifugal force any condensate which may be formed.
A series of drains are provided to remove the condensed fractions at intervals along the coil,
the drains al and DI being arranged to discharge into a conduit PI for collecting onevapor fraction and keeping it separate from the others. Similarly the drains cl and dI discharge into a I conduit QI for collecting a second vapor fraction and keeping it separate from the others. Drains el and fl discharge into a conduit RI for collecting a third vapor fraction and keeping it separate from the others. Drains gI and hI discharge into a conduit TI for collecting a fourth vapor fraction and keeping it separate from the others.
It is important that the velocity of the vapors traveling through the coil SI. be suificient at all -points to cause any condensate which may be formed to be immediately thrown to the outer side of the coil for extraction. This requires that the velocity of the vapors at all points along the coil shall be sufiicient to generate .a centrifugal component which is at least several times as great as the gravity component acting upon the condensate ancl which is desirably more than twenty times as great as the gravity component.
The factors which tend to influence the veloc- 'ity of the flow of the vapors and entrained condensates at various points along the coil are (1) the original or source pressure of the vapors, (2) the exit or discharge pressure of the vapors, (3)
the intensity of. the cooling effect applied to the coil, that is to say. the temperature of the cooling liquid and (4) the cross sectional area of the coil at any given point;
The vapors necessarily undergo depletion through condensation as they progress along the coil SI. It is a point of the present invention that the coil is diminished in cross sectional area from top to bottom to compensate for such depletion and to prevent loss of velocity in the later turns of the coil. The purpose of reducing the cross-section of the coil is to render the pressure gradient within the coil substantially independently of depletion by condensation, so that the centrifugal force will be maintained throughout the length of the coil. The reduction of coil sec tion may occur continuously or step by step.
It may be assumed that the cooling liquid is controlled and regulated to maintain the temperature conditions of the cooling liquid at any given point substantially uniform so that the cooling and condensing effect of the liquid does rate of transmission of the vapors per unit cross sectional areaalong the coil may'still be adjusted by adjusting either the source pressure or the valve'Vl which controls the discharge of uncondensed vapors from the coil SI, or by adjusting both the source pressure and the valve VI.
The resultant force will be in the direction of the line marked R. and will be equal in magnitude to a diagonal of the rectangle GC. The outer wall of. the tube is desirably inclined downward and Each drain may desirably be of the form shown in Fig. 6, where the drain a6 arises into the coil S6 at right angles to the coil wall and includes a baflle I at the lower side of the drain opening which extends across the trough to facilitate the diversion of all liquid collected above the drain.
In Fig. 7 a drain a1 is shownas extending substantially tangentially from the wall'of the coil Fig. 2 is preferred.
Similarly, any one of the drain arrangements of Figs. 6. to 8 may be utilized but'the form of Fig. 7 is preferred.
The coils may beshaped in plan like the coil S9 in Fig. 9, Sill 10 or-Sll in 11, the circular form of Fig; 9 being the preferred form. Ordinarily the cross sectional shape and the drain connections of the'coils SI, S2 and S3 will all be alike. These features can be varied, howamuse ever, in accordance with the quantity of the condensed liquid in each coil and the variety of the products which it is desired to separate in each turn or each half turn or in any selected number of complete turns. I
In order to prevent the discharge of the uncondensed vapors through the drain pipes, these pipes are connected with steam-traps of well known construction which allow liquid but not vapor to pass.
I have described what I believe to be the best embodiments of my invention. I do not wish, however, to be confined to the embodiments shown, but what I desire to cover by Letters Patent is set forth in the appended claims:
1. A method of fractionally condensing mixed vapors and separating the condensate into difierent constituent parts, which comprises passing the vapors through a totally or partially curvilinear condensing coil, subjecting the vapors to 20 progressively lower temperatures in the coil to condense the vapors fractionally, controlling the conditions of. transmission of the vapors to subject them to a pressure drop of an order sufficient to create in the vapors and condensed liquid concurrently a velocity suitable to develop in the curvilinear parts of the coil a component of centrifugal force which is at least several times as great as the force of gravity, for separating the condensed liquids immediately from the vapors, and separately discharging such liquids from the outer side of the coil at intervals along the coil along a path diverging from the path of the vapor body in a direction limited by the direction of. travel of the vapor within the coil and the direction of centrifugal force and separately collecting the liquids condensed and separated at different'temperatures, all while prov gressively reducing the cross-section of the vapor ,body as it passes through the coil to maintain the velocity of the vapor and the centrifugal separating action notwithstanding the progressive depletion of the vapors by condensation.
2. An apparatus for separating vapors into different constituent parts comprising a condensing coil which is curvilinear, in part at least, for cooling the vapors and centrifugally separating condensed liquid from the vapors, means for cooling the coil progressively from the 'inlet end to the opposite end thereof, and separate liquid drains communicating with the coil at intervals to collect and keep separate the liquids condensed/in different temperature zones of the coil, the coil being of progressively diminishing cross section to compensate for the depletion of the vapors by condensation, and means for delivering the vapor constituents to one end of the coil and for advancing the vapors through the coil from end to 'end thereof, under a pressure .drop of an order suflicient to create in the vapors and condensed liquid concurrently a velocity suitable to develop a component of. centrifugal force which is at least several times as great as the force of gravity, for classifying the vapors, and for separating the condensed liquid immediately from. the vapors,
said coil having a cross section which tapers outwardly and downwardly, and said drains being connected to the outermost portion of the respective turns of the coil to lead the liquid along lines limited by the direction of travel of the