US 2199708 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 7, 1940.
METHOD D. E. MAXFIELD 2.199.708
OF AND APPARATUS FOR FEEDING WEB MATERIAL Filed Ilay 4, 1958 7 Sheets-Sheet l ATTORNEY.
May 7, 1940- D. E. MAXFIELD METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FQR' FEEDING WEB MATERIAL Filed May 4, 1938 '7 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. WD.- M M 9 2211/ ATTORNEY.
y 7, 1940- D. E. MAXFIELD 2.199.708
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR FEEDING' WEB MATERIAL Filed May 4, 193a 7 Sheets-Sheet s R Qw Em PE W R ,wsmw v ow, I .whm W WEN m o: 3% wm 3fl\ D. E. MAXFIELD 2.199.708
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR FEEDING WEB MATERIAL May 7, 1940.
"7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed May 4, 1938 S3 0 mrwow R m vdhh em 2366 msow n33 m I I 8 w o mlllfi 6 n .Qw II @N w G A y 7, 1940- D. E. MAXF IELD 2.199.708
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR FEEDING WEB MATERIAL Filed May 4, 1938 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 May 7, 1940- D. E. MAXFIELD METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR FEEDING WEB MATERIAL Filed May 4, 1938 '7 Sheets-Sheet 6 0 o 5% @m Sm y 7, 1940- D. E. MAXFIELD 2.199.708
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR FEEDING WEB MATERIAL Filed lay 4, 1938 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 151 7 o 55 1/- 76A 72A 152 Patented May 7, 1940 a'rnon or AND arraas'ms i on manmo WEB MATERIAL Daniel E. Maxfleld, Philadelphia, Pa., auignor to Stokes and Smith Company, Philadelphia, Pa a corporation of Pennsylvania Application May 4, 1938, Serial No. 205,937
cord with nor in response to the spacing between any particular control elements on the web. nor in accord with the arrival of any particular control element at any particular position, but by adjusting the effective length of linear feed of the web by a series of very small and preferably equal increments or decrements of predetermined magnitude so that the operation of registry or positioning of the web is characterized by webfeeding movements either increasing or decreasing in length, but neverthelesseach increment or decrement does not, except by occasional coincidence, precisely correct the web-feeding movement but does always correct the movement in the right direction, shortening it when it is too long and lengthening it when too short, all. the time hunting the average spacing of the control elements on the web; to obtain substantially similar location on the containers of printing, decorations, or the like, generically termed designs, recurrently appearing on the web material.
In accordance with one form of my invention, exemplified by Figs. 1-10, the extent to. which the web is advanced for different feeding movements thereof is varied, in accordance with responses of the detector, by changing the time of exemplified by Figs. 17-20, the extent of for-' ward or efiective feed of the web is predetermined by controlling the time of closure upon the web of the gripper mechanism during each return stroke thereof.
My invention further resides in the methods and in the features of construction and arrangement'hereinafter described and claimed.
For an understanding of my invention and for illustration of various embodiments thereof, reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view of a'packaging machine with parts omitted and parts broken away;
Fig. 2 is a plan view of web-clamping mechanism shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of web-severing mechanism shown in Fig. andcorresponding with a similar mechanism shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of parts appearing in Fig. 5 and corresponding with similar parts shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is an end elevational view of the packaging machine of Fig. 1 with parts omitted and parts broken away; 4
Fig. 5a is a face. view, on enlarged scale, of one of the webs shown in Fig. 1; Y
Fig. 8 is a detail view of a modification of parts shown in Figs; 1 and 5;
Fig. 7 is a front elevational view, on enlarged scale, of adjustable control means for mecha nisms of Figs. 2 and 3 Fig. 8 is anend elevational view of parts appearing in Fig. 7; s
Fig. 9 diagrammatically illustrates an electric circuit for control of mechanism shown in Figs. 7 and 8;
Fig. 10 is a timing chart referred to in explanation of the operation of the mechanism of Figs. 7 and 8;
Fig. 11 in perspective discloses the signiflcan elements of a modification of the packaging machine of Fig. 1;
Fig. 12 is a front elevational view on enlarged scale of parts appearing in Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is an end elevational view of parts appearing in Fig. 12;
Fig. 14 is a plan view of parts appearing in Fig. 11;
Figs. 15 and 16 are diagrams referred to in explanation of the construction of cam means shown in Figs. '12 and 13;
Fig. 17 is a front elevational view of significant elements of still another modification of the packaging machine of Fig. 1;
Fig. 18 is a plan view, partly in section, of webengaging mechanism of Fig. 17;
Fig. 19 is a front elevational view of parts appearing in Fig. 18; and
Fig. 20 is an end elevational pearing in Fig. 1'7.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 5, the packaging machine there disclosed is suited to join the margins of webs of material thus to form tubes, each of which is transversely flattened and sealed at intervals longitudinally of the tube to form packages each of which is filled while still attached to the web, and is thereafter detached from the web by severance of the web material through a sealing section joining adjacent packages. In general, the machine is of the type disclosed in United States Zwoyer Patent #1,986,422.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 5, the motor i mounted upon the shelf 2 extending between the legs 3 of the machine, drives the main shaft 4 through pulley 5 on the motor shaft, belt 8 which passes view of parts apover pulley 5 and the pulley I on the jack shaft 8, supported as by brackets 9, II] from shelf 2, and sprocket II, on shaft 6, connected by a chain I2 to the sprocket I3 on shaft -4. The turret I4 at the top of the machine which, by means of measuring tubes 36, feeds thematerial with which the packages are to be filled from the hopper or supply duct I5 to the filling tubes I6 and I6A, is continuously driven from shaft 4 by the train of mechanism comprising sprocket II on shaft 4, chain I8, sprocket I9 on jack shaft 20, sprocket 2i on shaft 26, chain,22, sprocket 23 on shaft 24 supported, as by brackets 25, 26 from the frame member 21 of the machine, pinion 26, on shaft 24, which engages the bevel gear 29 on the vertical shaft 30 which extends through and beyond the frame member 3| and to whose upper end is secured the sprocket 32 connected by chain 33 to sprocket 34 on shaft 36 to which is secured the turret head or plate I4.
