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Publication numberUS2197487 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 16, 1940
Filing dateMay 5, 1937
Priority dateMay 5, 1937
Publication numberUS 2197487 A, US 2197487A, US-A-2197487, US2197487 A, US2197487A
InventorsSmalley Lee L
Original AssigneeBendix Prod Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Head lamp meter
US 2197487 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 16, 1940. L. 1.. SMALLEY 2,197,487

HEAD LAMP METER Filed May 5, 1937 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR LEE LEMHLLEY ATTORN EY P 1940- L. 1... SMALLEY HEAD LAMP METER Filed May 5, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR F 1 w 2 L3.- A. 5%4440 X6! m ATTORNEY April 16, 1940. L. L. SMALLEY HEAD LAMP METER Filed May 5, 19s? 6 Sheets-Sheet I5 3 My mmWm E 0 V T mcm/um 4% g April 16, 1940- L. L. SMALLEY HEAD LAMP METER Filed May 5, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 as I VE ICHL l INVENTOR L55 1.. SMALLEY ATTORNEY April 16, 1940- L. 1.. SMALLEY 2,197,487

HEAD LAMP METER Filed May 5, 1937 6 Sheets-Sheet s INVENTOR ATTORNEY April 16, 1940. L. SMALLEY HEAD LAMP METER Filed May 5, 1957 N R EM 0 w w 15 5. 8 &

Patented Apr. 16, 1940 UNITED STATES HEAD LAMP METER Lee L. Smalley, South Bend, Ind., casino: to Bendix Products Corporation, South Bend, Incl,

a corporation of Indiana Application May 5, 1937, Serial No. 140,845

6 Claims.

If the light source is behind a focal point of the reflector the light rays diverge thereby producing a blind spot, or sector of low light intensity at the central portion of the shaft of light transmitted. If the light source is ahead of the focal point of the reflector, the rays of light converge and cross thereby'producing the blind 80 spot or point of low light intensity in the central portion of the shaft of light transmitted from the headlight. Various 'expedients have been resorted to in an effort to overcome the clifliculties thus encountered such for example as the various 2% focusing devices utilized by certain manufacturers, whereby the lamp may be moved longitudinally with reference to the reflector until the focal point, or point of greatest light intensity is reached.

30 The cylindrical shaft of light thus transmitted by the reflector is generally too concentrated and narrow to properly illuminate the highway, and has the further disadvantage that it blinds or impedes the vision of the occupants of vehicles 35 travelling in the opposite direction on the highway. In an effort to avoid these disadvantages, and also to protect the reflector, a lens is customarily employed to bend the rays of light in such a manner as to produce more uniform light- 40 ing of the highway, and to confine the principal portion of the light rays below a horizontal plane parallel to the surface of the road. Many different forms of lenses having various combinations of prisms or flutes may be employed, to dif- 45 fuse the light vertically and horizontally in a de sired manner.

In view of the importance of having "proper and adequate lighting equipment on vehicles considerable attention has recently been directed 50 to this phase of vehicle operation. A number of states have enacted laws governing the operation I of the lighting equipment of vehicles, in an effort to avoid the hazards encountered in the operation of faulty headlighting equipment.

as It is particularly important that the headlights be aimed in a. direction to light the highway for a suflicient distance in front vof the vehicle to permit the operator to see objects in sumcient time to stop the vehicle, from any speed at v which the vehicle may be running, before it 6 reaches the object. It is therefore desirable that the headlights be positioned in such a manner as to direct the light as far down the road as possible, consistent with the necessity that the lights be sufficiently low as not to shine in the 10 eyes of occupants of vehicles travelling in the opposite direction on the highway.

A loading allowance, defined as the angular deflection of the headlights clue to the loading of the rear portion of the vehicle must also be taken into consideration in connection with headlight design and maintenance.

In view of the fact that the lighting equipment of vehicles is normally subjected to rather severe operating conditions which tend to alter the adjustment thereof to misdirect the light emanating therefrom, it is desirable that means he provided to quickly check the headlighting equipment of vehicles to determine whether they are in satisfactory operating condition.

