US 2193495 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 12, 1940. R. ROLKERN 193,495
I WASHING momma:
Fi1ed July 1,1936 3 sheets-sheet 1 J1 32; J6. I a 70 Pzzzo FOLKERN F T a; v 'rrol rv I March 12, 1940. R. ROLKERN r WASHING MACHINE Filed July 1, 19 35 .3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Z0 1 ENTOR.
A'ITO March 12, 1940. ROLKERN ,193,495
WASHING MACHINE INVENIOR.
'FETL 0 'POLKEPN;
wasnnse Retlo lizern, San heandro, Calif.
Application .i'uly l, rose, Serial No. asses Claims.
2 2: object of my invention is to provide a washing machine which greatly simplifies the clothes washing process. Each phase of the cleansing process is improved and one of the advantages of the device lies in the fact that the clothes need not be handled between the washing and rinsing operations, and between the rinsing and drying operations It also is possible to partially dry the clothes so that they remain damp enough for ready ironing, or to entirely dry the clothes by heat.' The clothes may be entirely dried by heat, while still remaining in the washing machine.
It further is possible to heat thewater in the washing machine to a boiling point and'to continue to heat the water during the entire washing operation. The clothes container is rotatably mounted in the washing machine casing, and is rotated by jets of water and air playing against the cylindrical surface of the rotor or drum. In this way no actual gearing mechanism is needed between, the source of power and the clothescontaining rotor. Moreover, the means used for rotating the rotor or drum is also used for cleaning the clothes.
One of the novel features of the invention lies in the manner of securing the clothes to the drum so that the clothes will be held against bunching. This will permit the washing fluid to more effectively permeate the clothes with a result that the clothes will be more efiectively cleaned. The members which hold the clothes in the rotor or drum are preferably made hollow, and are perforated so that, water and air can pass therethrough, and thoroughly wash the portions of the clothes actually contacting with the clothessupporting members. The clothes-supporting members are, also provided with helical grooves in their outer surfaces and the grooves in adjacent clothes-supporting members are spiraled in opposite directions so that water and air passageways will be formed at the juncture of the grooves in adjacent members. Certain of the clothessupporting members are removable from the drum and these yieldingly contact with the fixed members for clamping the clothes in place. The
removable members act in very much the same manner as clothes pins.
Other objects and advantages will appear in the following specification, andthe novel features of the device will be particularlypointed out in the appended claims.
My invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings forming a part of this application,
in which- Figure 1 is a vertical section through the device, portions being shown in elevation;
Figure 2 is a top plan view of a portion of the clothes container rotor or drum; 1
Figure 3 is a section along the line 3-3 of Figure 1, a portion of the casing being shown in elevation;
Figure 4 is a section along the line 4-4 of Figv ure 1; showing one of the clothes clamping mem here in elevation;
Figure 5 is an isometric view of one of the longitudinal clothes-supporting members;
Figure 6 is a side elevation of. the device with the upper portion shown in section; Figure 7 is an enlarged transverse sectional view through aportion of the drum, parts of the drum elements being shown in end elevation; and
Figure 8 is an isometricview of a member used in the device.
In carrying out my invention I provide a washing machine comprising a. casing l'mounted on a base 2. The upper portion l-a of-the casing cooperates with a. bottom 3 for forming a waterholding chamber or compartment.- The greater portion of the bottom 3 is cylindrical in shape, and the bottom is provided with a recess or pocket 4 in which I mount an electric heating element 5. A water discharge pipe 6 leads from the pocket 4 and a valve indicated generally at 1 controls the out-flow of water from the compartment. In Figure 3 I indicate an electric cord 8 removably connected to the heating element 5 in the usual manner.
The casing I is provided with a cover 9 that is hinged at Ill. Figure 6 shows chains II or other suitable flexible means for holding the cover 9 in open position. The cover when in closed position forms a water seal'jor the top I-a of the casing. 'The handle l2 shown in Figure 1 is provided for the cover.
In Figures 1 and 3 I show the two inner surfaces of the side walls of the casing provided with a U-shaped cradle indicated generally at l3. This cradle has vertical parallel tracks l3a and a. closed bottom l3-b that is non-circular. The two cradles l3 are designed to removably receive the square oxide N of a shaft IS. The shaft, in turn, rotatably'carries a clothes-containing drum or rotor, indicated generally at I. It will be seen that the non-circular portions l3b of the cradles l3 support the shaft l5 and prevent its rotation.
