US 2194279 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Mardi 19, 1940- J. B. GoLDsBoRoUGH 2,194,279
SKELETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHD 0F CONSTRUCTING THE SAME 8 Sheets-Sheet, 1
Filed June 1' 1935 @www lNvENToR Joan oldsbomugh HNE..
' ATTORNEY March 19, 1940.
J. B. GOLDSBOROUGH SKELETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHOD 0F CONSTRUCTING THE SAME Filed June 1, 1935 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 ,5L ATTORNEY March 19, 1940. A v J, B, GQLDSBQRQUGH 2,194,279
SKELETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING THE SAME Filed June 1. 1935 8 Sheets-sheet '5 ffm, 20 L l 6 i 'l i 8 I l? /SS 38a! r-- Vif-3e l I l l l/'as 35/ 1 1 v ,U.. -U-
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M f A s@ n A K E, 20 fm ,Zh ATTORNEY March 19, 1940- J. B. GoLDsBoRouGl-l l 2,194,279
SKELETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHOD 0F CONSTRUCTING THE SAME- 8 Sheets-shewl 4 Filed June l" 1935 Pm w ma n IG. .A B
March *19, 1940- J. B. GoLDsBolouGH 2,194,279
SKLETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING THE SAME Filed June '1. 1935 a sheets-sheet 5 Fzlg'. Il.
I "II/Am? JoEQnGoldsborough J ATTORNEY March 19, 1940. J. B. GLDsBoRoUGH 2,194,279
SKELETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHOD 0F CONSTRUCTING THE SAME File'd June' 1, 1955 a sheets-sheet s lNvENIOR Jog?? B. Goldssbom ,C1 Ailfoy March 19, 1940. J, B. GoLDsBoROUGH 2,194,279
-\SKELETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHOD 0F CONSTRUCTING THE SAME l Filed Junel, 19:55 8 sheets-sheet 7 Mardi 19, 1940- J. B. GoLDsBoRoUGH 2,194,279
SKELETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHOD 0F CONSTRUCTING THE SAME Filed June l, 1935 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 i .IZ
INVENTOR Patented Mar. 19,v 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE SKELETON FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING THE SAME John B. Goldsborough, Groton on Hudson, N. Y.
Application June 1, 1935, Serial No. 24,532 6 claims. (c1. ell-14) work due to the necessity of installing,v complete,v
each pile foundation pier before its column is 15,2 erected. It is an important object of'this invention to provide ior reducing such delay, as by enabling the structural steel framework erection to be started before the completion of the l pile installation.' y zo With the present method ofy construction exv pensive snoring or cross-lot bracing is required for the temporary lateral support of the earth sides of the substructure excavation, and/or ad? jacent exposed structures. It is therefore an- 25.' other object of this invention to eliminate this expensive shoring or cross-lot bracing by utiliz-` ille'l the more rapid installation of the permanent flooring system to provide lateral support for the adjacent sides by means of vertical beam wall i; piles driven before excavation has proceeded.
A furtherobject of this invention is to eliminate the necessity for expensive temporary suppo-rt of a working platform at street level when the foundations under construction are for the t support of a building, by utilizing the more rapid installation of the permanent ooring system as a support for a working platform to carry on the usual operations involved in the installation of the permanent pile foundations and basement l) excavation.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent'fromv the following description of preferred embodimentsv illustrated bythe accompanying drawings, in which like 5 reference characters designate like parts in the" several views:l
In the drawings.: Figure l illustrates in perspective view one method of installing the structural steel flooring system at street level, prior to the installation of permanent pile foundations, or of the completion of basement excavation;
Figure 2 illustrates'in cross section the process 5 of basement excavation after the installation of permanentpile foundations and erection Aof the structural steel framework; f l
Figure 3 illustrates in longitudinal elevation the lateral'support of the earth sides below an existing building wall; i
Figure -illustrates in cross sectional plan the l lateral `support of the earth sides under the existing building wall shown in Figure 3;
Figure 5 illustrates 'in cross sectional plan one `method of lateral support for an existing building wall;
Figure-6 illustrates in cross sectional plan one method ofy reinforcing a steel beam master column-pilewith two additional steel beams;
Figure '7. illustrates in elevation one method of 15,
load distribution from the steel beam master Column-pile to permanent I-beam pile foundations; v
Figure 8 illustrates in cross sectional plan the method of load distribution shown in Figure '7; 20 Figurey 9 illustrates in perspective elevation one method of lateral support for the earth sides of substructure excavation;
Figure l0 illustrates in cross section one method of lateral support for the earth sides of substructureexcavation in wet or heavy soil.
