|Publication number||US2198011 A|
|Publication date||Apr 23, 1940|
|Filing date||Nov 3, 1938|
|Priority date||Nov 3, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2198011 A, US 2198011A, US-A-2198011, US2198011 A, US2198011A|
|Inventors||Donald M Muirhead|
|Original Assignee||Donald M Muirhead|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 23, 1940. MUlRHEAD 2,198,011
' RUGTURAL BLO GK AND WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 5, 1958 3 Sheets-sheet 1 April 23, 1940. MUIRHE'AD 2,198,011
STRUCTURAL BLOCK AND WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed NOV. 3, 1958 3 sheets-Sheet? April 23, 1940. HE D 2,198,011
STRUCTURAL BLOCK AND WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. s, 1938 3 Sheen-Sheet 5 I Patented Apr. 23, 1940 UNITED STATES nt n STRUCTURAL BLOCK AND WALL 7 CONSTRUCTION Donald M. Muirhead, Duxbury, Mass.
Application November 3, 1938, Serial No. 238,581
My present invention relates to the construction of foundation and other walls and to concrete or celnent blocks for use in one or more courses of the walls. More particularly, it aims to provide for insulating or shielding such Walls against upward travel from below by insects such as termites, as well as to afford additional protection against the seepage of moisture into cellars and buildings.
In the drawings illustrating by way of example certain embodiments of the invention;
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a foundation wall, showing a portion of the inside face as viewed from above, including two corner portions, an intermediate section being omitted to conserve space;
Fig. 2 is a section as on the line 2-2 of Fig, 1-
Fig. 2a is anenlarged section through a portion of one of my blocks to illustrate a detail;
Fig. 3 shows in perspective another section of a wall, which may be the same as that of Fig. 1, illustrating more particularly the construction adjacent windows and doors or other openings; Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are perspective viewsof a block or unit embodying the invention and as used at different locations;
7 shows the lower portion of a foundation or cellar wall together with a base course of my novel blocks forming the under support for the framing of partitions and the like;
Fig. 8 is a section as on the line 8-3 of Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of one of the blocks of Figs. 7 and 8; and
Figs. 10 and 11 illustrate fractional or filler blocks.
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 1 and the detail Figs. 2, 2a. and 4 to 6, the wall-there shown may be any foundation wall set on or into the ground, such as that for the cellar of a dwelling or other building. While the blocks will have their major use in such foundations they may however be employed in other wall forma tions. The wall is represented as formed in the main of concrete blocks S of standard size and form, the common size for whichis the so-called 8x8x16 inch block. Actually said standard blocks are usually 8 inches wide by 7% inches high by 15% inches long, A inch being allowed in the height and the length to accommodate the mortar, cement or other binder.
In association with such wall, whether of the separate block or integrally poured or other type including the various masonry constructions, I provide in accordance with my invention one 01' more special courses composed of blocks of a novel construction and arrangement as herein illustrated by way of example. One such course desirably is disposed as an upper or the top course for the Wall. Preferably also, and as shown in Fig. 1, a generally similar course is also provided at a lower point, such as the bottom course, having contact with the ground. For the purposes of description the ordinary blocks such as the blocks S will be referred to herein as standard blocks, While the novel blocks of my invention will be termed theinterlocking channel blocks, including regular blocks R and one or more special types such as the corner blocks C and others to be described.
One of my interlocking channel blocks R of the regular type, such as shown in the top and bottom courses of Fig. 1, is illustrated separately in Fig. 4. It is of general rectangular shape and conforms as a whole to the standard blocks S, being so dimensioned as to have the same width and same total volume as the latter. These blocks R are constructed to have an interlocking relation endwise, by means of projecting portions adapted to overlap endwise one With another, across the entire width of each block.
For this purpose each block is formed with a recess 2 at one end and with a corresponding tongue or projection 3 at the opposite end. Said projectionis of the same shape and volume as that of the recess 2, as if the material from said recess were added in the same shape and at the same level at the other end. This results in the provision of a tongue or projection i at the end having the recess 2 and a corresponding recess 5 at the other end, below the tongue 3 and of the same shape and volume as the tongue 4. The
end faces of said recesses 2 and 5 are vertical or substantially so and perpendicular to their bottom faces, the latter forming the horizontal or inner faces of the tongues 3 and 4. As inthe standard so-called 8 x81; 16 inch blocks S there is a A inch allowance in height and length to provide for the mortar or other binding material. To simplify the description this inch allowance willbe disregarded in the dimensions given by way of example.