From the under side of the turret plate I4 there extend a plurality of cylinders or measuring tubes 36 each in register with openings through plate I4 to receive a charge of material as it passes beneath the open end of the 'stationary supply hopper I 5 or equivalent. The plate 31, suitably secured as by brackets 38 to the frame member 3| of the machine, serves to close the open bottoms of the cylinders 36 as they revolve with the turret head I4 except when each, in turn, passes over openings in plate 31 which are in register with the filling tubes I6 or "A.
During each cycle of the package-forming mechanism hereinafter described, a pair of tubes 36 pass over and discharge their contents into the filling tubes, and thereafter pass beneath the hopper I5 for refilling.
From the rear of the upright frame members 39 of the machine there extend the U-shaped bearing members 40 for receiving a bar or rod H which supports the rolls or reels R, RI of packaging material, which, for purposes of explanation, is assumed to be moisture-proof Cellophane, Pliofilm, or other material consisting of, impregnated with, or otherwise surfaced with a material which is adhesive or plastic when subjected to heat.
The web WI from roll RI, Fig. 5, is threaded through the machine to pass beneath the idler bar or roll 42, thence upwardly between the elements of a registration-detector DA, hereinafter more fully described, thence over and under the tensioning rolls 43A, A on the spring-biased arm 45A (biasing spring not shown) pivotally mounted upon the extension 46A of frame member 39. and then upwardly and over the spreader 41A. Beyond the spreader web WI is formed into a tube TA about the filling tube I6A by the forming tool 48A attached to the bracket 49A which is adjustably secured to the bar 50A (Fig. 1) extending downwardly from the frame member 3|.
The web W from the other roll R of packaging material is similarly threaded through the machine and is formed into a tube T about the filling tube I6; the elements for guiding and forming web W are identified in Fig. 1 by the same reference characters, but with omission of the suffix A", utilized to identify the corresponding elements associated with web.Wl.
The forming tools 48, 48A, which may be of construction more clearly shown in the aforesaid Zwoyer Patent #1,986,422-, each shapes the associated web into the form of a tube and also effects overlap of the web margins at the front of the filling tubes I6, I6A. The margins of each web are joined by application of heat and pressure to form a closed tube; specifically, the overlapping margins of web W are pressed together by the roll 6| in the core of which are disposed several turns of wire electrically heated so as to raise roll II to temperature sumcient to soften the thermo-plastic or adhesive material of the overlapping web margins and so effect their union.
The roll 6IA, Fig. 5, similarly operates upon the margins of the web WI to form a closed or circumferentially continuous tube of web material about the filling tube I6A. The sealing rolls 6i, BIA are respectively mounted upon shafts 62, 62A individually supported by the frames 63, 63A pivotally mounted for angular movement in a horizontal plane upon the rod 54 extending downwardly from the frame member 3! of the machine.
During each cycle of the machine, the webs W, WI are individually flattened below the lower ends of their respective filling tubes, and are drawn downwardly, by heated clamping tools G, GA which seal the tubes of web material transversely thus to form containers closed at their lower ends but whose upper ends are open and in communication with the filling tubes I6, I6A for filling purposes. The feeding movement of each web also brings a previously formed package beyond a knife mechanism, hereinafter described, which cuts the web to detach a filled and sealed package from the web material. A brake member, such as pivoted member B, Fig. 5, prevents the inertia of each roll of web material from producing slack in the web material fed therefrom.
Because the mechanisms for feeding the Webs W,,WI and for severing them to form individual packages are substantially identical, it is necessary specifically to describe only the mechanism for feeding and cutting one of the webs; the corresponding elements of the feeding and cutting mechanisms for the two webs will be identified by the same reference characters but the mechanism associated with the web WI will have added thereto the sufiix A.
Upon the main shaft 4 is mounted the cam 55 which effects reciprocation of the web-grippers G, GA downwardly from and back to their broken line positions indicated in Fig. l. The periphery of cam is engaged by the roller 56 on pin 51 which extends from the yoke member 58 whose forked end straddles shaft 4 and which is connected by bar 69 to one arm 60 of a bell crank lever pivoted at 6| to bracket 62 secured to the under side of the frame member 21. The other arm 63 of the bell crank lever is slotted adjustably to receive the supporting stud for a roller 64 which engages the under side of the horizontal extension 66 of member 66 adjustably secured as by the bolts 61 to the plunger 68 whose lower end passes through the bearing 62a afforded by bracket 62, and whose upper end passes beyond the top of the table or frame member 21. Attached to or integral with the upper end of the plunger 68 is a cross arm 69 whose opposite ends provide bearings for the lower ends of the shafts 10, 10A which extend through the web-gripping devices G, GA. The shafts II, IIA extending parallel to and closely adjacent the shafts I0, 10A respectively pass through the crossmember 69 and the top 21 of the machine frame; the upper ends of the shafts III, II and 16A, IIA pass jaiaaros through and are guidedby the frame member SI.
pins "A, "A extendingthrough member "A and attached to member "A. .When the shafts 14A and HA are in the angular position shown in 2, the springs 14A, "A are effective to hold the corrugated, web-engaging jaws "A, "A
in clamping engagement with web WI. The jaws 18A, "A are heated, preferably electrically. as in aforesaid Zwoyer patent, to soften the thermoplastic or adhesive surface of the web and so form, during their clamping engagement with the tube TA, a flattened sealing section extending transversely thereof. 1
when the shafts 10A and "A are concurrently moved in the same direction through a substantial angle, as hereinafterdescribed, the cam members "A, BIA secured respectively to shafts IIIA and I IA eil'ect separation of the gripper jaws and so release the web or tube TA.
The under surface of gripper members 12A. 83A engage the spacer members "A, "A supported respectvely by the sprockets 84A, "A on the shafts 10A, HA. The upper surfaces of the gripper members are engaged by the flanged membersBGA, 81A suitably secured to shafts HA and MA. The sprockets 85A and v84A are connected by chain 88A to effect rotation of the shafts in unison when one of them is actuated as hereinafter described.
