US 2197960 A
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April 23, 1940.
E. c ALEXANDER CRIBBING Filed June 8, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 ha Je g@ dl" y a@ rl HZe/zdfacz/ez" April 2.3, '1940- A E. c. ALEXANDER 2,197,960
l CRIBBING Filed June 8, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 April 23, 1940.
E. C. ALEXANDER CRIBBING Filed June 8, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 jidezaz'r y Earl C. lexzzzdez April 23, 1940.
E. c. ALEXANDER CRIBBING Filed June 8, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 g Patented Apr. 23, 1940 UNITED STATES CRIBEING Earl C. Alexander, Glen Ellyn, Ill., assignor to Massey Concrete Products Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of`Virginia Application June s, 193s, serial No. 212,450
' 11 claims. (Cl. (s1- 4.7)
The present invention relates to cribbing, and is particularly concerned with' concrete cribbing of the type adapted to be used in building retaining walls and the like.
The concrete cribbing must be placed transversely with respect to each other to build up a wall, the interstices of which are filled with dirt and rock or gravel iilling.
One of the objects of the invention is the provision of cribbing members which are adapted to be used to build up various types of cribbing walls, such as the open face, ush type, the open face type lhaving protruding headers, and the closed face, liush type of cribbing. l Another object of the invention is the provision of improved cribbing members 'of a novel structure adapted to have interlocking connection with each other at the points of bearing, without the necessity for having projecting lugs or interlocking members formed thereon, such as might be apt to be broken off.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved cribbing in which the interlocking engagement is provided by means of diagonally extended bearing surfaces, which are so arranged that they not only support the Weight of the superposed cribbing members, but also prevent the outward movement of the stretchers with respect to the headers and prevent the lateral displacement of the headers.
Referring to the drawings, of which there are four sheets,
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view showing a cribbing wall constructed according to the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view, taken on the plane of the line 2-2 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows, showing the structure of the Wall;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary front elevational view, showing a structure of the wall;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view in perspective of one stretcher and one header, used at the front of the wall, the positions and the bracket indicating the mode in which they are assembled;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary elevational view of a portion of the front of the wall, showing. a modied form of construction, in which thefront-face of the wall is substantially closed, except to make provision for drainage; y
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical view, taken on the plane of the 4line 6 6 of Fig.5, looking in the direction of the arrows;
7 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view,
taken on the plane of the line l--l of Fig. 5, look. i
ing in the direction of the arrows; y
Fig. 8 is av front elevational view of a stretcher constructed according to the present invention;
Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view, taken on the plane of the line 9-9 of Fig. 8, looking inthe direction of the arrows; Fig. 10 is a side elevational view of a'header constructed according to the present' invention; Fig. 11 is an end elevational view of the left end of Fig. 10, taken on the plane of the line lI-l I, looking in the directionof the arrows;
Fig. 12 is a top plan view of the header of Fig. 10; v -l y Fig. 13 is a front elevational view of a modified form of stretcher of the type employed in the wall of Fig. 5;
Fig. 14 is an end elevational view of the stretcher of Fig. 13, taken from the right end, on
the plane of the line M'l-M of Fig.' 13,'looking inA the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 15 is a View similar to Fig. 5 of a modifie y form of open face cribbing; i Fig. 16 is a fragmentary vertical sectional View, taken on the plane of the line lli-I6 of Fig; 15, looking in the direction of the arrows; Fig. 17 is a view similar to Fig. 16 of 'another modified form of cribbing, in whichboth'ends of the headers are'of -similar construction;
Fig. 18 is a view similar to Fig. 6 Aof another modication;
Fig. 19 is a view in perspective of the stretcher employed in the modification of Fig. 18; Fig. 20" is a fragmentary front elevational view of a modified form of cribbing wall;
Fig. 21 is a fragmentary vertical sectional View, taken on the plane of the line 2 l-2I of Fig. 20;
Fig. `22 is a view similar' to Fig. 20 of another modification; v
Fig. 23 is a fragmentary vertical sectional View, taken on Athe plane of the line 23-23 of Fig. 22;
Fig. 24, with the bracket, is a view in perspec# tive of a stretcher and header of the construction shown in Figs. 20 and 21, showing the' details` of their construction and the mode in which they are assembled;
Fig. 25 is a view in perspective of a header of the type of the structure shown in Figs. 22 and 23. Fig. 26 is an end elevationalA view of the stretcher of Fig. 19.
Referring to Figs. 2-4 and Figs. 21 and 23, the cribbing walls may be built up vertically, as shown in Figs; 1-3, or they may be built up at an angle, as shown in Figs. 21-28. In either case the construction of thekwall is the same. Both methods have been included for the purpose of illustration.