As readily seen in Fig. 4, the tongues 3 and l and so also the recesses 2 and 5 are of the same extent lengthwise the block. Where as here assumed the blocks R are for use with standard' blocks S the length of the blocks R from the outer or end face of one tongue, either 3 or 4, to the inner or end face of the longitudinally opposite recess 2 or 5 respectively is the same as the overall length of a standard block S, namely 16 inches. Hence the main horizontal faces of these blocks R are of the standard 8 x 16 inch dimensions.
The length of the tongues and of the recesses, that is, their extent in the direction lengthwise the block as a whole, may be any convenient fig ure consistent with the general principles of concrete structure. and such that the resulting tongues are of substantial volume and have sufficient union with the main body of the block to avoid any likelihood of unintentional breaking off of the tongue. One dimension for the recesses and the tongues which I have found entirely satisfactory, referring still. to my blocks for use with standard sized blocks is approximately 3 inches, thus leaving the central or main section of the block, that is, the portion which is of uniform 8 inch height throughout, of 13 inches in length.
Likewise the vertical dimension of the recesses 2 and 5 and of the tongues 4 and 3 may be varied, again having consideration of the strength factors and the character of the material. The tongues at the two opposite ends of the blocks R may be of the same height, each 4-. inches or onehalf the total length of the block. Butbecause of the provision of the longitudinal channel Ill along one or both side faces of the block and of a height of about one-quarter that of the block, in other words, about two inches, for a purpose to be described, I find it desirable to make one tongue, such as the element 4 at the left in Fig. 4, of less height than the other, such as the tongue 3 at the right in Fig. 4.
In said example shown in Fig. 4 the tongue 4 is approximately 3 inches in height and the tongue 3 has a height of approximately 5 inches. The recess 2 at the end having the tongue 4 accordingly is 5 inches in height and the recess 5, at the other end, having the tongue 3, has a height of 3 inches. In other words the recess 2 is carried down about 1 inch below mid-height of the block, and so also is the thicker tongue 3. This allows the channel In to be symmetrically disposed, vertically, with respect to the portion of the block above'the shallower tongue 4, and with respect to the wider tongue 3. Any interruption of the horizontal faces of the tongues 4 and 3 by the channel formation l0 hence is avoided.
One purpose of the channel H] is to afford initial provision on a wall formed with my blocks for the installation of a metallic shield such as indicated in dotted lines at I I in Fig. 2 for blocking or insulating the wall against the upward travel of insects, particularly termites. By reason of the channel 10 this shield or guard element may be installed on the wall at any desired time, either during the construction of the wall or at any later occasion when the need arises.
It is a fact that termites, in seeking a path to the wooden elements of buildings, avoid the light. Hence when the upper course or courses of a foundation wall are above ground, as assumed in connection with Figs. 1 and 3, the outside face of such top portion accordingly being exposed to the light, provision for termite insulation is necessary only at the inner face of the wall. Therefore the shield-receiving channel formation 10 for my blocks generally need be supplied only at the inner faces of the blocks, as positioned in the wall. But in any case where insulation may be desirable at both faces of the wall, as where the upper course is below the outside ground level or is concealed by porches, terraces or the like, the insulation-receiving channel lll may be formed at both side faces of my blocks, in a generally similar manner as illustrated for example in Figs. '7 to 9.
The channel l0 extends continuously for the full length of the main body of the blocks R and is of adequate size in cross section, about 2 inches high by 1 inches deep, to receive the inner or securing portion of the metallic shield II. The latter, see Fig. 2, comprises an elongated strip of sheet metal, preferably non-corrosive, such as copper or Monel metal, having its inner end upset as at I la and received against the inner vertical face of the channel H). An intermediate portion of the metal insulating strip II extends outwardly substantially horizontally from the back wall of the channel, across the bottom wall of the latter and outwardly beyond the main vertical face of the block R. The outer edge portion of the strip is down-turned at an angle,v at some distance from the face of the block, substantially as represented in Fig. 2.