The shafts If! and II support the similar webclamping device G whose jaws are moved toward and from web-clamping position by'angular movements of the shafts M, II.
During rotation of shaft 6 the cam 55 effects reciprocation of the cross member 89 to effect vertical reciprocation of the two web-clamping devices G, GA. Substantially at the top of the stroke of the cross member 68, the shafts II and i 5A are rotated as hereinafter described to effect closure of the jaws of the two grippers G, GA so that during their downward movement both webs are pulled downwardly with respect to their associated filling tubes I6, 86A. The flattening and sealing action of grippers G, GA completes the sealing of a pair of filled containers and seals the bottom of a pair of containers whose upper ends are open for filling through tubes i8, IEA.
Before the cross arm 69 reaches the bottom of its stroke, the web-feeding devices G, GA are individually controlled, as hereinafter described, to release the webs W, WI y The length of the stroke of the cross member t9 and the parts movable therewith is adjustable to suit the machine for making packages of different lengths. Referring to Fig. 5, when the roll 64 is clamped near the outer end of the slot in the oscillatory arm 68,
the vertical stroke of the cross member .69 which carries the grippers G, GA is substantially longer than when the adjusted position of roller 64 on the slotted arm 63is nearerthe pivot GI. With the arrangement shown in Fig. 5, a change in position of roller 64 with respect to the axis of rotation of the lever arm 63 not only changes the length of the stroke of member 69 but also affects its position at the bottom of its stroke; the shorter the stroke, the higher the lowermost position of cross-arm 69 unless member 66 on plunger 68 is readjusted. By recourse to the construction 'showninl'lmmtbe without change of the position 1 II at the bottom of its stroke.
the modification will become more apparent after subsequent description of the severance of the a length'fof stroke may be varledto suit-different lengths of the package of the cross arm The advantage of webs to detach packages therefrom.
In the construction shown in Fig. 6, the slot lb, instead of being radial like the slot 63A, Fig.
5, is substantially parallel to the end face of the.
at the bottom member ll when plunger 80 is of its stroke; therefore, adjustment of roller 04 to various positions along slot 63b to obtain various lengths of stroke of the plunger 68 does not change the lowermost position of the plunger or of the grippers G, GA movable therewith.
The opening and closing movements of the' gripper mechanism G are controlled by barrel cam 89, Fig. 1, rotatable with shaft 90 driven from main shaft 4 of the machine by the bevel gears SI, 92 secured, respectively, to shaft 4 and shaft 90. The periphery of cam 89 continuously en- .gages the roller, 93 at the lower end of the vertically reciprocable member 94 whose upper end is pivoted to one arm of a bell-crank lever 95 supported by bracket 96 on the upper surface of the table member 21 of the machine. The other arm of the bell-crank lever is connected by link 91 to the rack member 98 slidable within a guide member 99 attached toor integral with the frame member 39 of the machine. The rack 88 is continuously in mesh with the elongated gear I attached to shaft II. Throughout the vertical reciprocation of the gripper frame 69, the gear I00 remains in engagement with the rack in order that cam 89 may effect opening and closing of the gripper jaws at desired times in a cycle of reciprocation of the gripper.
Similarly, the cam 89A through the bell-crank lever 95A and rack 98A effects rotation of gear IBOA at different times in the cycle of rotation of gripper frame 89 to effect opening and closing movements of the gripper GA.
The hell-crank levers 95, 95A are biased, as by the springs IbI, IIIIA, to maintain engagement of the cam followers 93, 93A with cams 89, 89A respectively.
The motion of theracks 98, 98A is also utilized to efl'ect operation of the knife mechanisms K, KA which sever the completed packages from the webbing; rack 98A, in addition to maintaining continuous engagement with gear MA on the reciprocable gripper frame, is continuously in mesh with gear IMA, Fig. .4, on shaft IMA, whose upper end is received by a bearing in the extension 604, Fig. 5, of the standard I which is suitably attached to the top of frame member 21 near the front of the machine. Gear IIJZA is continuously in engagement with gear I USA on shaft WIA extending parallel to shaft I03A and whose lower end is received by a bearing in the frame member 21. Above gear IDSA, Fig. 5,
' shaft IIIIA extends through the standard extension I04 and through, the web-cutting mechanism KA which comprises two knives I08A and 109A guided for reciprocation in a horizontal plane by the structure IIIIA. The gear I I IA on shaft IDIA engages a rack integral or attached to the upper blade I08A and'gear II2A, also on shaft III'IA, engages a rack on the opposite side of the lower blade INA. Therefore, for rotation of the shaft io'lA'in one direction the upper and lower knives move toward each other to sever web WI and for reverse rotation of shaft IIllA the knives move from their web-severing position. As more clearly appears in Fig. 3, the web WI passes downwardly through an aperture defined by the cutting or shearing edge at the forward end ofthe lowerblade NBA and the cutting or shearing edge of the upper blade IOBA. Consequently, as shaft IIlIA, Fig. 3, rotates in clockwise direction, both blades move toward the cutting line" X-X, Fig. 3, to sever the web WI. The mechanism for cutting the web W is similar and the corresponding parts are identified by the same reference characters with omission of the suflix A.
The two cutting heads K and KA are carried by a common member I38 adjustably secured to the standard I05 as by the bolt I39 which extends through an elongated slot in member I38. As indicated in Fig. 5, the cutting heads are adjustable in unison by the hand wheel H3 at the lower end of a threaded shaft II which extends through the stationary frame member 21 and is threadably received by the extension II5 of the support I38 for the two cutting heads.
Provision for vertical adjustment of the cutting heads is not necessary when there is utilized the modified arrangement shown in Fig. 6, which, as previously explained, insures that the frame 6!! always has a definite lower position regardless of the adjustment of roller 64 to procure different lengths of package by adjustment of the stroke of frame 69. I
As thus far described, the cams 55, 89 and 89A make one revolution per cycle of the machine; the'cam effects, during one revolution thereof, one upward and downward stroke of the gripper frame 69; and during one revolution of cams 89, 89A, the grippers are opened and closed, and the knives are closed and opened. As hereinafter more fully described, the webs W and WI are fed during the downward movement of the gripper frame 69, and at or somewhat before the end of the downward movement of the grippers their jaws are opened to release the webs and the knives sever the webs to detach completed packages which are discharged from the machine by chutes II6, IISA.