The cribbing of Figs. 1-4 is built up of a plurality of cribbing members placed transversely to each other and intersecting and supporting each other at the ends and points of intersection.
The specific construction ofthe header member is shown in Fig. 4, and it preferably comprises `a precast reinforced concrete member, indicated in its entirety by the numeral 36, having a pair of fiat, vertical sides 3 I, 32, all parts of which are preferably located in the same plane.
The ends 33, 34 are also preferably plane, but the left end of Fig. 4 is preferably beveled off at each of the four corners, the beveled surfaces being indicated by the numeral 35.
The right end of the header member v30 is preferably of substantially T shape, having an upwardly extending portion 3E and a downwardly extending portion 3l'. The ends 38 of these lugs are preferably flat or plane surfaces, and the lugs preferably taper from their ends down toward the body, the inner surfaces of the lugs comprising the diago-nally extending surfaces 39.
The top and bottom 4l of the main body of the header 3B are preferably plane surfaces, but the bearing surfaces 42 and 43 preferably extend diagonally outward from the top 40 to the bottom 4I at a slight angle, which may be substantially that shown in the drawings, so that the end 33 is longer in a vertical direction than the cross section of the body portion at the plane surfaces 40, 4i.
`The angularity of the surfaces 42, 43 is such that it corresponds substantially to the angularity of the top 44 and bottom 45 of the stretcher 46 (Fig. 4:).- Thus, When the bearing surface 43 of a header is laid upon the top surface 44 of a stretcher, these surfaces t each other, when the header and stretcher in question are in succeeding courses of the cribbing wall.
Likewise, when a stretcher has its diagonal bearing surface 45 laidl on the bearing surface 42 of the header Sil, the angularity of these two bearing surfaces corresponds, when the stretchers and headers are laid up in courses, as shown in Figs. l and 3.
In the main body of the cribbing wall of Figs. 1 to 3, only three types of cribbing members are needed, the front stretchers 4B and the rear stretchers 41, and the headers 3G. However, several special forms may be employed for use as foundations, such as the front foundation member 48, the rear foundation member 49, and for finishing off the front top of the wall by means of the top cribbing member 5B.
The top cribbing member 51|! and front foundation member 48eme of the same shape throughout their length, and they each have the fiat forward surface 5l, the fiat rear surface 52, a
fiat surface 53, which may be at the top or bot-` tom, a diagonal surface 54, and a short surface 55 which is parallel to the surface 53. The only difference between the members 50 and 48 is that one is upside down with respect to the other. The foundation member 49 may be of rectangular cross section and of uniform size'throughout its length. The length of all of the stretchers is the same. Thus the foundation member 49 has six plane rectangular sides. It is of greater width for the reason that it supports the whole cribbing wall.
The rear stretchers 47 may also be prismatic in form, being square in cross section and having six plane sides. They are of such depth that the height of the rear stretcher members 41 corresponds to the highest dimension, that is, the rear dimension of the front stretcher members 4G.
The well is built up by laying header members 38 transversely on the foundation members 48 and 49 in spaced relation to each other and parallel to each other at such distances from each other that a stretcher member will reach from the center line of one header to the center line of the next. Then front stretcher members and rear stretcher members are laid in one course along the ends of the header members, with the bearing surfaces in contact as shown in Fig. 2, to form a rear stretcher wall and a front stretcher wall.
Successive headers and stretchers are laid in the same way until the wall is of the height desired. If the front wall is to be at an angle, then the foundation members must be at a slightly different level, to accomplish this result.
The cribbing shown in Figs. 2 and 3 corresponds to that at the left side of Fig. 1,'which is a showing of a wall having two types of stretchers. That portion of the wall may be termed a ush type open face wall, as there are places be tween the stretchers in the successive courses. The rear wall is not flush type, because the T-shaped headers project from it, and it is also open face because there are spaces between the stretchers.
In any cribbing installation it is likely that only the appearance of the front wall will be important, as the rear wall may be covered up; yet the present stretcher members are adapted to be used with either end toward the front, so as to construct a number of different types of forward walls.
Referring to Figs. 13 and 14, these are views of a modified form of stretcher which corresponds to the right hand column of Fig. l. These stretcher members are adapted to make a substantially closed face flush type front cribbing wall. The stretcher 5B of Fig. 13 is of substantially ythe same construction as that of Fig. 4. except that it is provided on its lower face 45 with a depending portion 51, which is of the same thickness as the complete stretcher from front to back, but which substantially fills the space between successive courses of stretchers.
Referring to Figs. 15 and 16, these are fragments of cribbing walls built up with another modified form of header and stretcher. The rear stretchers and rear end of the headers are the same as described with respect to Fig. 2.