The drum or rotor I6 is provided with two and discs I], and these discs are connected to each 65 other. by a housing It that encircles the shaft ii. The housing l8 carries ball bearing. races l3, and these ride on the shaft I5. I provide a packing indicated generally at 20 between each ball bearing race 15 and the disc H. A lubricant is placed in the housing 18 and continuously lubricates the ball bearings I9. The packings 20 prevent this lubricant from escaping.
Near the rims of the discs I! I provide longitudinally extending rods 2 I, see Figure 6. These rods are connected to the discs and aid inconnecting the discs together. The periphery of the drum or rotor I8 is formed from a plurality of longitudinally extending members 01' different shapes. Certain of these members are permanently secured to the drum while others are removably disposed in place. In Figure 6 I show cylindrical members 22 extending between the discs "and held against removal by the rods 2|. In Figure 7 I-illustrate how the cylindrical members 22 are held against inward movement by beads 23 formed in the discs ii. The cylindrical members 22 are perforated throughout their lengths and are also corrugated. The corrugations extend in the form ofa spiral from end to end of the cylinders.
I show the fixed cylinders 22 in groups of two, and between the cylinders in each group I provide a removable cylinder 24. Figure '7 shows this cylinder spaced from the cylinders 22, and further shows that this cylinder is perforated as at 25. The cylinder 24 also is provided with helical corrugations extending through the length thereof.
In Figure 4 I show how the cylinder 24 is removably held in place on the disc H. The rim of the disc is rolled over to form a head 26 and the cylinder 24 has an extension 2! that is formed into a clip for removably engaging with the head 26. Both ends of the cylinder 24 are provided with the clips 21, and these clips engage with their respective beads 26. In addition to the clips 21 I provide clips 28, see Figure 4, that are struck up from the disc I! and engage with the lower end portion of the cylinder. The perforations 25 are clearly shown in Figure 4 and so likewise. are the spiral corrugations 29.
Between the ,removable cylinder 24 and the fixed cylinders 22 I provide secondary removable cylinders 30 which may be of the same diameter as the cylinders 22 and 24 but are preferably made of a smaller diameter. The cylinders 30' extend from end to end of the drum and are removably held in place by clips 3| engaging with the beads 26 in the: same manner as the clips 21. The secondary cylinders 30 are split longitudinally along their under surface as at 32 and this gives the wall of the cylinder a spring action. When the cylinders 30 are placed I have described one group of longitudinal clothes-gripping members comprising the cylinders 22, 24 and 30. All of these cylinders are.
perforated and corrugated. The spiral corrugations in adjacent cylinders extend opposite to" each other for'the purpose already described. In order to give additional room for a greater number of clothes-supporting members, 1 form certain of these members in the shape of triangles as shown at 33,'in Figures 6 and 7. The
members 33 extend along the length of the drum,
and each encloses one of the rods 2|. Figure 7 shows the triangular members split from end to and along one side as shown at 34. These members are perforated, and also are provided with corrugations. Figure 5 shows an isometric view of one of the members 33. In Figure 6 I show four of these triangular members 33 in a group and each is spaced from its adjacent member by a removable cylindrical member 30. The rib 23 and the rods 3i hold the triangular members 33 against inward movement. The entire circumference of the drum is formed from these three different types of members.
I will now describe how a sheet or other article of clothing may be secured in place in the drum. This is best illustrated in Figures 6 and 7. The end of the sheet 35 is shown depending from one of the fixed cylindrical members 22 and clamped against the member by two of the removable secondary members 30. The sheet is then looped at 36 between the fixed member 22 and removable member 24. The figure shows the secondary removable member 30 clamping the looped portion to the removable member 24. Figure 6 illustrates how a second looped portion 36-a. is formed in the sheet 35. The member 30 disposed between the fixed member 22 and the removable member 24 has been removed, leaving a space for receiving the sheet. A positioning member shown in Figure 8 is used for forming the sheet into a loop. This member consists of a rectangular body 31 pivotally mounted on a cross portion of a U-shaped arm 38. The ends of the arm are bent outwardly as at 39, and are removably received in openings 40 in the sides of the casing l. The member 3'! has a handle 4i connected thereto.
The sheet 35 or other long piece of cloth extends from the removable member 24 in Figure 6 over the front edge of the casing I. The pusher 31 is laid fiat against the sheet, and then the sheet is brought over the upper surface of the pusher and is looped back upon itself as shown at 36-b. The pusher 31 is now raised into the dotted line position, and its lower end is inserted in the space between the adjacent members 22 and '24. The pusher now is manually moved downwardly and will carry the looped portion 36-41 of the sheet therewith. The pusher then is removed, and will leave the looped portion of the sheet in place. The removable member 30 is now placed in position, and will clamp the sheet to the two adjacent members 22 and 24. This process is repeated until the entire sheet has been looped into position and secured in place. Other garments of a smaller size may be looped over one or more of the members 22 or 33, and in this way will be held in place. Soiled portions of the garments may be disposed on the outer surface of the members 22 or 33'for'a purpose hereinafter described.
