US 2194469 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Mm 26, 1940. .1. A. FREMON 2,194,459
PIN TUMBLER LOCK Filed April 4, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOE March 2 6, 1940. J. A. FREMON PIN TUMBLIERLOCK Filed April 4, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 9 m .M. a
INVENTOE J .fi/770/7 6 GENE) PatenteclMar. 26; 1940 i I i i f UNITED STATES, PATENTv QFFICE W PIN TUMBLER LOCK Jules A. Fremon, St. Louis,'Mo. Application April 4, 1935, Serial No. 14,560 32 Claims. (01. 70-364)" Myinvention relates to pin tumbler locks and Figure 6 illustrates a pp the P consists in novel construction of a pin'unit by and used for movingthe tumbler parts from the itself which may or may not be associated with position shown in Figures 3 and 10 to-the position novel plug and case structure according to shown in Figures stand 11 and back again.
5 whether or not all featuresofthe invention are i u e 7 s a l ud na Vertical, section b to be utilized. 1 a through a lock case and plug with pin tumblers,
One object of the invention-is to simplify the drivers, and key shown assembledand in position fitting of the key to-the lock or, more specifically, w e y the p may be rotated in e' e I to set the pin tumblers to cooperate with a given Fig r 8 is a v r transverse section r h 10. key. I an assembly as. illustrated in Figure 7 and is Another object is to make possible the use of taken o the OfFigure v e y a standard pin tumbler, and thereby eliminate Figure 9 is 3/ Similar Section Showing the P the production of a huge .quantity of pin elements rotated to position in W i the tumbler Parts of different len.gths,'without any restrictionupon may be released from each other. p I 16. the number of different combinations possible in ur 10 is a p ew o p O a p and a given series of locks. tumbler assembly, the plug case being shown in Another object of the invention is to facilitate e i n n the el m nts in the normal as emthe. changing of a lock combination so that it can bled P S 1 l no longer be operatedby one key but may be F gu e 11 is a corresp d ng detail .VieW but 80 operated by a different key, a more specific object showing the elementsmoved to the position taken being to make possible the changing of the lock in. which the relation between the tumbler parts from one combination to another by a merchant maybe ehallged- I or, in some forms of the invention, by a user, and Fi r i a pe p iv vi w f h c sh wwithout requiring the experience, tools,or stock pe fl thewall thereof whereby 26 parts usually required by locksmiths, the re-setting of the pin tumblers maybe effected 2o The invention includes, for example, a pin by atool applied from the e xterio-rof the case. tumbler having an upper and a lower part for A Suitable T1001 e this p p isehown in engaging the driver and key, respectively, which Figure parts are adjustable axially of the tumbler'to Figure'li p 110 Figure 3 but illusao vary its length and therefore the distance it will t at a m fied m f h inv ntion. raise the driver. The tumbler structure also-in- Figure B a horizontal S ct o taken on the eludes means for securing the tumbler parts in i e of Figure 1 different relations to each other and, preferably, Figure 16 is similar to Fi 14 but t ates elements for readily releasing such means to proh r m d ti n f, the invention.
all duce anew relation of the tumbler parts men- Figure 17 S a e ail S ct o taken on the line tioned above. In the preferred form of the ino Figure I I V8nti0n,i the tumblerparts may be adjusted to The tumbler parts shown in all of the figures different relative positions repeatedly without rem y e teieseopedione Within the th r, and in moving any of the tumbler parts from the plu Figures 1 to 12 both the parts are tubular, the
40 andwithout removing the plug from its case. tumbler upper part I having a series of periph- 40 The above statedobjects and general structure eral projections in. the form of ridges 2 subjust mentioned are embodied in the devices illus stantially throughout its length and interrupted trated in'the accompanying drawings, in which by a pair of longitudinal grooves 3 located at op- Fi'gure 1 illustrates the upper" part of one I posite sides of the part. A pair of guiding ears form of apin tumbler unit. 4 project from the upper portion of the part. 45
Figure 2 illustrates the lower partof the same Part I is open from end to -end. unit, I v The tumbler lower part 5 has a smooth in- Figu're'3 illustrates the two parts assembled terior except for a pair of inwardly projecting with each other. in a position in which they are ips Gllide earsl p l' laterally 'Pa relatively immovable axially of the tumbler. v 5 and correspond to ears 4- on part I. The bot- 5 Figure 4 illustrates the two parts assembled tom 3 of the part is closed and may be of conical with eachother in a position which permits their shape to more easily ride over the key bits. relative'adjustment axially of the tumbler. The outside diameter of the body ofpart I Figure 5'illustrates a plug body into which the corresponds to the inside diameter of the body as tumblersare inserted. 1 of part 5 and lips 6 correspondftogrooves 3 and ridges 2 whereby the two parts may telescope freely when-in the position shown in Figure 4, and may be rotated relative to each other at various points to the position shown in Figure 3 and when so rotated cooperate to form a rigid look, but such spacing of the ridges isnQt essential. The tumblers are assembled in a plug it rotatable in a case 2! in the usual manner except as described below. Plug it] and case 2| have a series of holes ll, Ila for receiving the tumblers in the usual manner, but these holes have lateral extensions in the form of channels l2 and I3, Mia and l3a, adapted to receive the guiding ears 4 and I on the tumbler parts and thereby hold the two parts in the relation shown in Figure 3 in which they comprise rigid tumbler units.