The webs W and WI are often provided with recurrent printing or decorative matter which it is desired shall appear in the individual packages at a definite position similar for all of packages. For various reasons, such as the effect of atmospheric conditions upon the web material during the printing or while in the packaging machine, it is ordinarily not possible to attain exact or substantially exact registration of the printing or decorative matter, exemplified in Fig. 5A, as appearing upon the individual packages, by forming or cutting all packages to exactly the same length.
In the packaging machine shown in Figs. 1-9, there are provided detectors D, DA for inspecting the registration of the printed matter or design on the webs and for advancing or retarding the gripper opening and web-severing operations effected in the next cycle of the machine, thus to correct for inaccuracies of register of the recurrent designs. or equivalent as they appear on the web and so avoid cumulation of variations in the spacing between the designs.
In Figs. '7 and 8 there is disclosed a control mechanism responsive to detector DA for shifting the timing of the gripper GA and of the cutting mechanism KA in the cycle of reciprocation of plunger 68; it is to be understood a similar mechanism is utilized to vary the timing of the machine.
tion detector D (not shown). The cam "A is slidably keyed to shaft. A, Figs. 7 and 8, and is provided with a grooved collar II'IA for receiving rollers carried by the yoke USA at the upper end of arm II9A pivoted intermediate its ends on the bracket I2IJA attached to the frame I The lower forked ends I2IA of the lever IIQA embrace pins I22A extending from the member I 23A threadably received by the shaft IflA whose ends are supported respectively by aforesaid bracket I2IIA and bracket I25A. To shaft I24A are attached the spaced ratchet members IIBA, I2'IA. The bell-crank lever I28A mounted upon shaft INA for angular reciprocation with respect thereto is provided at its upper end with a roller I29A for engaging the groove I3IIA of cam member I3IA secured to shaft 90. The cam groove is so cut and the cam is so positioned on shaft A that while the web-feeding plunger 68 is at rest, and therefore while the webs W and WI are stationary, the bell-crank lever I "A is swung toward and from the position shown in Fig. '7 to effect rotation of shaft I'MA in one direction or the other by engagement of one or the other of pawls I32A, I33A, carried by the lower arm of thebell-crank lever I28A with ratchet I26A or ratchet I2IA. The arm I34A, secured to the same shaft to which the pawls I32A and I33A are attached, is connected at its lower end, as by link I35A, to the core or armature I3IiA of a solenoid or equivalent electromagnetic device I3IA. The spring i38A compressed between the pawl I32A and the block I39A rotatably mounted in the stationary support I 40A biases the pawl I 32A into engagement with the ratchet IZIA, and concurrently biases the pawl I33A out of engagement with ratchet I2'IA;' therefore, if solenoid I 31A is not energized during the aforesaid to and fr movement of the bell-crank lever I28A, the sit-aft INA is moved in counterclockwise direction, Fig. '7, during the return stroke of the bell-crank lever to the position of Fig. 7. If, on the other hand, the solenoid I3'IA is energized during the angular reciprocation of the bell-crank lever, the pawl I33A is pulled by core I36A to engage the ratchet I2IA, and during the forward stroke of the bellcrank lever from the position of Fig. '7 effects rotation of the shaft I24A in clockwise direction, Fig. 7.
Upon each of the webs W, WI is a series of opaque spots or marks 0 each having the same position with respect to printed or other matter on the web which is to appear in the packages successively cut therefrom; the spacing between adjacent spots, therefore, corresponds to the nominal average length of the packages to be cut from that web. The marks or control elements 0 may be part of the designs or printing on the web or they may be in addition thereto and, in any event, they possess a distinguishing characteristic suited for the selected type of detector; in the particulararrangements herein disclosed; the light transmission characteristic of the registration marks is different from that of adjacent yveb portions; for another type of detector, the control elements 0 may be of electrical conductivity difierent from that of adjacent web portions;1 for example, they may be dabs or strips of conductive substance or, less desirably, perforations in the web; in all modifications the detector observes the web while stationary.
Whether or not the solenoid I3IA is energized or deenergized at that portion of each cycle of as an electrically heated resistor, and directed toward a radiation responsive device CA such as a photo-cell, thermocouple, or the like. The photo-cell CA and lamp LA, Figs. 5 and 9, are preferably disposed in individual housings which areclosed except for narrow slits in alignment with each other and between which the web WI passes. The radiation may be concentrated by a suitable optical system comprising one or more mirrors or lenses. If the web WI at the end of a feeding stroke comes to rest with an opaque spot 0, in alignment with the slots or apertures in the two housings, the photo-cell does not receive radiation from the transmitter lamp LA or equivalent and, consequently, in the particular system disclosed the solenoid I8IA is not energized with the result the shaft I A during oscillation of arm I28A is moved in counterclockwise direction to move cam 89A to the right with respect to the position shown in Fig. 8. Because of the shape of the cam, which is hereinafter described, the result of this change in position is to effect release of the web and severance thereof earlier than before in the next downward stroke of the gripper frame with the results that the package severed from the web is slightly shorter than the preceding package and that a succeeding opaque spot on the web may to greater or lesser extent intercept the path of the radiation from LA to CA. For every subsequent cycle of the machine, the time of release of the grippers will be still further advanced, still further reducing the distance between successively formed seals, until, when the web comes to rest at the end of a feeding stroke, the beam from the lamp LI is not obscured or is sufilciently less obscured by one of the series of registration marks or control elements on the web. Thereupon'the solenoid I8'IA is energized during the oscillation of the bell-crank lever I28A with the result that the shaft I24A is rotated in clockwise direction to move cam-89A. to. the left along shaft 88A and therefore effect release of the grippers and websevering movement of the knives of cutting head KA later in the downward stroke of plunger 88 with the result the distance between successively formed seals is increased and the package cut in the subsequent cycle of the machine is slightly longer than before; and for every subsequent cycle of the machine, the time of release of the web by gripper GA is more and more retarded still further increasing the distance between successively formed seals until eventually, when the web is at rest at the end of a feeding stroke, an opaque spot 0 on the web again intercepts sufficient radiation from LA to CA to cause deenergization of the solenoid I8'IA.