I will now describe the novel means for rotating the drum and for washing the clothes. In Figure 1 I show a motor 42 or other suitable source of power. This motor drives a water pump 43 and an air pump 44. A pipe 45 leads from the pump upwardly along the corners of the casing I disposed adjacent to the front wall of the casing. The tops of the pipes 46 terminate adjacent to the top of the casing. The cover 9 carries water pipes 41 that are formed with ends 48 designed to telescope slightly over the ends of the pipes 46, and thus form a water-tight seal. In the cover 9 I mount a header indicated generally at 49. and this header has a water-receiving compartment 50. The pipes 41 communicate with the ends of the compartment 56. Outlet jet openings 5| are formed in the under surface of the header 49 and communicate with the water compartment 56. The jets 5| are inclined at an angle for directing the water down upon upon.
the drum, and for rotating the drum in a clockwise direction when looking at Figure 1.
The air pump 44 delivers air to an air tank 52 by means of a pipe 53. Two air pipes 54 lead from the tank 52 and extend upwardly along the rear wall of the casing I. The pipes preferably are disposed at the corners of the casing. The tops of the pipes 54 terminate at the top of the casing. Air pipes 55 are disposed in the cover 9 and are designed to telescope partially over the pipes 54 when the cover is closed. The telescoping of the pipes 55 over the pipes 54 will provide an air-tight seal. The header 49 has an air compartment 56 and the pipes 55 lead to the ends of this compartment. Air jets 51 are formed in the header 49 and communicate with the air compartment 56. These jets are inclined for directing air down upon the drum for rotating the drum in a clockwise direction.
As a further means of rotating the drum I provide air pipes 58, see Figures 1, and 3, that lead from the air compartment 56 and terminate adjacent to the outer surfaces of the discs l1. Figures 1, 3, 4, and 'I show the discs provided with louvres 59 and these louvres extend in such a direction as to receive the air issuing from the pipes 58. The air when striking the louvres will rotate the drum in a clockwise direction. It will be noted from Figure '1 that the louvres 59 are disposed adjacent to the interior of the members 22, 24, 30 and 33. The air therefore will enter the interior of these hollow members, and will be forced through the perforations into contact with the clothes carried by the members, and thus aid in the cleaning operation.
As a further means of rotating the drum, and of forcing air through the clothes, I provide a cross pipe 60, see Figure'l, that is connected to the two air pipes 54. The cross pipe 60 has a central pipe 6| depending therefrom, and this pipe leads to an air nozzle 62 that has a number of openings therein. During the operation of the device air is forced through the air nozzle and strikes the drum in a direction to aid in its rotation. The air also will force its way through the perforated members and will agitate the clothes for washing purposes. The water line in the casing is substantially level with the axis of the shaft l5. The pipe 6|! is disposed above the water line so that water cannot enter the air pipes 54. The discs l1 are provided with openings 63 for the passage of air and water. The rear wall of the casing I has a door 64, see Figure 1, and this door has openings 65 therein to permit air to find its way to the air pump 44. A water inlet pipe 66 enters the casinggl near the top of the rear wall and the open end of the pipe directs the water down along the rear wall of the casing. Small water jets 61 are formed in the pipe so'that a portion of the water inentering the casing will strike the drum. An exhaust air pipe 68 is disposed near the water inlet pipe 66. A iiap valve 69 controls the flow of air through this pipe for a purpose hereinafter described. Figure 6 shows the valve 69 mounted on a cross rod .16, and: this rod has a handle 1| disposed on the outside of the casing l. The
handle is received in any one of a number of notches 12 so that the valve 69 may be in closed or partially opened position.
From the foregoing description of the various parts of the device, the operation thereof may be readily understood.
The various articles of clothing are secured to the members 22, 24, 36 and 39 in the manner aIread-ystated. Soiled portions of the clothing are preferably placed on these members so as to be exposed to the outside of the drum. The triangular members are especially designed to support flat work.