For securing and sealing the metallic insulating strip or shield in position, whether at the time when the wall is originally constructed or at some later time when the need arises, my blocks R. are formed with shield-anchoring recesses '12, best seen in Figs. 2 and 2a, for the reception of attaching devices such as expansion elements, screws taking into lead wool, or the like. Said securing recesses 12 extend inwardly from the back face of the channel to a depth of 1 to 3 inches. One or more such fastener receiving recesses I2 are provided in the channel of each block R, two being represented in the present example. The horizontal or top and bottom walls of the channl may be somewhat inclined outwardly and oppositely, as best seen in Fig. 2a, to facilitate removal of the blocks from the forms in which they are cast.
When the insect shield H is installed the channel 10 is sealed around the inner or anchoring portion of the shield by filling it with a rich mixture of cement, preferably both below and above the intermediate horizontal portion of the shield. The intimate contact of the upset flange Ila of the shield with the inner face of the channel as efi'ected by the anchoring screws or the like passing through said upset flange and into the anchorage recesses l2, together with the filling material supplied in the channel, block any possible passage by insects between the shield and the wall. The projecting or eavelike portion of the shield prevents travel upwardly across it, since it apparently is impossible for termites to tube around a sharply projecting edge such as that of the shield illustrated in Fig. 2.
In the use of my blocks in the particular course or courses of the wall for which they are selected, such as the top and bottom courses of Fig. 1, they are laid end to end with the tongues 3 and 4 of abutting bloc-ks interlocking. The thicker tongues 3 fit into the deeper recesses 2 of the adjacent block, the same being true to the shallower tongues 4 and the corresponding recesses 5. Thus the tongues 3 and 4 at the abutting ends of adjacent blocks complement each other and together provide a substantially solid mass of uniform height with the remainder of the blocks.
The channels I 0 of the aligned blocks in the same course together provide a continuous channel formation along the entire face of the wal standing in readiness for the reception of the insect shield at any time when the danger of an infestation develops. The interlocking construction for the block ends produces an end joint having vertical faces longitudinally offset, as contrasted with the ordinary plain joint between the standard blocks S. This effectively blocks the end joint against upward travel by termites, since it would require them to construct their tubes at two abrupt angles, herein right angles, and also to penetrate the horizontal. or bed joint provided between the overlapped'portions of the two adjoining blocks. Such bed joints are filled and sealed by the cement or mortar binder to a substantial certainty in the proper construction of the wall.
The problem of corners and corner joints for the courses formed of myinterlocking blocks R is taken care of by the provision of corner blocks C, Figs. 1 and 2. These have one of their ends the same as for my regular blocks R, including the thicker tongues 3. At the other ends of these corner blocks C the shallower tongues 4 are omitted, as best seen at the upper left portions of Figs. 1 and 2, providing a flat face, as indicated at l5. This allows the blocks C to come flush with the outer face of a portion of the wall at right angles to the portion in which the corner block is laid. At the inner face of the straight end I5 of the corner blocks 0 the latter are recessed as at 16, Figs. 1 and 2, to receive the thicker tongue 3 of a block R to be set at right angles in the same course. Such recess I 6 accordingly has a dimension of 8 inches in the direction lengthwise the corner block, conforming to the width of the block R to be received. and has a vertical depth ofl5 inches and lateral extent or depth of 3 inches, corresponding to the dimensions of the tongue 3. It will be noted that the channel ll] of the corner blocks C opens into the recess l6, so that the shield-receiving channel formation for the wall as a whole is continued uninterruptedly into and through the wall corners.
In the base course for the wall, at the bottom inFig. 1, my regular channeled and interlocking blocks R and the corresponding corner blocks C are shown as laid in inverted position relative to that in which they appear in the top course. That is, the blocks R of this bottom course are like the one shown separatelyin Fig. 4, and their position in said course is that as in Fig. 4 viewed upside down.
The aligning channels ll) of the blocks R and C of the bottom course provide a continuous channel formation along the inner face of the wall similarly as for the top course but in this case adjacent the bottom of the blocks and the base of the wall. If desired a metallic shield may be inserted in this channel formation similarly as in the upper course, with its projecting portion turned oppositely from that of the shield of Fig. 2. Only in rare instances however will such shield be necessary at the base of the wall.