An object of this invention is therefore to provide means for checking the lighting equipment of motor vehicles to determine whether it is in proper operating condition.

A further object of the invention is to provide means for determining the direction of the light rays emanating from the headlight.

Another object of the invention is to provide a light sensitive cell to indicate the intensity of the light transmitted from a headlight. Yet afurther object of the invention is to provide a headlight tester, which may be operated rapidly to determine whether or not the headlighting equipment falls within predetermined approvable limits.

Yet a still further object is to provide means whereby a light sensitive cell may be accurately aligned with the headlight to indicate the point 'of maximum light intensity transmitted from I the headlight.

Another object is to provide means including scales to accurately determine the direction of the shaft of light of greatest intensity emanating from the headlight.

A still further object is to provide manually operable adjusting means to accurately align the headlight tester with the direction of travel of the vehicle.

A further object is to provide means including a condensing lens and a screen to determine the mitted from a headlight.

Yet a still further object of the invention is to provide visual means for checking the intensity of a confined shaft of light emanating from a headlight.

Another object is to provide an electrically actuated meter operably connected to a light sensitive cell adapted to receive a restricted amount of light from a headlight to indicate the intensity of the light transmitted.

A' further object is to provide a counterbalanced casing enclosing a restricted tube wherein a plurality of manually operable devices are provided to accurately align the tube with the point of greatest light intensity transmitted from the headlight.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the following detailed description, considered in connection with the accompanying drawings submitted for purposes of illustration only and. not intended to define the scope of the invention, reference being had for that purpose to the subjoined claims.

In the drawings, wherein similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views:

Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in section,

of a headlight tester embodying the present invention;

Figure 2 is an end elevation, partly in section, of the device illustrated in Figure 1, as viewed from the righthand side thereof:

Figure 3 is a plan view of the device illustrated in Figure 1;

Figure 4 is a view illustrating the fixed and movable scales;

Figure 5 is a side sectional elevation of the mechanism illustrated in Figure 6;

Figure 6 is a view taken substantially on the line 6-6 of Figure 5;

Figure '7 is an end elevation, partly in section, of a portion of Figure 1;

Figure 8 is a plan view, partly in section, of a portion of Figure 1;

Figure 9 is a side elevation, partly in section, of a portion of Figure 1;

Figure 10 is a view taken substantially on the line I8I8 of Figure 9;

Figure 11 is a view, partly in section, taken substantially on the line IIII of Figure 2;

Figure 12 is a sectional view taken on the line l2-I2 of Figure 1;

Figure 13 is a sectional view taken on the line I3-I3 of Figure 5; and

Figure 14 is a fragmentary bottom view of a portion of Figure 13.

Referring more particularly to Figures 1 and 2 there is shown for purposes of illustrating this invention, a headlight tester positioned in operative relation with reference to a headlight l8 of a motor vehicle I2. A generally rectangular shaped box I4 is positioned between a pair of standards or columns I6. The standards I6 are fixed with reference to a base I8 having rollers 20 and 22. The rollers 28 are adapted to roll in a track 24, to move the light tester laterally with reference to the vehicle I2.

The box I4 is supported by cables 26 connected to counterweights 28 slidable in the standards I6. The cables 26 pass over pulleys 38 positioned at the top of the standards I8, and pass around a vertical carriage 32. The counterweights 28 balance the weight of the box l4 and the vertical carriage 32. The vertical carriage general relation of the light beam pattern trans 32 is provided with spaced rollers 34 adapted to be received in tracks 38 fixed to thestandards I6, as more clearly shown in Figure 12, to facilitate moving the carriage vertically. Handwheels 3| connected to the pulleys 38 are provided to raise and lower the vertical carriage 32 and the box I4. The box I4 and the carriage 32 may also be raised or lowered by merely applying pressure thereto in the direction in which it is desired to move them.