For every cycle of the machine, each of the webs W, WI is inspected by its respective registration detector D or DA and, in accordance with the position of a registration index or control element 0 on each web, it is predetermined whether in the next feeding stroke of the individual web. the time of release of the web from its feeding gripper'and the time of operation of its individual severing means is made to occur earlier or later in the web-feeding stroke of plunger 68in effect to shift the location of the containers formed by the sealing operations of the gripper mechanism with respect to the designs on the web between the seals. Thus the proper positioning of the designs on the containers is effected by control of the package-forming mechanism itself and not by any additional mechanism operating upon the web prior to package-forming operations thereon, Although both grippers G and GI are carried by one and the same reciprocating frame 69, the extents to which the webs W and WI are fed in any particular cycle of the machine may differ depending upon the prior re-" sponses of the detectors D, DA indlvidualto the webs; for example, the response of detectors D and DA while the webs W and WI are concurrently stationary may be such that in the next downward stroke of the gripper frame the extent of feed of web W is less than in the prior cycle, whereas the extent of feed of web WI is vice remains constant for any given adjustment of cutting-head support I88.
In the particular packaging machine shown in Figs, 1-9, the cam 55 is so constructed that, as appears from the timing diagram, Fig. 10, the plunger 68 is at rest in its uppermost position from about zero degrees to about 50 of the machine cycle; consequently, during that part of the cycle the webclamplng devices G, GA, are at rest in their dotted line positions of Fig. 1. During that interval the cam followers 98, 93A ride from the high part of cams 89, 89A, respectively, allowing the springs IIiI, MA, to move the racks 98, 98A to the right, Fig. 1, to effect rotation of shaft I0, 'II, 10A and I IA, in such direction that the jaws of the clamping devices G, GA close upon the tubes T, TA of web material below the lower ends of the filling tube I8, I8A, thus, as previously described, to seal the upper ends of filled packages and concurrently to form and close the bottoms of containers about to be filled; this same movement of the racks 98, 98A, effects rotationof shafts I01. IIIIA, in direction to separate the knives of the two cutting heads K, KA, to permit the filled packages as yet unsevered from the web to pass between the knives during the subsequent downward movement of the web-feeding devices G, GA.
The downward movement of plunger 68 and therefore of the web-clamping devices G, GA, begins at about 50 of the machine cycle and continues to about 230 thereof; the length of the plunger stroke, and therefore the maximum possible extent of feed of the webs W, WI, depends upon the settingof the member 64, as previously described.
Each of the barrel cams 89, 89A, is so constructed that during the downward movementof the plunger 68 the cam followers 93, 99A rise from the low part of cams 88, 89A to the high part thereof to effect movement of the racks 98, 98A to'the left, Fig. 1, thus individually to effect release of the webs W, WI from the feeding devices G, GA; and substantially concurrently with release of each web the knife mechanism K or KA operated by the same rack which effects web release severs the web to detachtherefrom a filled package. Although both webs W, WI are concurrently clamped, the time at which each web is released and severed during descent of the plunger it depends upon the response of the registration-detecting device associated with that particular web, as previously herein described. For example, and again referring to Fig. 10, when the responses of the registration detector D or DA have been such that the cam follower 93 is at the lower end of cam 89 as viewed in Fig. 10, or cam follower 93A near the right edge of cam 98A as viewed in Fig. 8, the cam follower 93 or BSA, as the case may he, meets the rise of the cam early in the downward stroke of the plunger, for example, at about 105 of the machine cycle, thus to effect release of the web and severance of the end package early in the downward movement of plunger 68. To take the other extreme condition, when the prior responses of the registration detector D or DA have been such that the cam follower 93 or 93A is near the other edge of the associated cam 89 or 89A-upper extent of cam adjustment, Fig. 10-the cam follower does not meet the rise of the cam until about 225 of the machine cycle,
or just before the bottom limit of the downward stroke of the plunger 80. For intermediate positions of cams 89, 89A, the times of release of the grippers G, GA and of the operations of cutting mechanisms K, KA are correspondingly predetermined. Thus, the extent of feed of each of the webs W, WI, in a particular cycle of the machine,
depends upon the positions of the cams 89, 89A
with respect to cam followers 83, 93A which positions are subject to individual control by the registration detectors D, DA.
Reverting to Fig. 10, the plunger-68 remains at its lowermost position for a brief time, for exampie, from about 230 to 240 of the machine cycle, and then returns at accelerated rate to its uppermost position in from about 240 to 360 of the cycle. During the upward movement of the plunger, both sets of gripper jaws are open to clear the filled containers whose upper ends are to be closed by the next clamping movement of the jaws.
In each cycle of the machine two packages are filled and two packages are cut from the webs W, WI; although all packages cut from the webs are approximately of the same length, each package from each of the webs is slightly longer or shorter than the immediately preceding or immediately following package, and the length of a package cut from one web may be either shorter, longer or equal to the package severed from the other web in the same cycle of the machine.
In the modification of my invention shown in Figs. 11-14, packages are formed from two webs of packaging material by mechanism similar to that of Figs. l-9 and for convenience and brevity the corresponding elements of both modifications are identified by the same reference characters. In the modification of Figs. 11-44, there are provided individual feeding plungers for each of the web clamping devices G, GA and the length of stroke of each of these feeding plungers is capable of being adjusted independently of the other in accordance with the response of its associated registration detector D or DA. Moreover, it is also characteristic of the modification of Figs. 11-14, unlike the modification of Figs. 1 to 9, that the time at which each web is clamped, the time at which it is released, and the time at which it is severed all remain the same in all cycles of the machine and are the same for both webs.