There the channeling formation Ill primarily serves the important function of providing an intimate seal and interlock with the concrete material of the cellar or other floor F, Fig. 1. When the floor F is laid the concrete is flowed and packed into the channel 10 thus forming a close bond with the wall itself. This construction, together with the staggered or interlocking end structure for the blocks R and C of the base course, makes it extremely difficult for insects such as termites to gain access to the interior of the cellar about the edge of the floor,-
between the latter and the blocks. This also effectively blocks entry at such point by rats and other vermin which heretofore frequently have been able to make their way through the relatively large cracks at the juncture of the floor and wall, particularly after the structure has aged and the cracks widened by shrinkage or crumbling of the material.
Turning now more particularly to Fig. 3 I have there shown one manner of wall treatment at the areas adjacent and particularly below window openings and other openings such as indicated at W in Fig. 3. In the course immediately below'such opening I substitute one or more of my regular channel and interlocking blocks R,
depending on the lateral extent of the window or other opening.
' ,In Fig. 3, for instance, one regular block R is disposed substantially centrally of the opening. At the opposite ends of this block R are two blocks which I have indicated respectively as R and R These are structurally the same as the others of the regular blocks R but with one or the other of theirtongue portions removed as by useof a drill or chisel, this being done on the job, at the location where the wall is being constructed. The block R at the right end of the central block R of the course underlying the window corre sponds to that shown separately in Fig. 5, wherein the dotted section at the right indicates the removedtongue portion 3. Similarly, the block R at the left of the central block R below the window is such as represented separately in Fig. 6, wherein the removed tongue 4, at the left end of the block, is indicated by the dotted lines.
This partial course of my channeled interlock-' I to take care of the interruption of the shield of the top course by the window or like opening.
The frame 1 for the window, door or other open ing may be set in place in the usual manner and the wall continued upwardly through one'or more courses of standard blocks S. The top course, formed in its entirety of my interfitting channel blocks R and C as already described in connection with Fig. l, completes the upper portion of the wall, adapting the latter to receive a sill s and the other structural timbers in the usual manner. Where the window or other opening interruptsthe top course, regular blocks R with one or the other of their tongues removed, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6, may be used.
In some cases, in order to preserve the desired break-joint relation with the blocks of the underlying course, fractional or half blocks or filler units sometimes may be required. My invention contemplates the provision of such filller' or half blocks in the opposite hands, that is, both righthand and lefthand. Such half blocks R and R are'shown separately in Figs. 10 and 11. The block R corresponds to the left half portion of the regular block R of Fig. 4, being formed with a shallower tongue 4 but with a straight vertical face at its other end. Similarly the halfblock R corresponds to the right end portion of the regular block R of Fig. 4, havingone straight end face and having the. thicker tongue 3 at its opposite end. Both types of half or filler blocks R and R are provided wtih the channel formation It, as seen in said Figs. 10 and 11, and with at least one of the anchoring recesses [2, Figs. 2 and 2a, for the shield attaching means.
Another important use for the channeled interlocking blocks of my invention is illustrated in connection withFigs. '7, 8 and 9. It is common practice to erect the uprights for cellar partitions before the cellar floor is poured, this being a job I Suchuprights heretofore generally have been set with their ends resting directly on or'in the ground or on a 2 x 4 or other wooden member itself laid directly on the ground. As a result these framing timbers for the cellar partitions have provided easy channels of access for termites.
To avoid such ground contact of the partition framing and at the same time to make it readily possible to erect this framing prior to pouring the cellar floor, I provide a single course of my channeled interlocking blocks along the line of the desired partition and as the base for the latter. In this connection I may use the regular blocks R of Fig. 4, in inverted position as in the base course of Fig. l. Desirably, however, I provide for this purpose a block R which is in all respects the same as the regular blocks R, in-
cluding the channel In at one side face, but having also a similar channel Illa oppositely disposed in its other side face. Thus the blocks R are such as previously referred to in connection with Fig. l as having the channel formation at both faces, for use in upper or top courses where the outside of the wall is in contact with the ground or is covered by terraces, porches or the like.