The removable members may then be secur in place by a. netting or cord shown at 13 in Figure 1. This netting is preferably as wide as the length of the drum, and is passed beneath the drum and the free ends of the netting are supported by hooks 14 or other suitable fastening means. when the clothes are placed in the drum the ends of the netting are freed from the hooks and are tightly tied together to encircle the drum. A cord may be used in place of the netting if desired. The valve 1 of the drain pipe 6 is closed and the valve 15 of the water inlet pipe is opened.' This will permit water to enter the casing until it reaches the level shown at 16. This water preferably is near the boiling point, or if necessary it may be allowed to flow into the casing and then heated by the element 5. The element 5 keeps the water to the boiling point or other desired temperature during the entire washing operation.
The cover 9 is now closed, and this will close a cuit indicated generally at 18. A starting switch 19 may now be closed and the motor 42 will actuate both the water pump 43 and the air pump 44. The water pump 43 will draw water fromthe casing and will force this water out through the jets 5| in the header 49 in the manner already described. The air pump 44 will force air through the pipes 54 and causes this air to issue from the jets 51 in the header 49, and to also issue from the nozzle 62 disposed at the end of the pipes 6|. The valve 69 is opened to allow the air to exhaust through the pipes 68.
The water and air jets issuing from the header 49 will strike the members forming the periphery of the drum, and not only will rotate the drum in the direction of the arrow, but also will clean the portions of the garments enclosing certain of the longitudinal members. Air also will enter the interior of the longitudinal members by means of the pipe sections 58 and the louvres 59. This air will flow through the perforations in the longitudinal members for a further cleaning of the clothes as well as impart rotationto the drum when striking the louvres.
The drum will rotate slowly and the clothes hanging from the top of the drum will just clear the housing surrounding the shaft l5. These clothes will be carried down into the water, or other cleaning fluid, and will change from a depending position into a horizontal position. The water .will be forced through the clothes that extend into the drum and a thorough washing of switch 11 connected in series with the motor cirthe clothes results. As the clothes are carried by the nozzle 62 they will be ballooned by coming into contact with the air issuing from the nozzle. This air willenter the drum through the perforations in the longitudinal members and will agitate the water in the drum. as wellas aid in rotating the drum. The air not only will agitate the water, but will cause the clothes to extend upwardly from the members as the members move past the position adjacent to the nozzle 62. The air in passing through the clothes will have a further cleaning effect.
The clothes then will be subsequently lifted clear of the water and the water will be allowed to partially drain therefrom before the clothes again are submerged in the water. This particular manipulation of the clothes prevents them from bunching and entirely cleanses all portions. After the washing operation the water may be drained from the casing by opening the valve 1 and closing the valve 69. This will shut off the' air from exhausting out of the casing with a re-' sult that an air pressure will be built up within the casing to aid in forcing the water therefrom. The drum will-speed up in its rotation when the water is entirely drained from the casing and the device may be operated this way for a short time to permit a greater portion of the washing water to be removed from the clothes by centrifugal force. The valve 1 may now be closed and a rinsing water allowed to enter the casing by opening the valve 15. The clothes will be subjected to the rinsing water in the same manner as they were to the washing water. The rinsing water then may be drained off by building up an air pressure in the casing and opening the valve 1. A second rinsing water may be used if desired, or a bluing water may be added.
After the clothes are entirely cleaned the drum may be rotated to force all of the water from the clothes by centrifugal force. This may be continued until the clothes are dry enough for immediate ironing. It also, is possible to entirely dry the clothes by merely allowing the heating element 5 to heat the air in the casing. This air will be drawn through the water pump in place of the water so that heated air will issue from the jets 51 in the header 49. The heater 5 will also warm the air in the space beneath the bottom 3 and this warm air will be drawn into the air pump 44 and will issue from the air jets 51 and 58. Heated air will also issue from the nozzle 62. This heated air will thoroughly dry the clothes.
The cover 9 now may be opened and the net or cord 13 removed from the drum. The clothes may now be removed from the machine by merely moving the removable members 24 and 30. It will be seen that the clothes are dried without the need of a wringer and that the clothes need not be handled between any one of the different operations already mentioned. The clothes are prevented from bunching while in the drum, and
this results in a thorough cleaning of all portions of the clothes. Although the different longitudinal members are shown of various diameters, all of the members may be of the same diameter if desired. There are two methods of cleaning employed in the device, one is the use of jets of water and air playing against the clothes and the other is the actual moving of the clothes through a body of cleaning fluid. The device is especially designed to take care of all types of clothing from smaller articles to-heavy blankets. The clothes are aereated during the washing operation which is a distinct advantage over the present methods.