The box I4 is slidably mounted laterally with reference to the vertical carriage 32 on anti-friction members 38 interposed between rails 48 carried by the vertical carriage 32, and rails 42 carried by brackets 44 operably connected to a member 46 supporting the box I4. The box I4 may be moved laterally by means of a handwheel 48 operably connected to a pinion 58 positioned to mesh with a geared rack 52 supported by a bracket 54 fixed to the brackets 44.

The box I 4 is supported on a leveling plate 56 having a spherical member 58 fixed thereto. The member 46 is provided with a spherical indentation 68 adapted to receive the spherical member 58. A pin 62 projects through the spherical member 58, and is limited to vertical movement by means of a bifurcated guide 64 fixed to the member 48.

The box I4 may be tilted longitudinally about the spherical members 58 and 68 by means of a leveling screw 66. Movement of the leveling screw 66 compresses or permits expansion of a spring 68 interposed between the leveling plate 56 and the member 46, the pin 62 moving in the uide 84.

The box l4 may be tilted laterally about the spherical members 58 and 68 by means of a leveling screw 18. Movement of the leveling screw 18 compresses or permits expansion of a spring 12 interposed between the leveling plate 56 and the member 48, the pin 62 rotating about its own axis in the guide 64.

The spherical member 58 is restrained against upward movement with reference to the spherical indentation 68 by means of a stud 14 passing through an enlarged aperture in the member 68, and a spring 16 which yieldingly urges spherical washers 18 and into engagement with the spherical members 58 and 68.

An oscillating plate 82 is pivotally mounted on a bolt 84 to turn on the leveling plate 56. A bracket 86 fixed to the leveling plate 56 engages a nut 88. A screw 98 fixed longitudinally in bearings 92 carried by the oscillating plate 82 engages the nut 88 to move the box I4 with reference to the leveling plate 56 upon actuation of thumb screws 94 fixed to the screw 98.

A graduated sector 96 fixed to the developing plate 56 cooperates with a movable zero reference member 98 carried by a sector I88 fixed to the oscillating plate 82, to indicate the angular deflection of the box I4 with reference to the leveling plate 56.

Means are provided to move the box I4 longitudinally with reference to the member 46. A track I 82 fixed to the oscillating plate 82 cooperates with another track I84 carried by the box I4 to confine therebetween a plurality of balls I86 separated by spacers I88 to permit the box I4 to be moved longitudinally with reference to the vertical carriage 32.

A light sensitive cell H8 is positioned on a bracket H2 in the box I4. Area restricting means, such, for example, as a tube H4 is universally mounted at one end in the forward portion of the box I4. The other end of the tube I I4 is fixed to the bracket II2.

Means are provided tomove the rear end of the tube H4 and the cell IIO laterally and vertically in the box I4.

The cell H0 and the bracket II2 are, as disclosed in Figure 13, pivotally connected to laterally movable U-shaped member II6 received between laterally disposed guides IIB and I20 slidably supported on spindles I22; This connection includes U-shaped clips I23 and I23 connected by a pin I23". As disclosed in Figure 13, theclips are pivotally connected to the bracket I I2 and to the upper portion of U-shaped member II6, the latter at its base portion being slotted, as disclosed in Figure 14, to receive a pin I24 extending from the end of the bracket II2. Auxiliary spindles I24 cooperate with the spindles I22 to support the upper and lower plates I26 and I28 respectively.

The cell H0 and the end of the tube II4 may be moved verticallvby means of the elevating screw I30 passing through a threaded member I32 carried by the guide I20. The elevating screw I30 is provided with a knob I34 projecting through the top of the box I4.

The cell H0 and the end of thetube II4 may be moved laterally in the box I4 by means of a splined driving shaft I36 having a knob I38 fixed thereto. A sprocket I40 slidably mounted on the shaft I36 and rotatably mounted in the guides M8 and I20, drives a chain I42. The chain I42 passes over laterally spaced sprockets rotatably mounted on studs I44 interposed between the guides M8 and I20. The chain I42 is connected to the laterally movable member II6 to move the cell I I0 and the end of the tube II4 laterally between the guides II8 and I20.