In laying a partition base, such as illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8, the block R at the end of the course, to abut the foundation wall, will have its tongue 4 removed. If preferred a special block recessed to receive said tongue may be provided in the wall. A line of the blocks R is laid end top' and bottom of the wall in Fig. 1. With the blocks positioned as illustrated the channel formations I0 and la come at the lower portion of the block, with the top Walls of the channels flush with the level desired for the cellar floor.
When the floor is poured, as indicated at F in Fig. 8, the floor material enters and interlocks with the channels of the blocks R forming a seal with the. latter similarly as explained in connection with the base course in Fig. 1. It will be noted that all contact of wooden partition members with the ground is thus avoided, despite the fact that the partition may be erected before the floor is laid.
My invention is not limited to the particular embodiments thereof illustrated and described herein, and I set forth its scope in my following claims.
1. Structural blocks for foundation and other walls, each comprising a body of concrete of substantially rectangular form and of a width and height corresponding to that of standard or other concrete blocks with which they are to be used, said blockshaving at one end a recess of rectangular shape in section lengthwise the blocks and extending across the latter and said blocks having in vertical alignment with the recess a similarly shaped tongue, the recess and tongue together being of the height of the block, and the opposite ends of said blocks having tongues of like shape and height and at the same level as the recesses at the first ends said opposite ends having recesses of like shape and height and at the same level as the tongues at said first ends, each of said blocks having formed along a corresponding side face a straight channel of a crosssectional shape and size to receive the attaching edge of a strip to project freely from the block for barring insect passage, where said blocks are in an upper or intermediate course of a wall, and
to interlock with the poured material of a floor, where said blocks are in the base course of a wall, the channels being so disposed on each block as to align as a continuous channel horizontally along an entire series of the blocks laid end to end in a given course, and the channel of each block having one or more formations for receiving means to secure such barrier strip edgewise there- 2. Structural blocks for foundation and other walls, each comprising a body of concrete of substantially rectangular formand of a width and height corresponding to that of standard or other concrete blocks with whichv they are to be used, said blocks having at one end a recess of rectangular shape in section lengthwise the blocks and extending across the latter and said blocks having in vertical alignment with the recess a similarly shaped tongue, the recessand tongue together being of the height of the block, u
and the opposite ends of said blocks havin tongues of like shape and height and at the same level as the recesses at the first ends, said opposite ends having recesses of like shape and height and at the same level as the tongues at said first ends, the tongues and recesses at a given end being of unequal height, the recess at one end being complemental in height to that. of the tongue at the other, each block having at a corresponding side face a channel having a height and an inward depth of at least about one-fourth the height of a standard block, said channel extending between and lying within the confines of the vertical wall of one end recess of the block and of the vertical wall of the longitudinally opposite tongue.
3. Structural blocks for foundation and other walls, each comprising a body of concrete of substantially rectangular form and of a width and height corresponding to that of standard or other concrete blocks with which they are to be used, said blocks having at one end a recess of rectangular shape in section lengthwise the blocks and extending across the latter and said blocks having in vertical alignment with the recess a similarly shaped tongue, the recess and tongue together being of the height of the block, and the opposite ends of said blocks having tongues of like shape and height and at the same level as the recesses at the first ends, said opposite ends having recesses of like shape and height and atthe same level as the tongues at said first ends, each block having formed along a corresponding side face a straight channel having a height and inward depth of at least about onefourth the height and width of a standard block and at a level such as to position the channel wholly to one side of the plane containing the horizontal faces of the end recesses of the blocks.
4. Structural blocks of concrete or the like each comprising a substantially rectangular body having a recess and tongue at one end and a complementary tongue and recess at the other end whereby a series of the blocks is adapted to be interfitted longitudinally in horizontal alignment, said blocks also each having along corresponding vertical side faces a continuous channel to provide an uninterrupted channel formation along a longitudinally aligned series of the blocks, the construction and arrangement of the tongues and recesses in relation to the channel being such that the channels and recesses do not intersect.
, DONALD M. MUIRHEAD.
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|U.S. Classification||52/101, 52/265, 52/284, 52/300, 52/609, D25/113, 52/294|