US 2196847 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 9, 1940. F. J. AUSTIN j QVERIANG ELEMENT vFiled Nov. 29 1938 Hlll INVENTOR feAN/ JAl/sT/N- 153i BY @MEM 5? lATTORNEY Petented Apr. 9, 1940 UNITED STATES `PATENT OFFICE OOVERING ELEMENT Frank J.
N. Y., a corporation of Maryland Application November ze, 193s, serial No. 242,883
rated by spaces of similar dimensions to those ofv the tabs.
with less material than is requisite for the type of face or the roof deck is usuallynot obtained, as
is the case with the so-called cut-out" shingle just referred used in various forms over individual covering units, suchas wood shingles, I
of such roofs or coverings.
(Cl. loe-7) e usual dimensions, no third course completely underlying which will carry such leaha'ge outward patterns which are produced in the roof is diiiicult or impossible. Y
The present invention maintains the features of the usual wide-spaced-tab shingle strips which accomplish the necessary protection by providing 10 a body portion in the strip from which the spaced is a feature ofthe invention.
The prior artshingles of the wide-spaced-tab type are additionally lacking in having no provismarcation which would make this area simulatev a shingle or covering unit. The covering element or shingle of the invention provides for definite demarcation of the tab area from the body portion of the covering element or shingle strip. This it accomplishes by the formation thereon of a stripe of substantial width extending. in the coursewise direction generally along the boundary gle elements arranged in courses.
of the body portion of the element from which the tab .of the element depends. For example, in a strip embodying the invention which has tabs of generally rectangular outline separated by a recess of generally rectangular outline, the inner edge of the recess and the extensions thereof across the tab areas substantially constitute the boundary of the body of the element which has been referred to. In accordance with the invention the stripe conveniently may be placed upon such a shingle strip so as to extend the full length of the shingle strip and may, one edge thereof coincident With the inner` edge of the recess, the width of the stripe lying fully upon the body portion of the shingle strip. If desired, however, this stripe may be applied with a portion of its width upon the area of the tab itself and a portion upon the body of the strip. .In some cases the stripe may be applied with its full width upon the tab portion of the strip. By these variations in the position of the stripe there may be accomplished the effective simulation of covering elements or shingles having .different lengths -of exposure transversely of their coursewise dimension.
A particular feature of the invention is that provided by the formation of the stripe which has just been described with a width in the direction transversely of the coursewise dimension of the shingle strip such that when the shingle is upon a roof, usually a sloping surface, the fore-shortened width of ground appears this stripe as viewed from the to be similar to and preferably at least equal to the thickness of thetabs of the shingle or of an individual covering unit positioned in the roof with its butt edge at the position of said stripe. The stripe being positioned on the shingle strip as above described, so as to extend generally along the boundary at which the tabs join the body of the strip, it will be understood, and more clearly seen in connection with the description of the drawings to follow, that the lower edge of the tab of a superposed shingle will be generally in line with the stripe as it is exposed crossing the tab of the subjacent shingle strip and between the tabs of the overlying shingle. If the strips are assembled in the roof with the lower edge of the tabs adjacent and preferably substantially in register with the inner edges of the recess of the subjacent shingle, then, even though the stripe be formed with a part or all of its width upon the body portion of the strip, the portion of the stripe which extends between tabs on the same shingle strip becomes covered by a tab of the superposed shingle. It will be apparent, therefore, that in such an assembly of the elements or shingle strips of the invention there is secured thesimulation of individual shin- The simulation of certain shingles in one course is accomplished by the tabs and the simulation of the for example, have .this stripe is many adjacent and intermediate shingles in the same course is accomplished by the exposed area of the body of the subjacent shingle, the buttedge simulation for this area being accomplished by the stripe. Moreover, the demarcation, as has been described above, of this simulated shingle from the shingle of the course beneath is also accomplished by thestripe.