A level I46'carried by the plate I26 is provided to indicate when the guides I I8 and I2!) are level.

A meter I48 having a dial I50 and a pointer I52 is provided to indicate the intensity of the light to which the cell I I0 is subjected. The meter I48 is oscillatably mounted on the box I4 so that it may be turned so that it may be observed from various angles.

A scale support I including spaced glasses I62 is mounted on the plate I26. A pair of fixed upstanding scales I64 disposed back to back are mounted transversely on the plate I 26 between the spaced glasses I62. The scales I64 are provided with horizontally extending zero reference lines I66, and laterally spaced graduations I68 extending laterally in both directions from a central zero reference mark "0 to measure the lateral deviation of the light beam in inches at twenty-five feet, which is of course equivalent to feet of deviation at a distance of three hundred feet. The scales I64 are also provided with laterally spaced graduations M2 to measure degrees of light beam deviation.

A pair of movable scales I14 carried by the laterally movable member II6 project through laterally extending apertures in the plate I26 and are movable laterally and vertically between the fixed scales I64 and the spaced glasses I62 by means of the knobs I34 and I38.

The vertical scales II4 are provided with vertically extending zero reference lines I16, and vertically spaced indication marks I'I8 to measure the vertical deflection of the light beam in inches at twenty-five feet. The scales II4 are also provided with vertically spaced graduations I80 to measure degrees of vertical-light beam deviation.

A viewing screen 200 may be mounted on the box I4. The screen 200 is preferably carried by a standard 202 pivotally mounted at 204 so that the screen and standard may be turned to an inoperative position as illustrated, when not in use.

It has been found from experiments with various types of headlights that a so-called standard pattern may beproduced for any type of headlight. A card marked to indicate the proper light If desired a condensing lens 2I0 may be pivotally mounted at 2I2 on the box I4 to condense the light pattern, formed by the light being tested, on the screen 200 for purposes of comparison.

A forward sight 220 and a rear sight 222 carried at the top of the scale support I60 may be employed to align the box I4 with the central line of the vehicle I2, the lights of which are being sub- .lccted to test. A marker 226 carried by the forward sight 220 may be employed to accurately align the screen 200 or the condensing lens 2I0 with the central portion of the light being tested.

The operation of this light tester is as follows. The car I2, the lights of which are to be tested is posit oned in such a manner that the lights I0 thereof will be as nearly parallel as possible, and adjacent, with the track 24. The light tester is then rolled on the track 24 in front of the vehicle. The box I4 is then accurately aligned with the central portion of the vehicle I2 by lining up the sights 220 and 222 with the central portion of the vehicle. The box I4 may be turned angularly by means of the thumb screws 94 to oscillate the box I4 with reference to the member 46 to accurately align the device with the central portion of the vehicle. The light tester is then moved on the track 24 until the forward end of the box I4 is positioned directly in front of one of the headlights I0 to be tested. The thumb screws 66 and I0 may then be actuated to oscillate the box I4 longitudinally and laterally to level the plate I 26.

The level I46 may of course be observed to indicate when the plate is level.

The handwheel 48 may then be actuated to move the box I4 with reference to the vertical carriage 32 to accurately align the forward end of the box I4 with reference to the desired portion of the light I0.

The light is then turned on, whereupon the light sensitive cell I I0 will be subjected to the restricted quantity of light passing through the tube H4 when the tube H4 and cell II 0 are in the path of the light beam. The pointer I52 of the meter I48 moves over the dial I 50 to indicate the intensity of the light to which the cell IIO is subjected.

The knobs I34 and I38 may then be actuated to move the rear end of the tube I I4 and the cell IIO vertically and laterally in the box I4 to locate the angular direction of the light rays of greatest intensity emanating from the headlight I0. When the meter I48 indicates that the point of maximum light intensity has been reached, therelation between the movable scale "4 and the fixed scale I64 may be observed to indicate the ing from'the headlight.

