US 2199377 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
w. J. TANGERMAN MEIHQD 0F FORMING PLATES Filed April 6, 1959 Apl 3 0, 1940.
u o o o a o o o o f/We/War MMU/77 Aprilao, 1940. -w.J.1-A-GERMAN 2,199,377
METHOD OF FORMING 'PLATES Filed April 6, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 April 30, 1946. w. .1. TANGRMAN METHOD OF FORMING PLATES Filed April s, i939 s sheets-sheet s Patented Apr. 3o, 1940 f, 2,199,377
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD `OF FORMING PLATES William J. Tangerman, Hammond, Ind., assignor v to Standard Railway Equipment'Manufacturing Company, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Delaware Application April c, 1939, 'serial Nonsense 9 claims. (c1. 15s-vo) The invention relates to corrugated walls for handling is of substantially fiat plates, thereby railway cars and more particularly to the method greatly eliminating the hazards of handling the and apparatus for manufacturing such walls. flanged plates.
A common type of end wall for railway cars is The flanges for attachment to the corner posts 5 a relatively thin metallic plate having pressed are maintained as formed by varying the radius .l5 therein a plurality of substantially parallel corruof curvature o-f the flanges. This eliminates the gations which merge into said plate adjacentthe necessity of forming the flange (i. e., shearing corner posts of the car. An end of this type has and punching the flange) after flanging with the great strength when considered at a section consequent disadvantages enumerated above.
l through the corrugations. There is, however, a The length of the end. may be easily adjusted l0, region of substantially flat plate near the atfor adoption to various Widths of cars. Such tachment oi the end wall to a corner post and adjustment would be difficult with complex die the weakness of this region is indicated by bulges assembliesbut the dies which I claim as my therein when the end wall is subjected to exinvention may be easily adjustedl cessive loads. End Wall plates are usually pro- Existing equipment may be utilized. The pril5 vided with flanges on the vertical margins thereof mary OperetiO'n may beI Derfe'rrned 0n dies Whieh for attachment to the corner posts of the car. are normally used for the manufacture of con- It is an object of the invention to. form the ventional end walls wherein the corrugations above mentioned flange on a curvature and carry merge intOl the end Well Plate in the plane 0f the corrugations around the curvature. The flat Said Wall Furthermore, eXiSting reeipreeeting 20 region of the sheet is then disposed longitudinally preSSeS Can be used, the presses having been in of the car so that it is better positioned to resist 115e fOr the manufacture 0f the aforementioned impacts against the end wall. A preferred form COIlVentiOnal end Walls. of corner post for use with such an end has angu- Other objects and advantages Of my inVentiOn f larly disposed arms, one of which is attached to Will be apparent from the fOllOWirlg detailed ,25 the flange and the other to the body part of the description by referring to the accompanying end wall. This forms a box type corner post in drawings.
which the corrugations function as arches be- In tl'le dreWingS tween the arms of the Corner post, Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a set of dies used 3o Another object of the invention is to improve to perform the primary pressing operation. so f the appearance of the car to which the end wall Fig 2 iS 2' plan VieW 0f e Plate aS PreSSed by is applied. The corners appear curved and the the dies 4Sl'lOWn in Fig- 1- corrugations extending around the corner present Fie 3 iS e SeCtiOn 0n line 3 3 0f Fig. 2. a streamlined appearance Fig. 4 is a section to an enlarged scale on line An end wall of the type described above is 4 4 Of Fig- 2 .35
" desirable in several respects but presents dif- Fig- 5 iS a perSDeCtiVe VieW of the Set of dies culties in the manufacture thereof. I have inused t0 Perform the final DreSSing Operationvented a method and apparatus to manufacture Fig- 6 iS e Section, Sirnler t0 Fig. 4, Showing end walls of the type described which I will dethe Plate es Dressed by the dies 0f Fig. 5. scribe in detail hereinafter. The objects and Figs. 7 and 9 are Sections 0n lines l-l and 40 advantages of my invention are: 9 9 respectively 0f Fg 4- The corrugations are not wrinkled. In a struc- Figs- 3 and l0 are SeCtionS on lines 8-3 and ture embodying arched corrugations there is a lll-l0 reSpeCtiVely 0f Fig. 6. pronounced tendency for the inner corrugations Fig. l1 is a perspective View of a finished end to Wrinkle due to the difference in length between Well plete aS it COmeS from the dies ShOWn in 45 the inner and outer corrugations. I provide Fig. 5. means to prevent such Wrinkling. Fig. 12 is a schematic diagram showing the Handling during manufacture is greatly facilimethodk of carrying the corrugations around the tated. End plates are manufactured in large curved surface. quantities, therefore, the-presence of anges of Figs. 13 and 14 are sections through the curved 50 wide curvature would make it diicult to handle surface as indicated .by the lines I3 and I4 rethe plates due to the impossibility of piling them spectively of Fig. 12. one on the other. In the method which I claim Fig. l. shows the primary die assembly 2 which as my invention all shearing and punching is comprises a male block 3 and a female block 4. do-ne prior to flanging so that practically all the The male block 3 has secured thereto a plurality 55 of substantially parallel raised members 6 and a plurality of minor members 1 positioned between the members E. The members 6-1 have end sections 9 which slope so as to merge into the block 3. T'he female block 4 is provided with recesses I in one face thereof which substantially conform to the raised members 6-1 and are adapted to engage therewith.