It is a further feature of the inventionthat this stripe may be of sufficient width so that it not only offsets the foreshortening effect which has been referred to above to obtain a simulation of the thickness of a butt of a shingle,but also provides as well for the simulation of the shadow cast by such a butt of a shingle. This width further may be made suflicient to produce the effect of double thickness of the shingle strip material which exists in the covering assembly or roof construction which has been referred to, wherein the tabs are positioned substantially in register with the inner edges of-the recess yin the subjacent shingle. Thus, while in the prior art for brick simulations in material to be used on a vertical wall a narrow line has been produced upon a shingle having a pair of spaced tabs depending from a body portion thereof, this line extending below the lower edge of the body portion and across the tab 4areas for simulation of the horizontal mortar line between bricks, there has not been proposed in the prior art the formation of a stripe of sufficient width to give the effect of the butt thickness or'the butt thickness plus the shadow cast thereby. Preferably the width of times the thickness of the element upon which it is width that if viewed directly ground to roof it material or roong formed and of such rather than atan angle as from would simulate neither the butt edge nor a masonry joint.
The invention will be more particularly understood from the following description to be taken in connection with the drawing in which Fig. 1 shows a shingle strip embodying the invention.
Fig. 2 shows a modified formof the shingle strip of the invention.
Fig. 3 is an'assembly of the elements of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is an assembly of the elements of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 shows the method of cutting elements of the invention from sheet material.
In Fig. 1 the shingle strip l is provided with a body portion 2 of generally rectangular form. From the edge 3, which substantially constitutes the lower boundary of the body portion 2 of the element I, depend tabs 5 of generally rectangular outline, these tabs being spaced apart by the recess 1 which .is of generally like form and dimension to that of the tabs 5. Preferably the tabs 5 and the recess 1 are of such similar form and dimension that in cutting a plurality of the shingle strips from a sheet the tab of one strip may be cut from the recess formed between tabs on the other strip in amanner illustrated in Fig. 5, thus saving waste of material in producing such shingle strips. The tabs 5 thus have a depth from the edge 8 to line or edge 3 of the body portion substantially equal to the depth of the recess 1 and it will be seen in this embodiment that the inner edge 9 of the tab areas is substantially coincident with the extension of the edge 3 across the tab areas. Moreover, it will be seen that the inner edge of the recess Il is substantially in line with the lines 9 forming the inner boundary of the tabs.
In the manner referred to above, upon the Width, this stripe being amaca body portion 2 of the shingle strips I is formed by suitable means a stripe I3 having its lower edge substantially coincident with the boundary line 3 of the body portion and with said lines 3 and II respectively of the tab` areasand of the inner edge of the recess 1. 'I'he upper line I4 of the stripe I3 is positioned a,l substantial distance above the line 3 to form a stripe of considerable preferably of darker appearance than the area of the tabs 5 or that of the body portion 2 of the shingle strip, this contrasting stripe providing the simulation of the Vimportant function of these parallel relation across this butt of a shingle and its shadow as described above.
In a practical embodiment of the invention in. a shingle strip, upon a base material, such as the usual saturated felt commonly used in roofing, a surfacing material may be bound by a4 coating of asphalt or other mastic. This surfacing material upon the tabs 5 may be of granular mineral material such as slate. Similarly, granular mineral material may be bound upon the element having such a' body portion 2 of an base by the coating which also has been applied to this area of the shingle strip. This surfacing upon the body 2 may be of the same color or, if desired, may be of contrasting appearance to that on the tab areas 5. For reasons which will appear from the description of Fig. 3, the area 2 of the shingle strip of Fig. 1 may be provided with-a series of lines I6 which conveniently may be made as depressions in the coating and extending in theY direction transversely of the coursewise direction of the strip in generally portion. These lines wavy or irregular to or appearance. An lines, however, is to carry the eye in the direction transverse to the course so as to accentuate this transverse dimension of the area of this body portion of the strip which, as it becomes exposed betweentabs of a superposed strip, is less than the transverseto-the-course dimension of the tab.