The graduations I18 of the movable scale I14 may be read against the zero reference line I66 of the fixed scale I64 to indicate inches of vertical light beam deviation at a distance of twenty-five feet, or feet of light beam deviation at a distance of three hundred feet. The zero reference line I16 of the movable scale I I4 may then be read against the graduations I68 of the fixed scale I64 to indicate inches of light beam deviation laterally at a distance of twenty-five feet or feet of lateral light beam deviation at a distance of three hundred feet, left or right depending on where the zero reference line I16 of the movable scale lies with reference to the zero reference character of the scale I68. It will be apparent that the graduations I86 of the movable scale I14 may be read with the graduations I12 of the fixed scale I64 to indicate vertical andlateral light beam deviation in degrees.

It will of course be apparent that the meter I48 may be turned so that it may be read from any desired angle to facilitate making suitable corrections of the headlight ID to correct the light emanating characteristics of the light to conform to predetermined requirements. The vertical and movable scales I14 and IE4 respectively being double faced may be observed from either side.

If desired a door I84 may be opened by means of the knob I86 to observe the light sensitive cell I I while the test is in progress. I After one headlight has been tested the box I4 may be moved longitudinally with reference to the columns I6, and the device rolled laterally to align the box with the other light to be tested. The box I4 may then be moved longitudinally into operative position with reference to the other light to be tested, and the testing of that light effected in the same. manner as indicated above.

It will be observed that the movable zero reference member 98 carried by the sector IIJIJ may be positioned adjacent the zero reference character of the sector 96 to indicate the proper aligned position of the box I4 with reference to the headlights. It is therefore unnecessary to align the box angularly to test the second light in the event that the vehicle has not been moved.

After the direction of the light transmitted from the headlights has been determined the reading of the meter I48 will of course be observed to determine whether or not the intensity of the light falls within predetermined limits.

It will be understood that this invention is not to be limited to testing vehicle headlights as it may be employed to test any light emanating member, or the principle may also be applied to remote indicators for various types of equipment such, for example, as service equipment such as brake testers, wheel aligners, dynamometers, etc., wherein the light from a light source of varying intensity. controlled by a movable element of the service apparatus to indicate the efficiency of the member being tested, is directed to a light sensitive cell operably connected to a meter, employed to indicate whether the member being subjected to test falls within desirable predetermined limits.

While the invention has been described with particular reference to a limited number of desirable embodiments, it is to be understood that various changes may be made in the arrangement of parts and the details of construction of the moving and indicating mechanisms without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined by the following claims.

I claim:

1. A device for testing vehicle headlights comprising a base, a pair of spaced columns on the base, a box mounted between the columns, means to move the box laterally, vertically and longitudinally with reference to the columns, an aperture in the forward end of said box, a tube within the box universally pivotally connected at one end to said box adjacent said aperture, 9. light sensitive cell connected to said tube at its other end so as to receive light passing through the tube, means to move said tube and cell about said pivotal connection, means to indicate the intensity of light to which the cell is subjected, and means actuated by the movement of the tube to indicate the position of said tube with reference to a predetermined normal position of the tube.

2. A device for testing vehicle headlights comprising a track, a base having rollers adapted to engage the track, supporting means carried by the base, a box carried by the supporting means, a level on the box, manually operable means to level the box longitudinally and transversely, manually operable means to move the box angularly in an approximately horizontal plane with reference to the supporting means, a tube within the box universally pivotally connected at its one end to the forward end of said box, an aperture in the box adjacent said universal connection, a light sensitive cell rigidly attached to said tube adjacent its other end and positioned to receive light transmitted through the tube, manually operable means to move the box vertically, laterally, and longitudinally with reference to the supporting means, manually operable means to move said tube and the light sensitive cell about the pivotal connection, means to indicate the intensity of the light to which the cell is subjected, and means actuated by the movement of the tube to indicate the position of said tube with reference to a predetermined normal position of the tube.