'I'he blocks 3-4 are secured to the lower and upper platens respectively of a reciprocating press, the blocks having substantially the relative positions shown in Fig. 1. A substantially fiat, relatively thin metallic plate I5, preferably heated to a red color, is placed between the blocks 3 4 and the blocks are pressed together by a large force. A force of two thousand tons is sometimes used for this purpose. After the blocks have been forced together as tightly as possible they are drawn apart and the plate I5 is removed.
Figs. 2 to 4 show the plate I5 as removed, the dotted lines I6 in Fig. 2 showing the outline of the plate. The plate has pressed therein a plurality of corrugations I8 having end sections 20 conforming to the members 6--1 and sections 9 of the block 3. The outline I6 is curved because some of the plate was drawn inwardly to form the corrugations I8 and end sections 20. The plate I5 is originally provided with enough area to leave margins 2| parallel to the corrugations I8 and marginal regions 22 adjacent and transverse to the sections 20. The edges of the plate I5 are then formed to some predetermined configuration which, in the example illustrated, comprises shearing the straight edges 25 on the margins 2|, punching aligned holes 26 in the regions 22 and shearing the straight edges 28 on the regions 22.
Fig. 5 shows the secondary die assembly 36 which performs the final, or anging operation, upon the plate I5. The assembly 35 comprises an interior piece 31 and an exterior piece 38. The interior piece 31 comprises spaced apart end portions 40 having exterior convex surfaces 4I. A plurality of spaced apart ridges 43 extend around the surfaces 4I and merge thereinto (45) toward the ends 41 of the interior piece 31. The exterior piece 38 comprises spaced apart end blocks 48 having concave surfaces 49 adapted to engage the convex surfaces 4I. The convave surfaces 49 are provided with grooves 5I substantially conforming to and adapted to engage the ridges 43.
The interior piece 31 and the exterior piece 38 are attached to the upper and lower platens respectively of a reciprocating press whichrmay be similar to the one used in conjunction with the primary die assembly 2. The plate I5 is placed on top of the exterior piece 38 with the opposite side uppermost from its position in the primary die assembly 2. The plate I5 is positioned so that the end sections 28 of the corrugations I8 are substantially aligned with the grooves 5| in the blocks 48. The interior (31) and exterior (38) pieces are then forced together by a large force and after they have been forced as closely together as possible, they are drawn apart. The plate which is then removed represents the finished product, being shown in section in Fig. 6 and in perspective in Fig. 11.
The finished end wall plate 60 has flanges 6| joined to the plate 68 by a curvature 62 which comprises portions of the sections 20 carried therearound. Merely bending a corrugated plate on a curvature would wrinkle the corrugations disposed on the interior of the curvature. I provide means to eliminate this wrinkling, which means may be best understood by referring to Figs. 4, 6 to 10 and 12.
Fig. 12 shows by the broken lines 68 the position which would be taken by the outermost area 69 of Fig. 4 if it were practical to bend the plate in a simple bending operation. When a corrugated plate is bent transverse to the corrugations, the neutral axis of the plate remains unchanged in length, the neutral axis being, in this case, substantially equidistant from the inner (18) land outer (69) areas of the plate. If the neutral axis is to remain unchanged, the inner area 10 must decrease in length and the outer area.69 must increase in length. Since the increases and decreases involved are relatively great, deformation would occur in the wrinkling of the inner area 10 and the inward collapse of the outer area 69. To prevent said wrinkling and collapse, the peripheral area of the outwardly projecting sections is increased, thereby drawing from the innermost plate 10 enough material to permit it to form a radius without Wrinkling. The increase in peripheral area may be accomplished by increasing the length of the section 20, as indicated by the dotted lines 12 of Fig. 12, by increasing the depth' of the sections 20, as indicated by the dotted lines 13 of Fig. 12, or by increasing the width of the sections 28 as shown in the comparison of Figs. 9 and 10. The preferable method is to increase length, depth and width of the sections 20, thereby drawing material from the inner areas 18 and redistributing it at the outer areas 69.
Figs. 7 to 10 inclusive show the changes in the plate caused by anging. Figs. 7 and 8, which show the contour of the plate before and after anging respectively, are at the same section of plate; i. e., the original section of mergence of the sections 20 into the plate I5. The corrugations 12 are formed by the extension of the section 20 during fianging. Figs. 9 and 10 show the contour of the plate I5 through' the sections 28 before and after anging respectively showing the increase in the height and width of the sections. This increase in length, height and width of the sections 2U increases the peripheral area thereof and utilizes material which normally lies between (19) the sections 20 and would cause wrinkles during flanging if not drawn therefrom.