Figure 11 illustrates in perspective view the method of lateral support for the earth sides of sub-structure excavation shown in Figure 10;
Figure 12 illustrates in sectional plan one 30 method of supporting the earth sides in Figures 10-11 by means of a vertical steel beam columnpile and steel sheet piling; y
Figure 13 illustrates in perspective view one method of installing a temporary decking for use in the so called out and cover method of excavation usually employed in the construction of subways andlotlier underground passages under roadways which must be kept open for traf-` c; v v Figure 14 illustrates in cross section a structur- 40 al design for a subway or other underground structure, embodying one method of support for a temporary decking shown in Figure 13, and lateral support for the earth sides of the excavation;
' Figure 15 illustrates in cross section one method of support for a temporary decking shown in Figure 13;
. Figure 16 illustratesin cross section a structur- 50 al design for a subway, or other underground structure, embodying one method of support for a; temporary decking, vertical support of an adjacent building, and lateral support of thev earth sides; and 55 Figure 17 illustrates in elevation a structural design for a subway or other underground structure, embodying one method of support for a temporary decking and lateral support for the earth sides of the excavation, all as shown in Figures 13-14-15-16.
Referring to Fig. l, vertical steel beam master column-piles 2U and intermediate vertical steel beam wall piles 2| have been driven and structural steel beams 22, included in a flooring system, which may be substantially at street level, have been installed. The structural steel flooring system provides lateral support necessary for excavation for a substructure or basement, thus enabling the omission of expensive cross-lot bracing and temporary working-platform supports. Furthermore, the steel iioor beams 22 at all sides of the frame near the ground level may be used to connect the upper ends of the intermediate piles 2| with the master column-piles 29. It will be evident that, beneath the street level floor system, the piles 25 and 2| may be supported against outside lateral pressure as by engagement of their lower parts with earth into which they have been driven. The installation of the vertical steel beams may have been effected by driving them vertically into the ground as described in the United States patent to John B. Goldsborough, No. 1,895,985, issued January 31, 1933.
According to the showing in Fig. l, a new building is in course of construction between walls 23 and 24 of adjoining existing buildings and excavation has just been started. Further excavation may be carried on in any desired manner, as for example as shown in Fig. 2 where a decking installed by placing heavy decking member 25, such as wooden beams on the steel iioor beams 22, is used to support a portable derrick 25 for operating a clam-shell bucket 21 through openings in the decking obtained by removing decking members 25 at the desired positions.
As illustrated in Fig. 2, the wall 23 of one adjoining building is supported on pile foundations, comprising piles 28, and the basement portion of the wall 23 is of sucient depth as not to be affected by the basement depth of the building under construction. The wall 24 of the other adjoining building is shown as supported on spread footings 29 at a higher level than the basement depth of the building under construction. In this case the foundation of the wall 24 is carried down to undisturbed soil by means of concrete underpinning piers 3E! joined to the vertical steel beam piles 20 and 2| as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. Opposite the walls of adjoining buildings, no lateral support is needed, unless by blocks 35a and wedges 38h (Figs. 2 and 5), and consequently no sheeting is ordinarily required.
Where the sides of the substructure excavation are of earth as illustrated in Fig. 9, lateral support for such earth sides may be provided by means of a retaining wall formed of horizontal sheeting members 3| placed outside the vertical steel beam piles 29 and 2| as the excavation proceeds and depending upon these steel beams for lateral support. The beam-piles 2S and 2| are obviously driven prior to excavation and the intermediate beam-piles 2| are secured, after installation, to the corresponding horizontal steel beam members 22 of the permanent framing or flooring system, extending between steel beam master piles 20, by suitable connections. Additional sheeting members 3| are placed in position outside of the piles 2li and 2|, as the excavation is continued downwardly, whereby the earth sides receive lateral support from the permanent structural system comprising the framing or flooring system, the beam piles and the sheeting, and expensive temporary shoring or cross-lot bracing is unnecessary. This method employing horizontal sheeting is adaptable to excavation in dry or de-watered soil.
If the substructure excavation be made in wet or very heavy soil, lateral support for the earth sides is preferably effected by use of vertical interlocking steel sheeting 32 and wales 33, as illustrated in Figs, l0, ll and 12, and hereinafter described in connection with these gures.
In many cases the master column-piles 20, if driven to refusal, have sucient bearing value in themselves to provide permanent support for the entire structure, and the foregoing description has been given as if this were the case. However, if required, additional bearing Value may be given to a master column-pile 29 in any suitable manner, as for example by the attachment thereto of additional beams 34 in the manner illustrated in Fig. 6 and at the right in Fig. 2.