The upper end of each left hand channel [2 in the plug is enlarged longitudinally of the plug, as at M. A portion of the plug adjacent the upper ends of the right hand channels !3 is cut away and replaced by a slidable bar l5. This bar has a plurality of notches l6 adapted to aline with the right hand channels it, as shown in Figures 8 and 10, or to be moved towards the front of the plug a short distance, as indicated in Figure 11. Notches l6 engage right hand ears 4 of the tumbler upper parts to rotate the latter irom the position shown in Figure 10 to the posi-' tion shown in Figure 11. At the same time, the lower parts 5 of the tumbler are held against rotation. Accordingly, the tumbler parts are rotated from the assembled relation, shown in Figure 3, to the assembled relation shown in Figure 4 and maybe moved lengthwise of each other;
Bar I5 is yieldingly held in its normal position on plug ID by a spring I! seated in a recess IS on the plug and in niche l 9 i n'the bar. I When a key K fitting the lock setting is inserted in the plug, all the pin tumblers are raised to the position shown in Figures 7 and 8, lifting the drivers 20 to the top surface of the plug, and the plug may be rotated in the case 2| to the position shown in Figure 9 in which' bar i5 is abreast ofan opening 22 in case 2|! and a tool 25 may be inserted through opening 22 into an opening 23 in the bar to slide the her along the plug from the position shown in Figure 10 to the position shown in Figure "l 1. Spring ll accom-' modates such sliding movement by yielding and slipping into niche 24. This releasesthe tumbler parts from each other.
If the key is now withdrawn from the plug, the tumbler lower parts 5 drop to the bottom of the holes II in theplug.
Tumbler upper parts I will be held in elevated position by the engagement of their ears 4 with theflat surface of the plug upon which bar l5 slides and with the shouldersat the bottoms of the enlargements l4.
Any other key having a cross-section correspending to the original key may now be inserted in the key slot and the key bits will raise the tumbler lower parts 5 to positions which have no necessary relation with their original positions. I
' gagethe bottom of the tumbler lower parts 5 to thrust them downwardly. Bar 55 is then re- I tracted to the position shown in Figure 10 and the tumbler parts are secured to each other in their new relation. The plug may be rotated to the position shown in Figure 8 and the key withdrawn, whereupon the drivers will overlap the joint between'the case and the. plug in the .usual manner, and the lock will nowbe respon sive only to the last mentioned key. I
The rotation of the plug mentioned heretofore refers to the rotation between theitwo positions illustrated in Figures 8 and 9 merely for the pur pose of effecting a change in-the lock combination. It is to be understood that the plug may be rotated in the usual way to any necessary extent to throw the bolt (not shown) which will engage or be connected to the inner portion '23 of theplug in any ordinary manner.
prising-telescoping parts normallyheld in rigid and the pin base'part 5! is smaller in diameter I I and has a diametral slot SZ'eXtending throughout.
the major portion of its length. A flat spring 33 is seated in the cap 30 and projects laterally therefrom at 34 through a hole in one side of the cap to fit into a channel 35 in the plug 36 to guide the pin and prevent itsrotation inthe plug hole. From 34 the springis doubled on itself and extends transversely of the pin through the Figures Hand 15 illustrate a pin tumbler com-f 1 I assembly by suitable securing means, but when slot 32 in the lower part 3.5 and through an open ing in the opposite sideof cap 39. A coiled spring 4 37 surrounds the lower part 3! and is compressed between the horizontal portion of spring 33 and a shoulder 38 on part 3l'.- The horizontal. part 33a of this spring hasteeth tii opposing a series of corresponding teeth 48 disposed lengthwise of part 3!.