In the claims, the term substantial1y, as applied to the increase of peripheral area of the corrugations, is used to indicate that the increase is materially greater than that inherent in the outer portions of a plate due to the increase in stress which accompanies a anging operation.
Increasing the length and depth of the sections 20 as explained above not only draws material from the inner surface 18 but also from the ange 6I. This would distort the edge 28 which had been sheared straight prior to anging. The edge 28 would be bowed inwardly at the center opposite the sections 20 but not appreciably deformed opposite the margins 2|. The row of holes would assume a similar contour. To overcome this effect, the radius of curvature I5 at the margins 2| is made smaller than the radius 86 adjacent the sections 2|). The additional material required to form a curvature on the radius 85 should be approximately equal to that drawn from the flange 6| by the increase in peripheral area of the sections 28 so that theA shape of the edge 28 and holes remains substantially as originally formed. It is undesirable to punclr the holes 28 and shear the edges 28 after tions of product and method as defined by the appended claims.
1. The method of forming a metallic plate comprising pressing therein a plurality of substantially parallel alternating and opposltely projecting corrugations, iianging said plate so as to form an archof each of said corrugations and simultaneously with said iianging substantially increasing the peripheral area of the outer corrugations only at said arch.
2. The method of forming a metallic plate comprising pressing therein a plurality of corrugations having end sections which merge into said plate, ilanging said plate on a curvature so that each of said sections is carried therearound on the exterior thereof and simultaneously with said flanging substantially increasing the peripheral area of said sections without altering the unflanged portions of said corrugations,
3. The method of forming a metallic plate comprising pressing therein a plurality of corrugations having end sections which merge into said plate, langing said plate on a curvature so that a portion of each of said sections is car` ried partially therearound on the exterior thereof and simultaneously with said hanging substantially increasing the peripheral area of said portions of said sections without altering the uniianged portions of said corrugati-ons.
4. The method of forming a metallic plate comprising pressing therein a plurality of corrugations having end sections which merge into v said plate, nan-ging said plate on a curvature so that a portion of each of said sections is carried partially therearound on the exterior thereof and simultaneously with said anging increasing the depth of said portions cf said sections Without altering the unilanged portions of said corrugations.
5. The method of forming a metallic Plate comprising pressing therein a plurality of corrugations having end sections which merge into said plate, flanging said plate on a curvature so that a portion of each of said sections is carried partially therearound on the exterior thereof and simultaneously with said flanging increasing the length of said sections without altering the unanged portions of said corrugations.
6. The method of forming a metallic plate comprising pressing therein a plurality of corrugations having end sections which merge into said plate, ilanging said plate on a curvature so n that a portion of each of said sections is carried partially therearound on the exterior thereof and simultaneously with said flanging increasing the length andl depth of said sections Without Ialtering the unflanged portions of said corrugations.
` 7. The method of forming a metallic plate comprising pressing therein a plurality lof substantially parallel corrugations leaving a margin of said plate parallel therewith, said corrugations having end sections which merge into said plateleaving a region adjacent and transverse to said sections, shearing a straight edge on said region and forming a flange from a portion of said region by :Hanging said plate on a curvature so that portions of said sections are carried partially therearound on the exterior thereof and..A i i the peripheral area of parts of said sections is increased thereby drawing some plate from said region, said curvature being sharper at said margin than adjacent said sections so as to substantially maintain said edge straight.
8. The method, of forming a metallic plate comprising pressing therein a plurality of substantially parallel corrugations leaving a Vmargin of said plate parallel therewith, said corrugations having end sections which `merge intoy said plate leaving a region adjacent and transverse to said sections, punching a plurality of substantially aligned holes in said region and forming a ilange from a portion of said region by flanging said plate on a-curvature so that portions of said sections are carried partially therearound .on the exterior thereof and the peripheral area of parts of said sections is increased thereby drawing some plate from said region, said curvature being sharper at said mar-.- gin than adjacent said sections so as to substantially maintain said holes aligned.
9. The method of forming a metallic plate comn l prising pressing therein a plurality of substan tially parallel corrugations leavinga margin of said plate parallel therewith,'said corrugations having end sections which merge into said plate leaving a region adjacent and transverse to said sections, forming said region to a predetermined conguration and forming a ange from a portion of said region by flanging said plate on a curvature so that portions of said sections are carried partially therearound on the exterior thereof and the peripheral area of parts of said sections `is increased thereby drawing some plate from said region, said curvature being sharper atsaid margin than adjacent saidsections so as to substantially maintainv said configuration WILLIAM J. TANGERMKAN..