In the modication of the invention illustrated in Fig. 2, the tabs 5 are Aof contrasting color to the body portion 2 and are separated therefrom by a stripe I3 positioned generally along the lower boundary of the body portion similarly to the element of Fig. 1. Itwill be understood, however, in this modiiication that the-lower ledge I5 of the stripe in the portion thereof which extends across the tabs 5 is not coincident with the boundary line 3 of the body portion but is Dositioned below said boundary portion and, therefore, a portion of the width of the stripe I3 is upon the tab area 5. If the width of the stripe may be straight or may be produce different textures I3 between the lines I5 and Il' thereof is substantially the same as that illustrated in Fig. 1, that portion of the stripe the inner line II between than the portion extending the tabs is narrower across the tabs. lInasmuch, however, as the-lower edges 8 of the tabs r lower boundary 3 in the assembly, as will be understood from Fig. 4, are positioned substantially coincident with the inner edges II of the recesses,that is the of the body of the strip, this narrower portion I I of the stripe becomes covered by the tab of a superposed shingle strip and the portion I8 of the stripe between the recesses. that is, extending across the tabs, is exposed in its full width so that it eectively demarks the tab'area from the body 'portion of the strip as .doesthe stripe I3 of Fig. 1. When it is viewed Nfromthe ground itbecomes foreshortened and -is which extends along effective to simulate the butt edge and, if desired,
the shadow cast thereby as well. There is thus simulated inthe assemblyA a shingle element formed by the area of the body portion 2 lying between the tabs 5 of an overlying shingle element and between the stripe I3 of the subjacent element and the inner edge I I of the recess on said overlyingelement in the same manner as in Fig. 3.
It will be further seen that along the lower edge 8 of the tabs 5 of the shingle strip of Fig. 2 there is provided a narrow stripe which, like the stripe I3, is of darker appearance than the tab area. It will be understood that this stripe 20 may be secured by the shingle .strips from a sheet illustrated in Fig. 5, since the edge 8 of the tab of one shingle strip will be cut along the edge II of the recess of the companion strip. Since the stripe is so positioned that the lower edge I5 of the stripe I3 is manner of cutting the below the line 3 of the body portion of the strip the inner edge 2| of the stripe 28 upon the tab must become positioned upon the tab area of the interfitting strip and the stripe 20, therefore, becomes formed upon the tabs of the strips cut one from the other. Thus is secured upon the tab edge a shadow simulating stripe and one which accentuates the shadow cast by thetabs upon the surface of a subjacent shingle strip. The position of the stripe I3 on the shingle strip astride or in displaced relation to the line 3 of the body may be adjusted, and its own width may be varied so that it is capable of simulating the thickness of a shingle element or of the edges of the superposed thicknesses of the elements, or these thicknesses plus the shadow cast thereby, together with the accentuated shadow provided by the shadow stripe 20.
Describing Fig. 3 more particularly, it illustrates an assembly of the elements of Fig. 1 in a roof construction. that the lower edge 8 of the tabs of the elements of the type of Fig. 1 are positioned substantially in register with the inner edge II of the recesses 'I between the tabs The body portion 2, therefore, becomes exposed between the tabs 5, this body portion in the particular embodiment illustrated in Figs. 1 and 3 being of the same color but being of contrasting appearance to 'that lof lines I6 across this body portion. Contrast in the areas thus may besecured both in the coursewise direction and in the direction up and down the roof. While the shingle strips are laid in courses of these strips in the usual manner, each strip of the invention contributes to the simulation of two of the simulated courses of shingle elements by virtue of the stripe I3 cooperating with the tabs and the edges of tabs anl recesses. Alternate shinglesimulating areas in a course of such simulated elements are provided bythe tab areas 5 and intermediate simulated shingle elements are ,In lthe direction proceeding up or down the slope of the-roof also, alternate simulated shingle elements in diierent courses are provided by the tab areas 5 and the `intermediate simulated shingle elements are pro- 5 of the subjacent elements.
the tab by virtue of .the
It will be seen from Fig. 3
providedby the body portions 2 exvposed between the tabs.
the eye also carries from one rectangle to the other. These areas are in staggered arrangement in both the coursewise direction and in the slope of the roof. There is not secured in either of these constructions a representation of a coursewise arrangement of shingle simulating elements. Moreover, in the prior art constructions which have provided diierences in color between the body portion and the tab area there is not provided, as by the stripe I3, the definite demarcation of the .area 2 from the tab areas 5 with the resulting simulation of thickness of a shingle element for the area 2 cooperating with the actual thickness of the tab 5, as it is seen atits edge, and particularly in the construction of the type to which the invention relates where the tab edge 8 becomes 'superposed above the recessed edge II, presenting the appearance of two thicknesses of the roofing material.