Referring to Fig. 11, the two racks 98, 98A of Fig. 1 are replaced by a single rack 980 which engages the gear I00 which controls the opening and closing of the web-clamping device G'and also engages gear IIIOA which controls the opening and closure of the gripper GA; the movements I of the rack 880 are controlled by a single nonadjustable cam 880 which replaces the two adjustable cams 89 and 89A of Fig. 1. The periphery of the cam 890 is incontinuous engagement with the cam follower 930 carried by arm 940 pivotally connected to the bell-crank lever A connected by link 91A to the aforesaid rack 880. The cam 890 is so cut that the jaws of the grippers G and GA close upon the respective webs W, WI by movement ending at about 50 of the machine cycle and are concurrently opened near the bottom of the strokes of their respective plungers 880, 680A which, in the particular construction shown, are at rest at the bottom of their stroke from about 230 to about 240 of the machine cycle. The rack 980 is also in mesh with gears I02, I02A, Fig. 14, for operating the knives of the web-cutting heads K, KA, as in the modification of Figs. 149, so that concurrently with closing movement of the gripper jaws, both sets of knives open to avoid obstruction to the packages about to be fed therebetween, and so that concurrently with opening of the grippers G, GA, the two sets of knives in the heads K, KA, are concurrently operated to sever packages from the webs W, WI.
With the webs W, WI are associated the individual registration detectors D, DA, similar to those described in connection with Figs. 1-9, each of which control the energization of an electromagnetic device such as solenoid I3IA which determines which of the pawls I32A, IRA, is effective during an oscillation of the arm I28A which oscillation is timed to occur in each cycle of the machine while the webs are stationary. If solenoid I3IA is energized during oscillation of arm' I28A, the cam 550A is moved in one direction along shaft 400, and. conversely if the solenoid I3IA is not energized during oscillation of arm I28A, the barrel cam 550A is moved in opposite direction axially of its shaft. In like manner, the detector D controls the position of cam 550 longitudinally of shaft 400. The control of the positions of each of barrel cams 550 and 560A of Fig. 11, in accordance with the alignment or misalignment of successive opaque spots or control elements 0 on the webs W, WI, is effected by an arrangement identical with that shown in Figs. 7 and 8 and previously explained. In the modification of Figs. 11-14, the rotation or angular adjustment of shaft I24A is utilized to shift the position of cam 550A which, as will hereinafter appear, controls the stroke of the gripper GA, whereas, in the modification of Figs. 1-9 the angular adjustment of shaft I24A controls the setting of cam 89A to vary in a cycle of the machine the time of release of the jaws of the web-clamping mechanism GA.
Reverting to Figs. 11, 12 and 13, the periphery of cam 5250A is engaged by the cam follower 560 carried by-the rack member 590 which is in mesh with the gear sector 600 integral with or attached to the lever 630 to whose free end is connected the roller 84 for engagement with the under surface of the member 66 suitably secured to the feeding plunger 680A. For each revolution of cam 550A the plunger 880A makes one complete cycle of its vertical rectilinear reciprocation; therefore, for each revolution of the cam 550 the web-clamping device G moves to and from its lowermost position from. which to the cutting plane of head KA the distance is fixed or predetermined. The length of the stroke of each of 7 tion detector associated with the web ample, is moved shown-in Fig. 11, the
e pluns'emll fl, A dep nds. In e particular is moving upwsnllmbut the avenge crane. cycle or the machine, upon the axial adjustments plunger during this part-oi a particularcycle deoi the came I", "0.6.. when com "IA, ior exto the right from its position plunger "IA, and therefore the feed of the web WI, isincreased and conversely, when cam IIIIA is moved to the left of its position shown in Fig. 11, the stroke of plunger 0A is shortened to (IE-'- crease. the length of package cut from the web. Although both sets of grippers G and GA open and close at thesame time in the cycle of the machine, the extent to which they feed their respective webs depends upon the settings of the cams 550, 555A. The length of stroke of each or the plungers 680, 580A is always either increasing or decreasing, depending upon the responses of the associated registration detectors so to vary the distance between successively formed seals and thus shift the location of the containers formed by the sealing operations with respect to the designs between the seals. In the particular. arrangement shown, the length of stroke of each or the plungers is'progressively increased for successive cycles of the machine until the registraobserves an opaque spot 0 on the web while stationary at the end of a feeding stroke; thereupon, the length of stroke is incrementally decreased in the following cycles until, in a subsequent cycle, the registration detector is actuated by partial or complete absence of a control element to effect energization of the solenoid associated with stroke-controlling mechanism for that web, whereupon the length of stroke is again increased.
The construction of cams 550 and 550A is best understood from. Figs. 12, 13, 15 and 16. Because these cams are identical in construction, only one of them, cam 550A, needs to be specifically described. Cam 550A throughout-its length within the angle between 223 and 240, corresponding to the bottom dwell of the plunger 580A, is of constant radius, thus insuring that regardless of the axial position of cam 550A .the lowermost position of the gripper device GA is always the same; otherwise stated, that segment of the cam corresponding to the portion of the machine cycle between 230 and 240 is a segment of a cylinder. Within the angle between 0 and 50 of the machine cycle for which the plunger 580A is at rest in its uppermost position, the radius of cam 550A progressively decreases from the large end of the cam, Fig, 15, to the small end of the cam, Fig. 16, thus providing 'for difierent uppermost positions of gripper device GA in accorda'ncewith the respouses of the detector DA; this segment of the 4 cam may therefore be considered as a segment of a truncated cone whose maximum radius determines the maximum stroke of plunger 680A and whose minimum radius determines the minimum stroke of the plunger. For each intermediate position or cam 550A with respect to its follower 560, the stroke of plunger 680A is'correspondingly predetermined within the aforesaid limits. In the machine described, the ratio of the maximum to the minimum stroke is about two to one; specifically, the maximum stroke is about 6" and the minimum stroke about 3".
From 50 to 230 of every machine cycle, the plunger 680' is moving downwardly but the average speed at which the plunger moves downwardly in a particular cycle depends upon the axial position of cam 550A with respect to the cam follower 560 during that cycle. From 240 to 360 of every cycle of the machine, the plunger 585 length of more of the brevity and clarity,
pends upon theaxisl position or cam "A with cam '50 are similar oridentical so that both grippers G. GA andboth knife mechanisms K, KA operate concurrently in all cycles of the machine. But because of the independence oi the axial positions or cams 550, "0A. the lengths of 'the packages cut from the webs W, WI in any particular cycle of the machine may be and usually are difierent.