The top 44 of the stretcher 5S slants diagonally upward, and is the same as in Figs. 1 to 4. The bottom bearing surface 43 on the header is the same as in Fig. 4. However. the bottom 58 of the stretcher 59 is horizontal or substantially at right angles to the front and rear surfaces of the stretcher. and the top surface 60 of the header is also horizontal and in the same plane as the top surface 40 of the main body of the header. In this case. each stretcher is retained against outward movement by engagement of its top with the bottom of a header, and by virtue of the friction between headers and stretchers, which is augmented by the weight of these members and the weight of the fill.
Referring to Fig. 17, this is a modification in which a modified form of header 62 is combined with front stretchers 46 and with rear stretchers 46 of the same shape as the front stretchers, thus providing an open face, flush faced wall at the front and back of the cribbing.
f Referring to Figs. 18, 19, and 26, these are views of a modified form of streacher and fragment of a cribbing wall including it. In this case the main body of the stretcher 63 is of the same shape as the stretcher 46 of Fig. 2, except that it is provided with a depending apron 64.
The depending apron is not as long as the main body, extending only to such a point adjacent the ends of the stretcher that the apron will engage the sides of the headers. This stretcher may be compared with Fig. 14 by pointing out that the apron 64 in this case is not as thick as the complete stretcher, but comprises a relatively thin depending concrete flange. The stretchers, therefore, in Fig. 18 may be of the same construction as shownin Fig. 14, and may be combined in the manner previously described, with the headers.
This makes a cribbing wall which is substantially closed faced, having horizontal cracks at the point 65.
Referring to Figs. and 6, these are views of a modified form of vcribbing wall in which stretchers of the type of Figs. 13 and 14 are employed. In this case the stretcher has its main body in the same shape as the stretcher 46 of Fig. 2, but it is provided with a depending portion 57 of the same thickness as the main body of the stretcher and adapted to closethe space which would exist between the courses of stretchers if it were constructed vaccording to Fig. 2.
Referring to .Fi-g. 8, this is a front elevational view of a. stretcher constructed according to Fig. 4.
Fig. 9 shows a cross sectional part of stretcher which is provided with the diagonally extending top surface 44, the bottom bearing surface 45, and the front and back surfaces 66, 61, which are parallel to each other. Thus this form of stretcher is substantially trapezoidal in' cross section.
Referring to Fig. 10, this is a side elevational view of a header employed in the construction of Fig. 2.
Fig.'11 shows an end elevational view of the left end of the header; and Fig. l2 shows a top plan view.
Fig. '7 is a section taken at the joint between the headers and stretchers, and it shows that the stretchers are cut out sufficiently to make room for the ends of the headers.
` Referring to Figs. 20 and 21, these are fragmentary views of a cribbing wall embodying va modified form of stretcher. In this embodiment the headers may be the same as shown in Fig. 10 or Fig. 2, designated by the numeral 36.
The stretchers may be substantially prismatic in shape, having the upper flat surfaces 68 and lower at vsurfaces 69, which are parallel to each other, and the front surface 16 and back surface 1|, which are also parallel to each other. However, each stretcher is cut out adjacent its end, at the top and bottom, and provided with a diagonally extending bearing surface 12, which has the same angularity as the top bearing surface on the stretcher 46.
The bearing surface 'l2 in this case, however, is disposed below the surface 68 of the main body of the stretcher, and there is an annular shoulder 13 which engages the side of the header, if an open face flush type cribbing is desired. The specific construction of the header member in this case is shown in greater detail in the spective View of Fig. 24.
In this case the angularity of the bearing surface 12 corresponds to the angularity ofthe lower bearing surface 43 on the header, but the headers are positively secured by the shoulders 13 against lateral movement. The type of cribbing wall is a iiush type, open face, as there are cracks 14 between the successive stretchers. This construction could, however, be made closed face, like Fig. 5, by providing a depending apron on the stretchers.
Referring to Fig. 24, this View shows in greater detail the construction of the stretcher and header of Figs. and 21 and the way in which they are assembled. The length of the bearing surface 12 is half the width of the header 30.
Referring to Figs. 22 and 23, this type of cribbing wall is the same as Figs. 20 and 21 except that positiveprovision is made to prevent the backward sliding of the stretchers on the headers. In this case the header 15 has its main body and rear end of the same construction as the header of the construction previously described. At its forward end it is rectangular in cross section and provided with the upper, diagonally extending bearing surface 16 and the lower diagonally extending bearing surface Tl'. These bearing surfaces, however, do not meet flush with the top 4D and bottom 4l of the main body of the header 15. There is an oiset or a shoulder 18 between the bearing surface I6 and the top 40 of a similar shoulder 19 between the bottom bearing surface 11 and the bottom 4I of the header. Shoulders T8 and 'I9 engage against the back of the stretchers 46, which may be of the same construction as shown in Fig. 4.