I n Fig. 4 the features described in connection with Fig. 3 are also maintained. Because, however, of the position of the stripe I3 on the shingle strip of Fig. 2, as incorporated in the roof construction of Fig. 4, a number of advantageous features are secured in such a roof construction.
As has been described above, the stripe 20 along 5 accentuates the thickened appearance of the tab in its position above the exposed edge I I of the recesses. By making the stripe I3 of proper width when the roof conthe edge 8 of the tabs 'struction of Fig. 4 is viewed from the ground,
at the usual distance from the building, the area 2 exposed between the tabs has along its lower boundary and demarking it from the tab area 5 in the subjacent course of simulated shingle ele- 1 ments means which is eiective to produce the upon the tabarea 5 appearance of the thickness of the shingle element simulated by the area 2. If desired, this stripe may be made wide enough to simulate this edge and, as well, thelshadow cast by this area from Fig. 2 and particularly Fig. 4 that the area of the stripe I3 as it is exposed between twotab areas' in the same simulated courses of the elements is of markedly different width than the stripe 20 upon the butt edge of the tabs 5. Moreover, whereas in Fig. 3, utilizing the elements of Fig. 1, the area 2 exposed between the tabs at either side thereof is `of substantially less width transversely of the courses than is the tab area 5, it will be noted that in the assembly of Fig. 4, the area 2 which becomes exposed between tabs is more nearly of the same transverse-to-the-course width. This results from the position of the stripe I3 upon the element of Fig. 2 with respect to the edge 3 as has been described above. Nevertheless, it also will be seen from Fig. 4 that the upper line I4 of thestripe I3 is not in line with the upper line 2| of the stripe 20. There is produced, therefore, some irregularity in the appearance of the edge of the simulated course of shingle units, which coursewise edge comprises the portions of the element of the invention provided by the actual edges of the tabs 5 plus the actual edge II of the subjacent element and the portion af-A forded by the stripe I3 as it is exposed between the tabs of a superjacent element. It will be understood, however, that the position of the stripe I3 may be selected so that this .irregularity may be obtained or a substantially straight coursewise edgemay be simulated for the simutherebelow. It will be noted -lated course of roong elements or shingles.
Moreover, the position of this stripe I3 upon the shingle strip relative to the edge 3 thereof as well as its width transversely of the coursewise dimension may be varied to secure both the appearance of differences in thickness and of different lengths of exposure of the simulated tabs of shingle elements and the irregular edge appearanceof the course.
In Fig. 5 is illustrated a method of cutting from a sheet of material shingle elements of the type illustrated in Figs. 2 and 4. This method makes it possible to produce without waste of the material shingle elements having a stripe 20 on the tab edge thereof and having the stripe I3 along the boundary 3 of the body thereof. In Fig. 5 upon a sheet 30 and spaced equidistant from the side edges 3| and 32 of said sheet are formed, by any convenient method suitable for obtaining the stripe I3 upon the shingle element as has been described, a pair of stripes 33. Symmetrical with the center line 36 of the sheet 30 is cut, by any usual means such as a cylinder cutter Vpast which this sheet is fed, a cut 31 of staggered outline having portions 38 extending lengthwise of the sheet and within'the area of the stripes 33. The portions 38 are connected by the cuts 39 transversely of the length of the sheet to form square tabs with recesses therebetween on the strips of material which thereby will be cut from the sheet at either side of the staggered cut 31. In the particular method illustrated in Fig. 5 the cuts 38 are made nearer the edges 3l of the stripes 33 which are positioned nearer the center line of the sheet. If, for example, the cuts 38 within the stripes 33 are made 1/4" from the edges 34 and if, for example, the width of the stripes 33 is 1", then cuts 38 will be made at a distance of 3A, from the outer edges 35 of the stripes 33. It will now be clear how the stripe 20 on the tab 5 of the shingle element of Fig. 2 may be produced Fig. 5. It also will be clear that by varying the position of the cuts 38 with respect to the longitudinal edges 34 and 35 of the stripe 33 and also taking into account the Width of the stripe 33 the variations which have been described above for the stripes 20 and I3 and the effects produced by these variations may be secured.
The amount of foreshortening of the dimension of any unit placed in a roof which extends up and down the slope of the roof is considerable in the ordinary vslopes of roofs, so much so that the design eiect produced by cutting the edges of prior art shingles in different outlines may be substantially lost. If, for example, a dimension of 1" along the slope of a roof, sloping at 457, is viewed directly horizontal, this dimension of 1" will appear to be about 1%". In a roof on a house of moderate size a point at the center of the slope of the roof may be, with usual ceiling heights and the height of rst iioor above the ground, about 28 to 30 feet above the ground. If such a point is seen from the ground at a. distance of say 65 to 80 feet from the house, as for example when viewed from the opposite side of the street, this dimension of 1" of slope of the roof becomes very muchmore foreshortened. This foreshortening becomes very much increased if the roof is viewed from a distance of about 40 feet, for example from the near side of the street.
In the iirst instance, and assuming that the horizontal distance from the point to be viewed from the position of the observer is 80', the 1" by the method illustrated in f Street, this eobe A width of a stripe of 1" reduced to somewhat less than t". point selected is viewed from the near side of the dimension of 1" becomes reduced to less than f6". It thus will be apparent that the upon the strip of the invention may be foreshortened to appear to be from one-quarter to one-half oi' the actual width of the stripe. In other words, a stripe width of thickness of two superposed layers of shingle material each 54;" to 41" thick depending on the point from which they are seen. When consideration is given to the existence of actual shadow from the butt edge and having in mind the desirability of also impressing the eye with this shadow to simulate the normal eiTect in a roof of shingle elements in courses, stillfurther accentuation of to 1A" are more usual and may be secured together with their 'shadow `simulation by means of a stripe of the degree of 1" in width. In view of the variations in roof slopes and variations in thicknessof shingle elements of various materials this width within the scope of the invention may be varied from about 3/4" to 112". It is not intended that the invention shall be limited to such widths but that a stripe shall be a shingle and of its shadow.
'Having thus described my invention I now claim:
1. A roong element for laying in overlapping courses, said element having a tab depending of the body of the element, said tabs being sepaing a width of v direction of the degree of the extending in the coursewise rated in the coursewise direction by spaces ha ment to extend in the coursewise direction generally along said boundary of the body of the element to demark the tab areas from said body of the element, said stripe having a width transverse to the coursewise length thereof in consideration of the usual slopes of the roof deck such that the foreshortened width as viewed from the ground is at least as great as the thickness of the tab.
3. A roofing element for .laying in overlapping courses, positioned thereon along a coursewise boundary of the body of the element, said tabs being separated in the coursewise direction by spaces havling a width of similar degree to that of the tabs,
said element having thereon a stripe of darker appearance than the 4tab and body areas of the element, said stripe being positioned on the element to extend in the coursewise direction generally along said boundary of the body of the element to demark the tab areas from said body of the element, said stripe having a width transverse to the coursewise length thereof in consideration of the usual slopes of the roof deck such that the foreshortened width as viewed from the ground is atleastas'great as the thicknessv of the tab, said tab along the butt edge thereof` having a stripe of a darker appearance than -the surface of the tab to accentuate the shadow cast by the tab. i
4. A rooilng element for laying in overlapping courses, said element having a plurality of tabs positioned thereon along a coursewise boundary of the body of the element, said tabs being separated in the coursewise direction by spaces having a width of similar degree to that of the tabs,
similar degree to that lof the tabs,v
said element having thereon a. stripe of darker y appearance than. the tab and body areas of the element. said-stripe being positioned on the element to extend in the coursewise direction generally along said boundary of "the body of the element to demark the tab areas from said body o1 the element and with part of its width upon the tab and with part upon said'body ofthe element, said stripe having a widthv transverse to the coursewise length thereof in considerawhich is upon the tab area. A a
5. A- shingle strip having 'a pair of generally rectangular tabs spaced rectangular recess a distance in the coursewise width of the tabs, said shingle strip being provided with a stripe tially along the extension of said recess across the tab area, said stripe having a'width such that as foreshortened when the shingle strip is upon the roof and is viewed from edge thereof lof said stripe g along said boundary of'the body of the element apart by a generallydirection substanthe inner edge of the ground it approximates the thicknessof the butt edge of-the tab. 6. A shinglestrip having a pair of generally shingle strip is upon the roof and is viewed from the ground it approximates the thickness of the butt edge of the tab plus the width of the shadow cast-by the butt edge of the tab upon the shingle beneath in an assembly of shingles in overlapping courses.