A .bar 42 is smae mounted in a slot was for in plug 36 and the forward outer 'endof this bar includes a lug 43 disposed to project through an opening 44- therefor -in the forward end of the plug 46 and case 45.
When a proper key has been inserted in the plug so as to lift the pin tumblers and the drivers it to the position shown in Figure 14,,bar 42 may be slid rearwardly by pressure on lug .43 applied I I 4 through the opening 44 to the position shown in Figure 15 in which its cam faces 41 have engaged the left hand ends of spring parts 33a to move the latter to the right into notches 35a and disengage teeth 39 andI48. If the key is now withdrawn, springs 31 will automatically press lower parts 3! downwardly, A new key maybe i 'i 60 the hitting of the key. Pressure on lug 43 is then released. Springs 45 return bar. 42 to its I inserted and lower partstl raised according to original position, which releases spring parts 33c from the abnormal position shown, and permits the spring 33 to resume its normalshape engagwill maintain this relation until they have been again adjusted by another operation, as described above, involving the use of a proper key to get the elements into shiftable positionv and I then using a new key to adjust the elements to a new position.
In the arrangement shown in Figures 1 to 13, inclusive, it will be necessary to take the case 65 I ing teeth 35 and 4!! and seourelyholding the two tumbler parts in the new adjusted relation. Hwy
:out of the lock in order to gain access toopening 22, and possibly openings 25, in order to change preferred in many instances, particularly where h an owner may desire to change the combination of his look quickly and without removing the case from the door. With this arrangement it is not even necessary to rotate theplug to a pin releasing position as in the previous form.
Figures 16 and 1'? illustrate another form'of pin tumbler structure in which the pin parts 50 and are assembled simiiarlyto theparts shown in Figures 14 and 15 but the spring 52 for automatically extending the'parts when they are released from each other is'housed wholly within the upper part 5i The elementsfor holding the two pins in assembled relation are engaged and disengaged by relative rotary movement of the parts, somewhatfas in the first construction described above, 7 projected in between two lugs 54 on part 5! by suitable rotary movement of part lill by a bar 55 slidable in the plug 56 by means of apin (not shown) inserted through'the hole 51 in the case 58'. The pin tumbler parts are provided with ears 59 and Eli sliding in suitable channels Bl in the plug to hold the parts against relative rotation'exce'pt when such rotationis intended.
In all forms of the invention, present standard types and sizes of plugs, cases, drivers, driver springs and keys may be retained.
In 'all*forms or the invention, it is unneces sary in the course of manufacture to assemble predetermined pin tumblers and corresponding keys as is now the requiredpractice. Fitting of keys to the looks, or vice versa, may be accom plished' after manufacture and assembly of the lock is completed, and may be deferred until the lock is sold at retaih In the course of manufacture, all the tumblers will be set to some standard length, probably the maximum length, which will result in the tumblers completely filling the plug holes so that the plug might'be freely revolved without the insertion condition, the lock would be properly described asbeing a dummy lock and that status may continue, if desired, up tov the time the lock is sold at retail, when, depending upon the requirements of the retail customer, the look may be fitted to a key which the customer may already have (providing only that such key is of the uniform cross-section required for the key-way plug but irrespective of the key hitting), or the lock may be fitted too. new bitted key or matched set of .bitted keys which. the retailer will carry as a stock of merchandise separate and apart fromthe stock of locks.
. Any number of locks may be fitted to one single key at any time. .Ihus it will be possible for the retailer to deliver directly over the counter to his. customer one or more matched looks with any desired number of keys, thereby affording to the usual and ordinary retail dealer and customer a lock service which, under present merchandising methods, is available only at added cost and the delay incident to handling special orders to of a key. In this the factory or by having the tumblers removed and replaced by locksmiths. Furthermore, a person-having acquired a lock of this construction may thereafter prooure'without difficulty, delay, or unusual expense, as many looks as he may require,- all fitted to the key which he already has, and consequently matched with those locks which are under his control.
The value and utility of practical, inexpensive means to efiect changes. in the setting of the pin tumblers after the lock has been placed in service and without disassembling the cylinder is well known by those who are conversant with the art. y
The style and number of the grooves, position- I ing ears, the shape and extent o fthe pin tumblers, and other means for releasing or guiding the pin tumbler parts and other details illustrated may be modified in many ways other than as indicated in the accompanying drawings and above description.
While I have only illustrated and described pin tumblers above, it isobvious that the pin drivers may embody the invention and it is to be understood that myformal claims'are not limited to tumblers unless so stated.
t is to be understood that I contemplate the exclusive use of all modifications of the invention embodying the essential features disclosed herein and coming within the scope of my claims. 7
1. A pin tumbler lock pin unit. having opposite ends for engaging a pin, said driver and pin havingtheir longitudinal axes substantially coinciding and extending substantially through the centers oi, their opposite ends, and means for repeatedly changing the height of the tumbler pin seat for said. driver without disassembling the tumbler pin.
4;. In a key lock, a tumbler pin having a keyengaging part and a driver-engaging part axially aligned therewith, and means for repeatedly varying the distance between key-engaging part and the top of said driverengaging part. Y
,5. In a key look, a pin tumbler comprising telescoping parts, there being interengaging elements on the opposing sides of said parts securing said parts in selected telescoped position.
6. In a key look, a pin tumbler comprising telescoping parts, the inner of said parts having outwardly projecting means and the outer oi said parts having inwardly prm'ectin means, said one of said parts has open ends and the other of said parts has a closed outer end whereby a tool maybe inserted through the first mentioned driver and key respectively" and comprising parts with their longitudinal the bottomo'f said part and engage the bottom of the second mentioned part to extend said tumbler when the holding means are arranged to permit such movement.
8. In a key lock, a rotatable plug, a pintumbler comprising a plurality of parts having interengaging elements normally holding said parts against relative movement lengthwise of the tumbler, and means for disengaging said elements from each other, to adjust the relative position of said parts. lengthwise of the tumbler, without removing said tumbler from said plug.
9. In a key lock, a rotatable plug, a pin tumbler therein comprising a plurality of members having one relative position in which they are held in fixed relation and having another relativeposition in which they may move relatively longitudinally of the tumbler axis, and means in said plug for moving said members from one of said positions to the other.
' 10. 111 a key look, a rotatable plug having a key slot, a member movable in said plug, there being a pin tumbler recess in said plug, a pin tumbler slidable in said recess, said pin tumbler being adjustable as tolength, and means controlled by said member for holding said pin tumbler against adjustment as described.
' 11. In akey lock, a rotatable plug, a pin tumbler comprising parts movable relative to each other longitudinally of the tumbler to vary the length of the tumbler, and means for securing said parts in fixed relative position, said means being releasable, when said plug is rotated out of locked position, to permit relative movement of said parts.
12. In a keydock, a case, a plug rotatable therein, a driver normally holding said plug against rotation, a pin tumbler for moving said driver to non-functioning position and compri ing parts movable relative to each other tovary the over-all length of the tumbler, inte'rengageable elements on said parts for holding said parts against such movement, and means in said plug normally holding said elements in engaged position, and operable when said plug is turned out of locked position, to disengage said elements and provide for said movement.
13. In a key look, a rotatable plug having a radial hole for a pin tumbler, there being a channel in said cylinder at the side of said hole and extending longitudinally thereof, and a pin tumbler movable axially of said hole and comprising a plurality of parts each having anelement projecting into said channel to hold said parts against relative rotation in said hole.
i i. In a key look, a rotatable plug having a radial hole for a pin tumbler, there being a channel in said cylinder forming an extension of one side of said hole and paralleling the same, and a pin tumbler movable axially of said hole and comprising a plurality of parts each having an ear projecting into said channel to hold said parts against relative rotation in said hole, there being a recess in said plug adjacent to said hole and channel, and movable means in said recess having elements forming a continuation of said slot.
15. In a key lock, a rotatable plug having a radial hole for a pin tumbler, there being a channel in said cylinder forming an extension of one side'of said hole and paralleling the same, and a pin tumbler movable axially or said hole and comprising a plurality of parts each having an ear projecting into said channel to hold said parts against relative rotation in'sald hole, there being a recess in said plug adjacent to said hole and channel, and movable means in said recess having elements for engaging, one of said ears to hold it in line with said channel or tomove it to rotate the corresponding part relativeto the other of said parts.
In a ey lo k, a plus, apin tumbler therein" comprising a plurality of parts which are'rotatable relative to each other, about their axis;
from a position in which they are inter-engaged to resist relative axial movement to a position in which they may move axially or each other,- said plug including elements holding one of said parts against rotation about its axis, and means for rotating the other of said parts in said plug.
'17. In a key look, a plug, a pin tumbler com I prising a cup-like lower part and an upper part slidable therein, means on said parts normally interengaged to hold said parts against sliding movement, saidmeans being disengageable by relative rotary movement of said parts, an ele- Y ment on said plug for holding one of said parts against rotary movement, and means slidableon said plug for rotating the other or said parts to disengage said means.
13. In a lock of the class described, a case,
a plug rotatable therein, a tumblerpin comprisi'ng a plurality of parts and having a position in said plug where said parts are relatively; movable having a position in said plug where said parts are relatively movable longitudinally. of their axis and having another position in said plug where said parts are relatively immovable longitudinally of said axis, and a member slidable along said plug for moving said of said positions to the other. 1 I
20. In a pin tumbler lock of the class described, a plug having a pin tumbler receiving recess, a portion of said plug being cutaway parts from one adjacent to the, wall of said recess, and a mem-f ber movable relative to saidplug and forming a continuation of said wall in place of saidremoved portion. 1
21. In a pin tumbler'lockpin unit, parts having moving said end'eleme nts relative to each other axially of the other,- and a device for positively holding said parts against such movement.
22. In a key lock, a case, a plug rotatabletherein, a pin tumbler in said plug comprising telescoping parts, means yieldingly moving said parts relative to each other axiallyor the tumbler, a device normally positively holding said oppositely facing end elements, means yieldingly V parts against such movement, and means operable from the exterior of the plug for rendering said device inoperative. j i
23. In a key look, a case, a rotatable plug therein having a pin tumbler recess, a pin tumf bler slidable in said recess and comprising a plurality of parts which may be adjusted during tive positions longitudinally of the tumbler, and
means for temporarily holding one of said parts I immovable in said plug while the other part is being adjusted relative to said -first-mentionedv part.
30: longitudinally of their. axis and having another the functioning life of the lock to different rela- 24. In a key look, a case, a rotatable plug therein having a pin tumbler recess, a pin tumbler slidable in said recess and comprising a plurality of parts. normally interengaged to hold them against relative axial movement whereby they form a rigid tumbler unit, means for temporarily holding one of said parts in a given position, and means for moving the other of said parts to disengage said first-mentioned part. and to assume a different relative position longitudinally of the same.
25. In a key look, a case, a rotatable plug therein having a pin tumbler recess, a pin tumbler slidable in said recess and comprising a plurality of parts normally, interengaged to hold them against relative movement whereby they form a rigid tumbler unit, means for holding the driver engaging part against movement in the plug when the parts are in unlocked position, and means for disengaging said parts and moving the key-engaging part relative to said driverengaging part. I
26. In a pin tumbler, a driver member, a tumbler member, one of said members comprising: a
plurality of parts with their longitudinal axes substantially coinciding and extending substan tially through the centers of their opposite ends, said parts being adjustable relative to each other longitudinally of the pin axis, and cooperating elements on said'parts normally holding said parts against relative movement axially of the tumbler and driver members.
27. In a lock of the class described, a case, a plug rotatable therein, a tumbler pin slidable axially in said plug, and comprising a plurality of parts, said parts being held against rotary,
movement in said plug when said plugis in one position, and means for rotating said parts relative to each other when said plug is in another position, said parts being movable relative to each other along their longitudinal'axes when said plug is in the latter-mentioned position but not when said plug is in the first-mentioned position.
28. In a look, a rotatable plug having a key receiving elongated passage, a pin tumbler lock pin unit extending at right angles to said passage and comprising parts constructed and arranged for successive adjustments lengthwise of the pin plug and comprising a plurality of cooperating parts adjustable relative to each other longitudinally of the pin axis, a driver engaging the end of said pin, and means for adjusting the relative position of said parts along said axis without removing said plug from said case.
31. A pin unit for a pin tumbler lock having opposite ends for engaging a driver and key, respectively, and comprising parts with their longitudinal axes substantially coinciding and extending substantially through the centersof their opposite ends, said parts being adjustable in opposite directions relative, to each other longitudinally of the pin axis during the useful life of the lock to vary the length of the unit.
32. A unit lock pin having opposite endsfor engaging a driver and key, respectively, comprising telescoping parts, one of "said parts consisting of a cylindrical tube and receiving theother of said parts, and readily releasable means for holding said parts against telescoping movement.
JULES A. FREMON.