Where the bearing value of a column-pile 20 is suicient for the temporary load but not for the permanent load, the load may be transferred to a suitable permanent foundation such as illustrated in Figs. '7 and 8 and at the middle of Fig. 2. Such permanent foundation may comprise piles 35 of suitable form, for example steel beam piles, driven after the master column-pile 29 has been installed and the column load may be transferred to them in any suitable manner as by means of cap pieces 36 in the form of channels, wedged grillage beams 31 supported on the piles 35, column brackets 33, which may be in the form of short beams riveted to the column-pile 20, and wedges 38a.
In Figs. l0, 11 and 12, there is illustrated a type of construction for a subway, or other underground passage structure by the so-called cut and cover method. In this case the excavation is to extend only part way across the roadway and the necessary part of the roadway paving 39 is removed leaving the sidewalk 40 intact, the building wall 4| and its footing 42 being suiciently distant from the excavation to avoid disturbance under ordinary conditions.
Vertical steel beam column piles 20a are driven into the ground prior to general excavation and, at each side of the excavation, the upper ends of as many of these piles as desired are capped by suitable members 43, such as continuous horizontal steel channels, serving to support steel decking beams 44 of a temporary decking which also includes heavy decking members or beams 25, such as shown in Fig. 2. By removing the beams 25 in any desired location, the work of excavation may be continued at that location without material interference with the use of the street. The metal sheeting members 32 may be driven substantially at the same time as the column-piles 20a and at such a distance therefrom that, as the excavation is carried down, horizontal beams or wales 33 may be inserted between member 29a and the sheeting 32 to provide lateral support therefor. Fig. 12 shows these vertical steel beam wall column-piles 20a as forming an integral part of the permanent subway, or other underground passage structure (usually comprising concrete) serving not only as sidewall columns for lateral support of the earth sides and vertical support of the underground structure roof, but also as permanent pile foundations for vertical support of the underground structure 7l piles,` prior to the installation of the permanent ooring system, is provided by the insertion` of the piles into. the earth soil to a suitablel depthA below the elevation oi iinal excavationv subgrade, and additional resistance will be provided by the permanent iiooring system, of structural ysteel and/or concrete. The lateral support provided in. this way renders unnecessary the expensive,
interior longitudinal and transverse temporary bracing of the earth sheeted sides, heretofore used during construction. Thus the erection of thesteel framework forming the walls and roof of the underground structure, together with subsequent operations necessary for the completion oi' the structure, can proceed simultaneously with the excavation, thereby reducing the total `time required for complete construction of the subway by the time required for completion of excavation from theunderside or the roof to final subgradewhich time for excavation would ordinarily elapse before the other construction could be started.
As illustrated in Fig. il, some of thecolumnpiles 2do; may be cut oi at the level oi' the roof beams. 22u at the time oi installation of the latter,
others .being left to support the temporary decking. Upon completion ci` the roof structure and removal of the temporary decking, the upperfends of the column-piles used to support theI decking may be cut ori.
Another very great advantage of this type of construction is that the utilities, such as Water mains, sewers, gas mains, electrical conduits and the like, can be permanently restored orrelocated while the excavation of the subway is carried on. Obviously this will eiect a great saving in .view of the iactl that such utilities wouldl ordinarily have to be maintained during construc- 1 tion of thesub-Way, or shifted temporarily and permanently located after the completion of the subway.
In Figs. 13 and 14, there is illustrated a type of subway construction similar to that illustrated in Figs. 10, 11 and 12, but varied to meet conditions which involve the removal of all the roadway paving 39 and the sidewalk, and excavation to the foundationof the building vwall 4l. In this case the decking beams 44 extend to the building walls and are braced against the same by suitable blocking and wedging andare secured to the channels 43, as by bolts, to assist in rholding the tops of the column-piles 20a against lateral movement. As illustrated in Fig. 13, louvred sheeting i5 is installed against the outside faces of the column-piles 2llar as excavation proceeds. The roong beams 22a, when installed, furnish strong lateral support for the upper end of column-piles 29a.v
I Figure 14 illustrates a design and method of construction whereby that portion of the vertical steel beam wall column-piles Zila above the finished roof of the subway, or other underground passage structure, will remain in place at the completion of the work, below the longitudinal steel .member 43 under the transverseV of the underground passagev structure is carried up to the top of -thesteel beam wall column-piles 29a tov form a permanent sidewalk underground vault wall for the adjacent building. Thus with this invention the full length of steel beam* wall column-pilesZa forms an .integral part oi thev permanentv construction, or reconstruction, involved in the installation of a subway, `or other underground I passageV structure. Additional longitudinal rigidity may be imparted to the vertical steel beam column-piles 29o by means of a continuous steel channel, or other'suitable member, placed against the inside faces of the column-.piles and the bottom faces of the rooiing` beams 22a and secured thereto.
Figures 15zand 16. illustrate a design. andmethod of construction. similar to that shown in Figure 14, with the. exception that the subway, or other underground structure, is located in vclose prox-l imity to the foundations. of the existing adjacenty building. In this case the portions of the vertical steel beam `wall column-piles Zilu above the iinished roof or the underground passage structure do not remain in place to forman integral part of thel design .involved inthe construction, or reconstruction, of a permanent sidewalk un-- derground vault wall, but is removedabove the top of the permanent underground passage roof, at thecompletionof the work. In Figure 15 the'l temporary decking has been installed at street level and vertical steel beam wall column-piles 20a driven into the soil outside the existing spread iootings oi the building. Inthis case excavation' for the subway, or other underground' passage structure, has proceeded only to Athe depth of the existing adjacent building Vbasement floor andan underpinning pit it is in process of installation for the permanentsupport of the building. In-Fig-ure 16 construction has been advanced tothe completion of excavation to iinal tending nush to the outsideface of the new underpinned foundations of the existing building. Thus it `is apparent that permanent lateral support of the' reconstruction building foundations,
and of the earth soil under the basement oor,
is provided by means of the reconstructed foundations and the new underground passage structure. In this case the permanent structure steel roofing system of the underground passage structure has been installed prior to; the completion of the general. excavation to final subgrade. 'Ihus with this invention temporary lateral support of the existing building is provided by means of the verticalsteel beam wall column-piles 20a, suitably wedged and blocked to the existing building; secured atthe top to the transverse decking beam and at the bottom by ,their insertion into the earth soil to a suitable distance below the final subgrade; and with additional resistance to lateral movement provided by the permanent structural steel roofing system of the subway, or other underground passage structure. Thus it is apparent that according to this invention expensive temporary shoring, or cross-lot bracing, to prevent lateral movement, as well as expensive temporary vertical supports of the decking to nal subgrade elevation, are unnecessary.
Figure 17 illustrates the several stages of procedure used during the construction of a subway, or other underground structure, by the so-called out and cover method of excavation under a roadway decked over to maintain traffic. 'Vertical steel beam wall column-piles 20a have been driven into the soil from the surface and a temporary timber roadway decking installed. This timber decking is supported by alternate vertical steel beam wall column-piles 20a by means of transverse steel beams 44 and longitudinal steel channel members 43. Temporary lateral support o the earth sides of the excavation is provided by the steel beam wall column-piles 20a and horizontal louvred board sheeting 45, with additional rigidity provided by the permanent transverse structural steel roof members 22a installed prior to the completion of excavation to final subgrade.
It should be understood that after the construction of any one of the skeleton framework structures herein disclosed has progressed to a suicient extent, the structure may be completed with any suitable material, such as concrete which is illustrated in the drawings.
It should be understood that changes may be made in different features and that certain features may be used without others without departing from the true scope and spirit of the invention.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. The method of constructing foundations for a skeleton-framework structure including a substructure, which comprises the installation in the ground of substantially vertical permanent column members of the framework prior to completion of excavation, the installation of permanent foundations adjacent to one of said column members, and the transfer of column load from such column member to said permanent foundations during the construction of said skeleton framework structure above the ground.
2. The method of constructing a skeletonframework building, which comprises introducing directly into the solid ground substantially vertical permanent column members of such framework including column members arranged at the edges of the area to be excavated, excavating from such area, proceeding with the erection of said building during excavation, introducing additional substantially vertical members into solid ground adjacent to one of said column members, and transferring load from said column to said additional members.
3. The method of constructing a skeletonframework building which comprises introducing directly into the solid ground substantially vertical permanent column members of such framework including column members arranged at the edges of an area to be excavated, excavating from said area, proceeding with the erection of said building during the excavation, and increasing the bearing value of the footing of one of said column members by securing thereto beams driven into the ground at the bottom of said excavation adjacent to such column member.
4. In a skeleton-framework structure comprising a substructure in an excavation, substantially vertical permanent column members of said framework extending into the earth at the bottom of the excavation and serving both as piles and structural columns to sustain column loads, column piles in the earth adjacent to one of said column members, and connections between the column piles and such column member to transfer load from the column member to the column piles.
5. In a skeleton-framework structure comprising a substructure in an excavation, substantially vertical permanent column members of said framework extending into the earth at the bottom of the excavation and serving as piles to sustain column loads, column piles in the earth around one of said column members, and connections between the column piles and such column member to transfer load from the column member to the column piles, said connections including brackets on the column member and transverse load-distributing members and wedges interposed between the brackets and the column piles.
6. In subway construction adjacent to buildings, substantially vertical permanent column members, the lower end of each column member providing its own footing to bear its portion in supporting the load of the subway structure, channels at opposite sides of the subway resting on the tops of column members, transverse decking beams resting on said channels and providing lateral support for the wall of said building, and upper decking members extending substantially at right angles to the decking beams.
JOHN B. GOLDSBOROUGH.