It will thus be observed that I'have invented an improved cribbing, the members of which .may be used to make all the various types of cribbing walls which may be desired. The stretchers of the front cribbing wall are locked in place by the inter-engagement of the diagonally extending bearing surfaces on these stretchers with diagonally extending bearing surfaces vof the same angularity on thevheaders. Ample provision is made to hold the stretchers in place and also to prevent the lateral motion of the headers.
While I have illustrated a preferred embodiment of my invention, many modications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and I do not wish to be limited to the precise details of construction set forth, but desire to avail myself of all changes within the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1. In a concrete cribbing, the combination of a plurality of stretchers and headers laid alternately and transversely on each other to form a Der' icf
concrete cribbing certain of said headers having l BOL forward, back, top, and bottom surfaces, the front and back surfaces being parallel to each other, and the top and bottom surfaces extending at an angle to each other, the stretcher tapering in depth from the back toward the front. i
3. In a concrete cribbing, a header member comprising a concrete member having a body portion of substantially rectangular cross section provided with four plane sides and having an end portion provided with flat sides and with diagonally extending upper and lower bearing surfaces, the said upper and lower bearing surfaces being plane surfaces, and having a predetermined angularity which corresponds to that of the bearing surfaces on a stretcher to be used with the header.
4.111 a concrete cribbing, a header member comprising a concrete member having a body portion of substantially rectangular cross section provided with four plane sides and having an end portion provided with flat sides and with diagonally extending upper and lower bearing surfaces, the said upper and lower bearing surfaces being plane surfaces, and having a predetermined angularity which corresponds to that of the bearing surfaces on a stretcher to be used with the header, said diagonally extending bearing surfaces being offset with respect to the upper and lower surfaces of the main body portion of said header, whereby a shoulder is formed engaging behind the stretcher when the header is assembled with stretchers in the cribbing.
5. In a concrete cribbing, the combination of a concrete cribbing member comprising a header provided with a prismaticbody portion, said body portion being formed at one end with a plane bearing surface which extends at an angle with respect to the surface of said body portion, and on the opposite side with a plane bearing surface which is in the same plane as the surface of the body portion, and stretcher members having bearing surfaces of substantially the same angularity as those surfaces on the header which they engage, located above and below said header.
6. In a concrete cribbing, the combination of a plurality of stretchers and headers laid alternately and transversely upon each other, the headers resting on the stretchers, and the stretchers resting on the headers at the ends of the stretchers and headers, to form a concrete cribbing, said stretchers being provided at one end with diagonally extending combined bearing and retaining surfaces, and said headers being provided with complementary diagonally extending combined bearing and retaining surfaces whereby the stretchers are retained by the headers against outward pressure caused by the action of the fill.
7. In a concrete cribbing, the combination of a plurality of stretchers and headers laid alternately and transversely upon each other, the headers resting on the. stretchers, and the stretchers resting on the headers at the ends of the 8. In a concrete cribbing member, a 'header' comprising a concrete member having a body portion of substantially rectangular crossv Section provided with four plane sides and having an end portion provided with plane sides and with a diagonally extending bearing surface on one side, the opposite bearing surface being substantially in the plane of the side on which it is located, said diagonally extending bearing surface also serving to retain an adjacent stretcher member in a cribbing assembly.
9. In a concrete cribbing member, a stretcher having plane upper, lower, front, back, and end surfaces, said stretcher being substantially trape- Zoidal in cross section, whereby the upper andv lower surfaces extend diagonally and the stretcher increases in breadth from the front to the back, the upper and lower surfaces being adapted to serve as combined bearing and retaining surfaces in engaging complementary surfaces on' headers.
l0. In a concrete cribbing member, a cribbing member comprising a stretcher having a body portion provided with plane upper, lower, front, rear, and end surfaces, said stretcher having at its end diagonally extending combined bearing and retaining surfaces for engaging a surface of similar angularity on a header.
ll. In a concrete cribbing, the combination of a plurality of stretchers and headers laid alternately and transversely upon each other, the headers resting on the'stretchers and the stretchers resting on the headers at the ends of the stretchers and headers to form a concrete cribloing, said stretchers being provided at one end with a bearing surface consisting of a diagonally L extending surface adapted also to serve as a retaining surface, and the Said headers being provided with complementary diagonally extending bearing surfaces which are adapted to sustain the weight of the superimposed cribbing members and also whereby the stretchers are retained by the headers against outward pressure of the action caused by the ll, the said stretchers and. headers being characterized at said end by the absence of any other bearing surfaces than said diagonally extending bearing and retaining surfaces.
EARL C. ALEXANDER.