While I have shown only the preferred form of my invention, it should be understood that various changes or modifications may be made within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
1. In a washing machine, a drum having members extending parallel with its axis, certain of other, and a plurality of hollow clothes clamping 0 members disposable between the first members for clamping the clothes in place, said last named members having perforated walls and each member being provided with a slot that extends throughout its length for giving a spring quality to the wall of the member, whereby the clothes .clamping action between the fixed and removable members is enhanced.
3-. In a washing machine, a casing for holding water, a clothes retaining drum rotatably mounted in the casing and having a perforated cylinder,
means for clamping clothes to the cylinder, a cover for the casing, a header having a waterreceiving compartment and an air-receiving compartment, said header having a plurality of jets leading from each compartment, and means for forcing water and air into-their respective compartments in the header for causing the water and air to simultaneously issue from the jets and strike the drum for rotating it and for aerating' and washing the clamped portions of the clothes, said means drawing its water supply from the water in the casing.
4. In combination, a casing for holding a cleansing fluid, a clothes-retaining drum rotatably mounted in the casing, a plurality of hollow perforated members constituting the periphery of v the drum, said members being designed to clamp clothes in place in the drum, louvres formed in the ends of the drum and providing openings communicating with the interior of the hollow members, and means for directing air against the louvres for rotating the drum, this air passing into the hollow members and then through the perforations in the mem-' bers for ae'reating the clothes carried by the members.
5. In combination, a casing for holding a cleansing fluid, a clothes-retaining drum rotatably mounted in the casing, clothes-holding members forming the cylindrical wall of the drum, means for removably securing certain of said members to the drum, said'removable members being disposed between the fixed members and constituting clamps for holding the clothes against the fixed members, and a member retaining means designed to encircle the drum for holding the removable members against accidental detachment.
6. In a clothes cleansing machine, a clothesholding drum comprising end discs each being provided with a beaded periphery, hollow members constituting the cylindrical wall of the drum, certain of said members being permanently secured to the discs, end'clips carried by the rea maining members and being removably secured to the beads for holding these members in place.
'7. In a clothes cleansing machine, a clothesholding drum comprising end discs each being provided with a beaded periphery, hollow members constituting the cylindrical wall of the drum, certain of said members being permanently secured to the discs, end clips carried by the remaining members and being removably secured to the beads for holding these members in place, a number of'the fixed members being cylindrical in shape while the others are. triangular in cross section.
8. In a washing machine, a casing, a rotatable drum mounted therein, a plurality of clothes supporting members forming the periphery of the drum and being spaced from each other, and a clothes pusher pivoted to the casing and insertable between the members for causing the portions of clothes disposed between the members to extend toward the axis of the drum.
9. In a washing machine, a casing, a rotatable drum mounted therein, a plurality of clothes supporting members forming the periphery of the drum and being spaced from each other, and a clothes pusher pivoted to the casing and insertable between the members for causing the portions of clothes disposed between the members, to extend toward the axis of the drum, and clothes clamping means disposable between the members and codperating therewith for securing the clothes to theperiphery of the drum.
10. In a washing machine, means providing a.
drum in which the clothes are freely raised and dipped with respect to the liquid upon rotation of the drum, said means comprising spacedbars over which the clothes are looped to hang down inside, spaced heads to which the ends of the bars are connected to complete the drum, a shaft rotatably supporting the drum, and removable bars placed between said first-named bars and bearing down on the clothes to keep them from slipping.
11. In a washing. machine, a drum having hollow members extending parallel with its axis and contacting with each other to form the periphery of the drum, said hollow members being provlded with spacing portions that'willaid m gripping the clothes and in permitting water to pass between the members.
12. In a washing machine, a casing for holding water, a clothes retaining drum rotatably mounted in the casing, a header placed adjacent to the drum periphery and having a water-receiving compartment and an air-receiving compartment,
said header having a plurality of jets leading from each compartment, and means for forcing water and air into their respective compartments in the header for causing the water and air to issue from the jets and strike the drum for rotating it and for cleansing the clothes by penetrating the mesh of the fabric, said means drawing its water supply from the water in the casing.
13. The herein described method of washing clothes which consists in rotating the clothes through a fluid so that during apart of the roin directing a spray of fluid against the gripped portion of the clothes during the time they are clear of the fluid for causing the spray to penetrate the mesh of the clothes.
15. The herein described method of washing clothes which consists in gripping the clothes and rotating them through a fluid without causing them -to tangle, lifting the clothes clear of the fluid during a portion of the rotation, and in directing a spray of fluid against the gripped portion of the clothes during the time they are clear or the fluid for causing the spray'to penetrate the mesh of the clothes and in ballooning the clothes with air during a portion of their movement through the fluid.