In the modification whose significant components are shown in Figs. 17 to 20, the webWI, from which packages, labels or wrappers are to be out, is intermittently ted by a gripper mechanism having a constant length of stroke, and proper registry of printed or other matter with respect to the packages or wrappers cut from the web is maintained by shifting the time at which the web is clamped by the gripper mechanism during its return or non-feeding stroke. For elements having the same purpose or function as elements of the modification of Fig. 1 are identified by the same reference characters.
For each revolution of cam 55, which rotates once for each cycle of the machine, the plunger 68 carrying the web-gripping mechanism GA makes one cycle of reciprocation. Thelength of stroke of the plunger, and mum feed of web WI for making packages or labels of desired average or nominal length, is predetermined by the setting of roller 65 in the slotted oscillatory arm 63.
For purpose of explanation of a specific embodiment of this modification, it is assumed that the web WI is of Cellophane or other transparent or translucent webbing material, and that the recurrent registration marks or control elements 0 on the webbing are opaque spots.
In front of web WI, adjacent the uppermost position of the web-gripping device GA, indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 17, there is disposed at mirror MA or equivalent for reflecting light from. source LA to the photo-cell CA or equivalent, under conditions hereinafter specified, as also does shroud I45 which is to prevent straylight, other than from lamp LA, actuating photo-cell CA. The shroud may either be fixed or reciprocable with the gripper structure GA. The lamp and photo-cell are carried by and move with the gripper mechanism GA during its reciprocation. There is also mounted upon or carried by the gripper mechanism GA and electromagnet I3IA, Fig. 18, whose armature I36A is connected by link I35A to a latch I50 whose hooked end engages the pin I5! on arm I52 to restrain the gripper jaws 18a, 190. out of engagement with the web WI. When the solenoid I3IA is energized, latch I50 is moved in clockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 18, to release the arm I52, whereupon the springs "A, ISA efiect closure of the gripper jaws upon the web.
As the gripper mechanism GA approaches the lower limit of its feeding movement, the adjustably fixed cam I53, Figs. 18 and 19, engages the roller I54 on arm I52, causing the arm to move in clockwise direction to the position shown in Fig;
therefore the maxion shafts 10A, HA to release the web WI. This movement of arm I82 also permits the spring I" to rese the latch IIO-to the position indicated in Fig. 8.
The gripper jaws remain open during the subsequent upward movement of the plunger 08 until radiation from the lamp LA or equivalent is reilected by the mirror MA into the photo-cell, whereupon the electromagnet "1A is energized to efiect closure of the gripper Jaws upon the web, as above described. The mirror MA should be so located with reference to the nominal normal position of the opaque spot as to overlap it but not to extend below it. For any particular return stroke of the gripper mechanism GA, the time at which the photo-cell receives light from the lamp is dependent upon the position of opaque spot on the then stationary web with respect tothe reflector MA. Because the web is gripped before the end of the return stroke, at least that part of it adjacent the grippers is reversely fed to an extent dependent upon the remaining distance to be travelled by the gripper in its return stroke; with the net result, the actual or forward feed of the web is less than the constant distance in the forward stroke for which the web remains gripped by an amount corresponding with the variable distance, in the immediately prior return stroke, for which the web was, in a sense, reversely fed. For example, if the lower edge of an opaque spot 0 is approximately at the same level as the lower edge of the mirror, the gripper mechanism must return substantially to its uppermost position before the mirror MA is capable of reflecting light from the lamp into the photo-cell, and accordingly, under this circumstance, the amount of webbing fed or actually advanced by the gripper mechanism in its next downward stroke is appreciably greater than when, for example, the upper edge of an opaque spot 0 registers with the lower edge of the mirror, in which event the mirror reflects light to the photo-cell substantially before the gripper mechanism. GA reaches its uppermost position. In the latter case, the net result of the early closure of the gripper mechanism during its return stroke is that of reduced extent of feed of the webin the next downward stroke of the gripper mechanism. The severing of the web may take place at or within the particular web spacing adjacent the opaque spot observed or at or within a web spacing removed therefrom a predeter-= mined number of spacings.
The variations in the timing of the closure of the gripper mechanism are always such as to maintain an approximately correct register of the printed matter on the packages or wrappers out from the webbing by web-severing mechanism generally similar to or identical with websevering mechanism KA of Fig. 1. The length of the opaque spot with the web must obviously be greater than the maximum variations in thelength of web spacing.
If desired, the movement of the plunger 88 may, as in the modification of Fig. 1, be utilized to effect feed of more than one web, and in such case, it is to be understood that with each gripper mechanism, there is to be associated an individual control arrangement such as disclosed and described in connection with the single gripper mechanism GA of Figs. 17 to 20,
With the web-feeding mechanism of Figs. 17 to 20 there may be utilized apparatus for forming the web into containers which are filled and sealed before the webbing is cut to detach the v filled packages, all as disclosed in the modifications previously described herein; and conversely, it is to be understood the web-feeding arrangements shown in Figs. 1 to 10, and Figs. 11 to 19 may be utilized to cut individual wrappers from the webbing for subsequent use as in a wrapping or packaging machine. For brevity in the appended claims, the term wrapper, unless inconsistent with the context, is used to comprehend wrappers, labels, or the like, which are applied either before or after their severance from the we What I claim is:
1. The method of feeding a plurality of webs having substantially regularly spaced control elements thereon which comprises intermittently and concurrently feeding the webs, while the webs are at rest between successive feeding movements inspecting the positions of control elements thereon, and varying the extents of feed of the individual webs for successive feeding movements thereof each in accordance with the position of the previously observed control element thereof.
2. In web-feeding apparatus comprising reciprocatory web-feeding structure, the method of operation which comprises effecting intermittent concurrent feed of a plurality of webs by successive movements of said structure in onedirection, between said successive movements of said structure inspecting the positions of control elements on the webs, and predetermining the extents of feed of the individual webs for each movement of said structure in said direction in accordance with the previously observed control elements on the respective webs.