7. A roof construction comprising a pluralityy of shingle strips each having a plurality of tabs of substantial width in the coursewise direction spaced apart by recesses having a width in the coursewise direction of similar degree to that of the tabs, said shingle strips being assembled in the courses with the lower butt edge of each tab adjacent the inner coursewise edge of the recesses of a shingle strip in the course beneath and with a portion of the body of a subjacent strip from which the tabs depend exposed between the tabs o the superposed shingle strip, said shingle strips having thereon stripes extending in the coursewise direction in the region where the tabs join said body portions of the shingle strips so as to be exposed between said tabs of a superposed shingle to demark shingle simulating areas in two adjaceht courses .of shingles, said stripes being of a Width substantially greater than the thickness of the material of the tabs, whereby as foreshortened when viewed from the ground said stripe appears as the butt edge of a tab.
8. A roof construction comprising a plurality of shingle stripseach having a plurality of tabs of substantial width in the coursewise direction spaced apart by recesses having a width in the coursewise direction of similar degree to thatof the tabs, said shingle strips being assembled in the courses with the lower butt edge of each tab adjacent the inner coursewise edge of the recesses of a shingle strip in the course beneath and with a portion of the body of a subjacent strip from which the tabs depend exposed between the tabs of the superposed shingle strip, said shingle strips having thereon stripes extending in the coursewise direction in the regions where the tabs join said body portions of the shingle strips so as to be exposed between said tabs of the superposed shingles to demark shingle simulating area in two adjacent courses of shingles, said stripes having a width transverse to the coursewise length thereof great enough in consideration of the usual slopes of the rooi deck substantially to oiset the foreshortening effect when viewed from the ground and to approximate the thickness of the tab plus the width of the shadow cast by the tab upon the exposed portion of a subjacent shingle.
y 9. A shingle strip having a pair of generally rectangular tabs spaced apart by a generally rectangular recess a distance in the coursewise direction of the degree of the width of the tabs, said shingle strip being provided with a stripe extending in the coursewise direction substantially along the extension. of the inner edge of said recess across the tab area, said stripe having a Width of between 3A," and lVz.
10. A roong element for laying in overlapping courses, said element having a tab with substantially parallel side edges depending from a coursewise boundary of the body thereof, said tab having a coursewise dimension such that when the body portions of two in the same course a space is left between the tabs of said adjacent elements having a coursewise dimension of the degree of said tab to leave exposed between said tabs a portion of the body of the element in the subjacent course, said element having thereon a stripe of darker appearance than the tab and body areas, said stripe being positioned dary of the body of the element to demark the tab area from the body of the element, said stripe having a width transverse to the coursewise length thereof in consideration of the usual.
slopes of the roof deck such that the foreshortened with of the stripe as viewed from the ground is at lea-st as great as the thickness of the tab, said body portion of said strip being provided with a series of spaced lines extending generally parallel to the side edges of the tabs -which carry the eye in the direction transverse substantially parallel side edges depending from a coursewise boundary of the body thereof, said tab having a coursewise dimension such that when the body Vportions of two elements arev abutted in the same course a space is left between the tabs of said adjacent elements having a coursewise dimension of the degree of said tab to leave exposed between said tabs a portion of the body of the element in the subjacent course, said element having thereon a stripe of darker appearancethan the tab and body areas, said stripe being positioned on the elemgnt to extend in the coursewise direction generally along said boundary of the body of the element to demark the tab area from the body of the element, said stripe having a width transverse to the coursewise length thereof in consideration of the usual slopes of the roof deck such that the foreshortened width of the stripe as viewed from the ground is at least as great ,as the thickness of the tab.
FRANK J. AUSTIN.
on the element to extend in the coursewise direction generally along said bounelements are abutted'