3. In a testing device for vehicle headlights, a support, means mounted on said support and provided with an aperture for selecting and restricting an area of a headlight, elongated light transmitting means for confining and transmitting light emanating from said selected and restricted area of the headlight as determined by said aperture, means for mounting said light transmitting means on the support for universal pivotal movement thereof about a point immediately adjacent said aperture, a light sensitive cell positioned to receive at all times the light transmitted through said light transmitting means, light intensity indicating means connected to said cell, means for moving said light transmitting means universally pivotally about said point immediately adjacent said aperture to determine the position at which maximum light intensity derived from the selected area and passing through said aperture obtains at said cell, and means actuated by movement of said light transmitting means to indicate the extent of displacement of the light transmitting means from a predetermined reference position.

4. A device for testing vehicle headlights comprising a base, supporting means carried by the base, a box carried by the supporting means, means to move the box laterally, longitudinally, and vertically with reference to the supporting means, counterbalancing means associated with the supporting means to facilitate vertical movement of the box, a level on the box, means associated with the supporting means to level the box longitudinally and transversely, a tubular light-transmitting member within the box and having its one end adapted to receive the light emanating from a selected and restricted area of the headlight, universal mounting means for said a tubular member in the forward end of said box,

a light sensitive cell within the box, means for maintaining said cell in light exchange relationship at all times with the other end of said tubular member, means to move the tubular member universally pivotally in said mounting means to locate the position of the tube at which greatest light intensity obtains at said cell, and means actuated by movement of the tubular member to indicate the position of the tubular member relative to a predetermined line through the selected area.

5. A device for testing vehicle headlights comprising a base, a pair of spaced columns on the base, a box mounted between the columns, adjustable means to level the box longitudinally and transversely, a tube within the box uni versally pivotally mounted on the forward end of the box adjacent one end of said tube, an aperture in the end of the box adjacent said pivotal connection, a light sensitive cell within the box, means for maintaining said cell at all times in light exchange relationship with the other end of the tube to receive light transmitted through said tube, means to indicate the intensity of light to which the cell is subjected, means to move the box laterally, vertically, and longitudinally with reference to the columns to bring the first named end of the tube into juxtaposition with a selected and restricted area of. the headlight, means to move said tube about said pivotal connection, and means actuated by movement of said tube to indicate the position of the tube with reference to a predetermined line through the selected area.

6. A device for testing vehicle headlights comprising a box, a tube within the box universally pivotally connected to the forward end of the box adjacent one end of the tube, a light sensitive cell within the box, means for maintaining said cell at all times in light exchange relationship with the other end of said tube thereby to receive light transmitted through the tube, means to indicate the intensity of the light received by said cell, means to move said tube about said pivotal connection, and means for indicating the displacement of the tube from a predetermined reference position relative to the box comprising a scale carried by the box, a second scale carried by the tube, said second scale being positioned in cooperative relationship at all times with the first scale, said scales having their graduations extending at right angles to each other.

LEE L. SMALLEY.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2641056 *Sep 12, 1951Jun 9, 1953Remington Arms Co IncApparatus for testing and adjusting gun sights
US3020015 *Nov 24, 1959Feb 6, 1962Seplavy Louis RJackstand
US7287884 *Jan 24, 2003Oct 30, 2007Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaVehicle operation supporting device and vehicle operation supporting system
US7561180Jan 21, 2003Jul 14, 2009Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaMovable body safety system and movable body operation support method
US20030147247 *Jan 24, 2003Aug 7, 2003Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaVehicle operation supporting device and vehicle operation supporting system
DE1013894B *Aug 18, 1954Aug 14, 1957Gustaf Rikard Hassel Dipl IngVorrichtung zur Messung der Beleuchtungsstaerke von Kraftwagenscheinwerfern
DE2641878A1 *Sep 17, 1976Mar 23, 1978Bosch Gmbh RobertEinstellgeraet fuer fahrzeugscheinwerfer
Classifications
U.S. Classification356/121, 33/288
International ClassificationG01M11/06
Cooperative ClassificationG01M11/061
European ClassificationG01M11/06A