US 2196987 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 16, 1940.
E. GASION 2,196,987
TYPEWRITING, TYPESETTING, AND SIMILAR MACHINES Filed Jan. 14, 1935 3 Shets-Sheet 1 April 16, 1940. E. GASTON TYPE-WRITING, TYPESETTING, AND SIMILAR MACHINES 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Jan. 14, 1955 Patented Apr. 16, 1940 UNITED v STATES PATENT- OFFICE mswmrmc, TYBESETTING, AND SIMILAR. moms Ernest Gaston, New Haven, Conn; Application January 14, 1935, Serial No. 1,699
. 4 Claims. (01. 197-1) 'My invention relates generally to group-letter Figure 4 represents a side view of a keystem writing devices for typewriting, typesetting and similar machines, and in such connection the present device aims to provide a means and a method for bringing about an accelerated speed in its application thereto of typewriting, typesetting and similar machines.
More particularly the invention provides means for key selecting and key setting withtwosimilar,
separate and independently operated keyboards,
which makes it possible for the operator .to print groups of two, three or four letters at one stroke or motion of the two hands, or to print one or two letters at one stroke or motion of one hand;
that is, to set one or two keys at one stroke or motion of one hand, or to set two, three or four keys with one simultaneous and continuous downwardstroke or motion of the two hands,
and to print in the desired order the respective letters, figures, characters, or to perform the operations represented by such keys. All of which have as their purpose and effect the increaseof speed in writing and efliciency in operation, without the use of code, translation, permutation, syllabic or logotype mechanisms or methods.
The keys of the left keyboard are struck by the fingers of the left hand, and the keys of the right keyboard are struck by theflngers of the right hand, and selective parts are thereby set in grooves of pinions, or selectors; and a cam connected to an automatic clutch attached to a power means is released and revolves to actuate feeding gears in mesh with the selectors, to
rotate the selectors and to advance the selective nection with the accompanying drawings, and
Figure 1 represents a front'elevational'view of the two similar keyboards, .the left and the right. o
Figure 2'is a top view of the same keyboards, with letters, numerals, punctuation marks and operating keys in their relative positions and in relation to the keys of the machine to which it may be attached; and Figure 3 represents views of certain parts, sue
as keystems, selective gears, selectors and feed gears which comprise a portion of such keyboards.
used in series A and in series B;- and dfrepresents a lug which acts on selective gear; R-l and R--3 represents supporting rods; Zl, Z 2 and Z3 represent supporting racks; J represents 5 spring which holds keystem in operating position. Figure 5 represents a side view of one of the selective gears of series C-I to 0-53 and of series F-I to F53.
Figure 6 represents a side view of feeding gears 10 H and ll.
Figure 7 represents selector pinions numbers It and 40.
figure 8 represents selector springs Hi0 and H 0.
Continuing the description of the invention and referring in detail to each individual part, like parts bearing like indicating numerals, in Figure 1, the keystems A--l to A53 represent the keystems of the left keyboard as indicated generally 20 at L. The keystems B--l to 3-53 represent the keystems of the rig-ht keyboard as indicated generally at R. A--l and B-l represent the same character, A|0 and 13-40 represent the 7 same character, and likewise each pair of key- 25 stems in the A and the B series bearing the same numeral represent the samecharacter, or the same operation of the machine.
In Figure 3 are shown stems A-i0 and A-20, gears C--lll and C-2ll,,and a pinion I0, or an 30 elongated gear, representing parts of the left keyboard. There are also here illustrated keystems B--22 and 3-", gears F-ZZ and F--i2, and pinion 4t, representing parts of the right keyboard. As the stems of each keyboard are represent the keystems of the right keyboard. All Q keystems are Sup rted horizontally by the same: rods RP-l and H, and held vertically by the same racks Z-l, Z-2 and Z-3, and each key- 50 stem is held or forced into position perpendicularly by an individual spring I at the bottomof each keystem.
In order to show the worklng parts more clearly the frame, supporting parts and springs are 5 omitted. In an actual machine an individual spring would be attached to each of the keystems in series A and B, also to each of the selective gears in series C and F, and alsov to each of the cross levers in series M, and also to each of the slidable levers in series N, and also to each of the levers in series 0, to hold the parts while not in operation and to return them to rest position after they are released from action.
Each keyboard'has one key for each typebar and for each operation of the machine. The arrangement of the keys, however, is susceptible of alterations to suit conditions. For instance, in Figure 2, I show an arrangement of letters, characters, et cetera, on the right keyboard, while on the left keyboard these characters are in inverse relation. While these keyboards are each complete, thus arranged, the positions of the letters may be altered. The purpose of this inverse relationship of the keyboards is to facilitate operation, as it is instinctive and habitual, unless otherwise trained, in all movements of the hands to use similar fingers of the two hands to perform similar operations.
The keyboards aredesigned to be used as a part of new group-letter writing machines, or machine operators, or as an attachment for typewriting, typesetting and similar machines of standard makes, with such changes in connecting links as may be necessary for the particular machine to which it is attached.
The two keyboards may be operated separately, alternately or simultaneously. When one keyboard is used separately, the other keyboard is idle and has no effect on the operation. When the keyboards are used alternately, that is, first one and then the other, the characters represented by the keyboard struck first will be printed before the characters represented by the keyboard struck later. When the keyboards are used simultaneously, the characters represented by the left keyboard will be printed before the characters represented by the right keyboard. Whether the keyboards are used separately, alternately or simultaneously, each keyboard is capable of receiving, regardless of the other keyboard, one stroke on one key from one finger of the hand, which is called herein the staccato stroke. And each keyboard is capable of receiving, regardless of the other keyboard, two strokes on two keys from one continuous downward slurring movement of two fingers of one hand, the key representing the character to be printed first being struck slightly in advance of the key representing the character to be printed next, which is called herein the legato stroke.
By the use of the staccato stroke and of the legato stroke singly or together, these groupsare possible: one letter can be printed by one staccato stroke on either keyboard; 'two letters can be printed by two staccato strokes, one staccato stroke on each board, or two letters can be printed by one legato stroke on either board; three letters can be printed by one legato stroke on one board and one staccato stroke on the other keyboard; and four letters can be printed by two legato strokes, one legato stroke on each board.
In the" operation of the device and in the application of the method herein involved: to select and set four keys, or four selective parts, so they will operate and transfer the strokes in the same order as the four characters are to be printed which they represent, strike by-the simultaneous and continuous downward move- I ments of the two hands the four keyswhich represent the four characters, striking the two keys representing the first and second characters in a slurring, or legato, manner with two fingers of the left hand on the left keyboard, striking the key which representsthe first character, as key A-I0 for instance, slightly before striking the key which represents the second character, as key A20, and at the same time striking the two keys representing the third and io'urth characters in a slurring, or legato, manner with two fingers of the right hand on the right keyboard,
' striking the key which'represents the third character, as key Bl2, slightly before striking the key which represents 'the fourth character, as B-'-22 KeyA-I9 will force selective gear C.-l0 in mesh inthe first groove of selector In of the left keyboard and will advance selector I 0 one space, and key A Zll will force selective gear C20 in mesh in the second groove of selector l0, and will advance selector l0 and gear C-lll one space farther, and will leave the gear C|0 one space in advance of gear 0-29. Key B-l2 will force selected gear F-|2 in mesh in the first groove 7 of selector 4!! of the right keyboard, and will advance selector 40 one space, and key 3-22 will force selective gear F'22 in mesh in the second groove of selector MI, and will advance selector 40 and gear F-IZ one space farther, and will leave gear F-l2 onespace in advance of gear F-22.
This operation completes the selecting, arranging and setting in the desired order the selective parts C--l0 and 0-20 in the selector l0 and the selective parts F-IZ and F-22 in the selector 4|); and the selectors hold the selective parts in operating positions to transfer the strokes' in the order of C|Il, 0-20, Fl2 and F22 through connecting means to a machine operator, a typewriter, or to other suitable printing means.
As the keystems A-lfl and A-20 force gears 0-10 and C20 to mesh with and rotate pinion I9 and keystems B-IZ and B22 force gears F-l2 and F-22 to mesh with and rotate pinion 40, the pinions l0 and 40 lift at the point of contact98 the escapement lock Y,-and Y- releases at the point 91 the bent lever 93 of the automatic clutch, and the spring 96 advances lever 93 and the friction balls 94-94 held in gears 0 and 0-20 in mesh with the pinion l0; gear C-l0 pulls draw-link K-IO and K-|0 pulls slide 'lever Nl0 under striking lever X; and at the same instant cam arm 14 in Figure 3, actuates the striking-lever W which forces lever X to pull lever N-IO, and lever N-lll to pull lever 0-40 of the machine operator, typewriter, or other machine, and thereby to print the first letter or to transfer the first stroke to the machine to which attached. I
Then cam arm I; lifts feeding gear. II and advances one space the pinion l0. and gears C-IO and 0-40; gear C2tl pullsdraw link K-2ll, and K20 pulls slide lever N--20 under striking lever X; and at the same instant cam arm I5 actuates the striking lever W which forces lever X to pull lever N-'-29, and 76 amass? in mesh with pinion 49; gear F-l2 pulls draw:
link L-l2, cross lever M-II, draw-link K-l2, and K-l2 pulls slide lever N-l2 under striking lever X; and at the same instant cam arm 94 actuates the striking lever W which forces lever X to pull lever N-l2, and leverYN-l2 to pull lever O-l2 of the machine operator, typewriter or other machine, and thereby to print the third letter, or to transfer the third stroke to the machine to which attached.
Then cam arm 45 lifts feeding gear 4| and advances one space the pinion 49 and gears F-l 2 and F-22 and gear F-22 pulls draw-link L-22,
cross lever 11-22 and draw-link K-22, and K-22 pulls slide lever N-22 under striking lever It; and at the same instant cam arm 95 actuates the striking lever W which forces lever X to pull lever N-22, and lever N'- 22 to pull lever 0-22 of the machine operator, typewriter or other machine, and thereby to print the fourth letter or to transfer the fourth stroke to the machine to which attached. v
The cam arms rotate beyond the feeding gears II and 4|, also beyond the striking lever W, and
pinion I0 is pulled back into its original position by spring H-lll and pinion 49 is pulled back into its original-position by spring H-49, and pinion l9 forces gearsC-IO and 0-29 back out of mesh, and pinion 49 forces gears F-l2 and F-22 back out of mesh;' and the two keyboards are clear to receive another group of strokes.
As the fourth and final letter is printed, and
as the automatic clutch core 92 and the cam U complete one revolution, the lever 99 strikes at the point of contact 91 the. escapement lock Y; and the lever Y holds lever 99 and the friction balls 94-94 out of'locking position between the outer drum 9| and the inner core 92, and the inner core 92 and the cam U attached thereto by the belt 99 are stopped. And the cam-clutch device is ready to transfer another group of letters or strokes through the machine.
There are twenty-three other possible combinations in which these same four characterscould be arranged, but any one combination can be as simply and as easily written by the method described; that is, by striking in legato manner the two keys on the left'keyboard which represent the first and "second letters, and at the same time striking in legato manner the two keys on the right keyboard which represent the third and fourth letters. The reversed order of the same four letters would be written by striking in legato manner keys A-22 and'A-l2 on the left keyboard and by striking at the same time in legato manner the keys 3-29 and B-ll on the right keyboard.
To print any group of three letters strike by the simultaneous and continuous downward movements of the two hands the three individual keys. which represent the three letters, striking the two keys representing the first and second characters in a legato manner with two fingers of the left hand on the leftkeyboard striking the key which represents the first chatacter, as A-lll, slightly before striking the key which represents the second character, as A-Il, and at the same time striking the key which represents .the third character in a staccato, or separate,
manner with one finger of the right hand on the right keyboard, as key B-l2; or to write the same three characters, by striking the key which represents the first character, as A-ll, in a.
staccato manner on the left keyboard, and by striking at the same time in a legato manner the two keys on the right keyboard which represent the second and third characters, as keys 3-29 and B-l2; and the device will operate as described in printing four letters, and will print the letters in the order desired; and all parts will be returned to their original positions.
To print any group of two letters, strike with one continuous downward movement of either hand on either keyboard the two individual keys representing the two characters in a-legato manner, as keys A-Il and A-2l on the left keyboard, or the 'keys B-ll and 28-29 on the right keyboard; or to print the same two characters, strike by the simultaneous and continuous downward movements of the two hands the two keys which represent the two characters, striking in a staccato manner the key of the left keyboard which represents the first character as key A-l9 and at the same time striking in a staccato manner the key of the right keyboard which represents the second character, as key 3-29; and the machine will operate as described in printing the four letter group, and will print the letters in the desired order, and all parts will be returned to their original positions.
To print one letter, strike with either hand on either keyboard the individual key representing the letter desired, by striking in a staccato manner key A-lll on the left keyboard, or by striking in a staccato manner key B-ll on the right keyboard; and the machine will operate as described in the four letter group, and the letter will be printed and all parts will be returned to their original positions.
While I have shown and described a practical working embodiment of my invention, I desire it understood that the particular means employed in the keyboard construction is only an illustration of how the principle may be carried out; 4
and that the present construction is capable of modifications, alterations and changes in keeping with the intent of the invention and within the scope and meaning of the claims appended hereto.
said gear segments when meshed therein by key strokes, a plurality of links operably associated with said gear segments and with corresponding levers of the typewriting machine as a connecting.
means between the two keyboards and the type-v writing machine, an escapement mechanism con trolled by said pinion gears, a cam mechanism with intermittent connectionwith a constantly revolving power means through a clutch mechanism controlled by said escapement mechanism, means associated with said pinion gearsand actuated by saidcam-clutch mechanisms to transmit 7 strokes from said gear segments to the typewrit-v ing machine, and meanstoreturn moving parts of the device to their original rest positions after completion of the operation.
2. A group-letter writing device of the character described and as claimed in claim 1, each of said keyboards having one individual key and keystem for each key lever of the machine to which attached.
3. A spee writing device of the character described and adapted for use in connection with a machine operator including in combinations. device comprising. two similar and independent keyboards operating as a unit, each of said keyboards having a plurality of keys and keystems and including one individual key and keystem for each key lever of the machine to which at: tached, a plurality of selective parts operably associated with said key stems, a selector means for locking said selective parts when registered therein by said key, stems, a plurality of links operably associated with said selective parts as amass 7 connecting means between the keyboards and the machine to which attached, an escapement mechanism controlled by said scelctors, a cam mechanism actuated by a clutch mechanism controlled by said escapement mechanism and intermittently connected with a power means, and means associated with said selectors and actuated by said cam-clutch mechanisms to transmit strokes from said selective parts to the machine to which attached, and means to return moving parts of the device to their original rest positions after completion of the operation.
4. The combination of two similar and independent keyboards operable as a unit as claimed in claim 3, the letters and other indicia of the keys of one keyboard being in reversed order a from right to left from the keys of its companion keyboard.
ERNEST GASTON. 20