3. In web-feeding apparatus comprising reciprocatory web-feeding structure, themethod of operation which comprises efiecting intermittent concurrent ieed of a plurality of webs by successive movements of said structure in one direction, between said successive movements of said structure inspecting the positions of control elements on the webs, and releasing the webs individually from said structure in each of said successive movements thereof each in accordance with the position of the previously observed control element thereon.
4. In. web-feeding apparatus comprising reciprocatory web-feeding structure, the method of operation which comprises effecting intermittent concurrent feed of a plurality of webs by successive movements of said structure in one direction, between said successive movements of said structure inspecting the positions of control elements on the webs, and varying the times of connection of said structure to the different webs during each of its movements in reverse direction in accordance with the positions of the observed control elements thereon.
5. In web-feeding apparatus comprising reciprocatory web-feeding structures, the method of operation which comprises effecting intermit tent concurrent feed of a plurality of webs by successive movements of said structures in forward direction, while said webs are at rest inspecting the positions of control elements there on, and varying the extents of concurrent forward movements of said structures in accordance with the previously observed control elements on their respective webs.
6. In the art of making wrappers from webs having substantially regularly spaced control elements thereon, the method which comprises intermittently and concurrently feeding the webs toward a web-cutting station, at said station concurrently cutting the webs while they are at rest between successive feeding movements thereof, inspecting the webs while at rest between successive feeding movements thereof to detect changes in the positions of successively observed control elements. progressively increasing the extent of feed of each web in successive feeding movements thereof after a control element thereon has been observed at one predetermined position and until a control element thereon is observed at another predetermined position, and thereafter progressively decreasing the extent of feed of each web in successive feeding movements thereof until a control element thereon is observed at said first predetermined position.
7. Mechanism for feeding webs each having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising feeding means for each of said webs, means cyclically operative intermittently to effect concurrent operation of the several web-feeding means, and registration detectors responsive to control elements upon the different webs for predetermining the extents to which each individual web is advanced during successive cycles of said means.
8. Mechanism for feeding webs each having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising web-clamping devices for the individual webs, cyclically operated means for reciprocating said devices in unison to effect intermittent feed of the webs, and registration detectors responsive to control elements upon different webs for controlling the timing of the individual web-clamping devices to predetermine the extents to which the individual webs are advanced during successive reciprocations of said devices.
9. Mechanism for feeding webs each having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elementscomprising web-clamping devices for the individual webs, cyclically operated means for reciprocating said devices in unison to effect intermittent feed of the webs, and registration detectors responsive to control elements upon different webs for individually varying the extents of movement of said devices during successive cycles of reciprocation thereof.
10. Mechanism for feeding a web having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising a web-clamping device, means for effecting reciprocation of said device including a rotatable barrel cam and a member engaging the periphery thereof, means for effecting clamping and release of the web by the jaws of said device including a rotatable barrel cam and a member engaging the periphery thereof, and a detector responsive to said control elements for varying the position of one of said cams with respect to its associated member along the axis of rotation of the cam. 4
11. Mechanism for feeding a web having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising web-clamping device, mechanism for reciprocating said device, means for effecting operation of said device alternately to clamp and release the web including a rotatable barrel cam and a member engaging the periphery thereof, and a detector responsive to said control elements for varying the position of said cam with respect to said member along the axis of rotation of said cam.
12. Mechanism for feeding a web having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising a web-clamping device, means for effecting reciprocation of said device comprising a rotatable barrel cam and a member engaging the periphery thereof, mechanism for effecting operation of said device to clamp or release the web, and a, detector responsive to said control elements for varying the axial position of said cam with respect to said member to change the extent of reciprocation of said device.
13. Apparatus for making wrappers from a web having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising a web-clamping device including relatively movable gripper members, a web-cutting device including relatively movable cutting members, mechanism for reciprocating said web-clamping device intermittently to feed the web toward said'web-cutting device, a common operating mechanism for said devices effecting web-clamping movement of said gripper members concurrently with separation of said cutting members and web-releasing movement of said gripper members concurrently with websevering movement of said cutting members, a detector responsive to said control elements, and means controlled in accordance with the responses of said detector when said web is at rest for controlling one oi said mechanisms to vary the extents to which the web is fed by successive reciprocations of the web-clamping device.
14. Apparatus for making wrappers from a web having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising a web-clamping device including relatively movable gripper members, a web-cutting device including relatively movable cutting members, mechanism for reciprocating said web-clamping device in a path of constant length intermittently to feed the web toward said web-cutting device, mechanism for eflecting operation of said devices in fixed timed relation to each other during the successive cycles of reciprocation of said web-clamping device, a detector responsive to said control elements, and means controlled in accordance with the responses of said detector when said web isat rest for varying the timing of said second-named mechanism with respect to the reciprocation of said webclamping device in the successive cycles thereof.
15. Mechanism for making wrappers from a web having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising a web-clamping device, a web-cutting device, means for reciprocating said web-clamping device intermittently to feed the web toward said web-cuttingdevice, means for effecting operation of said web-cutting and web-clamping devices at fixed times in successive cycles of reciprocation of said web-clamping device, a detector responsive to said control elements, and means controlled in accordance with the responses of said detector when said web is at rest to vary the stroke of said web-clamping device in its successive cycles of reciprocation.
16. Mechanism for making wrappers from webs having thereon substantially regularly spaced control elements comprising web-clamping devices for the individual webs, web-cutting devices for the individual webs, means for reciprocating said web-clamping devices in unison intermittently to feed the webs toward their respective web-cutting devices, and detectors responsive to control elements of the individual webs for controlling the times of operation of the clamping and cutting devices of the individual webs in each cycle of reciprocation of said cutting devices.
DANIEL E. MAXFIELD.
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
mam No. 2,199,708. May 7, 191m.
DANIEL E. 'MAXFIELD.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page L first column, line 11, for suffix A read "suffix "A"--; page 9, second column, line 58, claim ii after the word said insert -the relatively movable members of said--; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 11th day of March, A. D. 19t1.
. Henry Van Arsdale, (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents.