US 2200058 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. L. CHOTT May 7, 1940.
ARTICULATOR Filed May l5, 1937 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 y 7, 1940- E. L. CHOTT 2.200.058
ARTICULATOR Filed May 15, 1937 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 lll f l m N Edward L. ['aii,
74%; 655 65. f m we: 5 4 m Patented 7, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,200,058 anricum'ron Edward L. Chott, Chicago, Ill.
Application May 15, 1937, Serial No. 142,790
This invention relates to the art of denture and reconstruction or dental surveying, and more especially to improvements in articulators in this art. Articulators are well known in the art of dental surveying and reconstruction, and of primary importance in the construction of an articulator is maximum adjustability and accuracy and other features whereby the articulator approximates as closely as possible the jaw of the human mouth formation and articulated movement of the lower Jaw.
It is now clearly established that the biting areas of the teeth, taken together, lie along a plane which is the curve of a sphere having a radius of four inches and is known as the occlusal plane. This plane is substantially accurate for approximately per cent of adult human teeth,
and in the manufacture of artificial dentures, a templet having this curvature is used in the articulator. As is well known by those skilled in the art, the actual angle of the setting of this plane diifers with different people and also the depth of the gums of the upper and lower jaws, respectively. Furthermore, in the art of mechanical dentistry where both upper and lower dentures are to be made, one or the other is customarily complete before the making of the other, and the two are then fitted together and I aligned, and in this process many separate steps,
including tests and adjustments, are necessary. It is therefore desirable. in an articulator that the position of the occlusal plane be carefully determined, and that thereafter, the dentures may be made utilizing the templet as much as may be necessary, and thatthe initial adjust-' ments be not lost; also, it is necessary that the upper denture mechanism be separated from the lower and replaced without losing the adjustments.
It is, therefore, an object of my invention to provide-an articulator having theforegoing advantages and characteristics, and one which is adjustable to all conditions that may be met in practise.
'Another object is to provide in an articulator a mounting for an upper denture or templet which is removable from the base without loss of adjustments.v
Other objects and advantages will appear and be brought out more fully in the following specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
i is a plan view of an embodiment of my invention showing the occlusal plane templet.
Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an end elevation of the same.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional elevation taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is a detailed view partly in section taken on the line 55.of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a plan view of a modified form of the bracket member shown in Figs. 1 and 3.
Fig. 7 is a view similar to- Fig. 2 in which the bracket shown in Fig. 6 is substituted for that of Figs. 1-3.
Fig. 8 is an elevation of the bracket member of Fig. 1 showing also the occlusal plane templet.
Fig. 9 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a separate view in sectional elevation of a modified occlusal plane templet.
Fig. 11 is a plan view partly in section of the same.
Fig. 12 is an enlarged" partial section taken along the line l2-l2 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 13 is a plan fragmentary view in section taken along the line l3-l3 of Fig. 7.
Fig. 14 is a side elevation of further modified form of articulator. Y
Fig. 15 is a plan view of the same.
Fig. 16 is a front elevation of the same.
Fig. 1'7 is a detailed view of one of the members of the same.
Fig. 18 is a section taken along the line Iii-F18 of Fig. 15. I
The device embodying my invention consists generally in a base to which a lower denture is to be attached, an auxiliary frame vertically adjustable with relation to the base, and a. brackethingedly mounted on the auxiliary frame and having means thereon for cooperation withthe lower denture for adjusting and testing the same. These may be either in the form of a templet, preferably provided with an adjustable mounting, as illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5 and 8 to 11, or in the form of an upper denture and support as illustrated in the remaining figures of the drawings. Means are included for accurately positioning the hinged bracket and hence the testing means with relation to the'lower denture.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, and especially to Figs. 1-5, I show an articulator having a base 20, an auxiliary supporting frame 2| mounted thereon to which is pivotly secured a bracket 22. Base 20 consists of a substantially T shaped plate 23 having a pair of upstanding supporting posts 24 secured thereto'by nuts 25 which also serve as feet for the partial support of the device, plate 23 being further provided with a front end portion 23 in which is a slot 21 adapted for the attachment of an adjustable foot plate 28 which has a shank 29 provided with a square portion 30 closely fitted into slot 21, the shank having a threaded portion 3| by which a thumb nut 32 secures the plate 28 to the front end portion 21 of the base.
A denture mounting plate 33 is secured to the base 20 and has a threaded central aperture 34 in which is screwed a knurled lock screw 35 which passes through an aperture 36 in base 20. A centering aperture 31 is located in plate 33 and a centering stud bolt 38 passes through plate 20, the head of the bolt 38 being fitted into aperture 31.
Supporting posts 24 are each provided with three recesses designated 39, 40, and 4!, recesses 39 being at equal heights above base 20 and similarly for recesses 40 and 4| respectively for a purpose to be presently explained. Auxiliary frame 2| has a pair of side members 42 secured together by lower cross web 43 and an upper cross member 44, side members 42 being provided with vertical bores 45. Each side member 42 is provided with a knurled lock screw 45, which is adapted to engage the recesses 39, 40, and 4|, and, preferably at right angles thereto, a knurled lock screw 41 is provided and adapted to engage a cylindrical portion of each post 24. Cross web 43 is provided with a vertical threaded bore 48 in which a knurled adjusting screw 49 is located, a fiat head screw 50 being secured in base 20 and adapted to serve as a stop for screw 49. A look nut 5| is further provided on screw 49. The upper portions of side members 42 are each formed as a bearing head 52 and provide an open bearing 53 which has a pitched fiat bearing way 54 which is preferably formed at an angle of 23 degrees with the horizontal. The upper cross member 44 is inclined or pitched at the same angle of 23 degrees and centrally thereon is a post 55 which has a threaded bore 55 likewise at the angle 23 degrees.
A pressure regulating screw 5'! is operable in bore 56 and has a knurled head 58 and an abutment end 59 and a bore 60, which has a spring seat or abutment 6| near the front end thereof.
A bearing bore 62 is formed in the front end of' screw 5land accommodates a plunger 53 which carries a bearing disc 54 at one end, the latter being urged downwardly by compression spring 65 located in bore 60. A stop collar 86 is suitably secured on the free end of plunger 63, and
a lock nut 61 is operable on the threaded portion of screw 51.
One of the main features of this invention is to provide a structure whereby the hingedly mounted bracket, after having been accurately adjusted, may be readily removed when desired and as readily replaced in exactly the original adjusted position. To this end, the bracket is provided with a pair of alined bearings or trunnions, and the auxiliary frame is formed with forwardly and downwardly inclined ways for the trunnions, terminating in cylindrical bearings for the same;
and said auxiliary frame is equipped with a desired. To this end the pivoted bracket 22 consists of an elongated plate 68 having a pair of extension hubs 69, in each of which is a bore 10 aligned to receive a shaft H which is secured therein by set screws I2. Shaft H is formed with reduced end bearing portions or trunnions 13 which are adapted to engage bearing 53 and bearing ways 54. Shoulders 14 are formed on shaft H to prevent lateral movement of the same, the ends of which shaft are provided with knurled knobs I5. By this arrangement it will be seen that the shaft 14 and bracket 22 may be rotated a moderate amount laterally, using one of the bearings 53 as a fulcrum and pressing upwardly against the knurled knob 15 on the opposite end of the shaft against the pressure of spring 65. This movement is of value and importance in testing dentures, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art. It will also be apparent that bearing disc 64 may be pressed against shaft 'II with any desired pressure by appropriate adjustment of regulating screw 51 and that the same may be locked against the shaft II by the turning of screw 51 all the way down so that the abutment end portion 59 engages disc 64. In this condition the shaft 'll is prevented from lateral movement along ways 54, but is free to rotate in both bearings 53.
The outer end of plate 68 is provided with a downwardly depending boss 16 in which is a vertical bore TI and a threaded lateral bore 18 (Fig. 12). A look screw 19 engages bore I8 and an incisal pin is secured thereby in the bore scale 82 and an ABC scale 83. The pin also has a rounded foot 84 adapted to rest on footv plate 28, and a knurled knob 85 at is upper end adapted for convenience in use. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the incisal pin 80 will be set at the A, B, or C point when the frame 42 is secured on post 24 by the lock screws 46, being set in the recesses 39, 40 and 4| respectively, these positions being normally used for the majority of dentures, it being clear that if intermediate adjustments are desired the lock screws 57 will be used and the incisal pin 80 set at a selected graduation of the centimeter scale 82.
As hereinbefore stated means are carried by said hinged upper plate or bracket for cooperation with the lower denture on the occlusal plane. This in some instances is an occlusal plate templet as illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9, and in some instances comprises the upper denture as shown in Figs. 6, 7, 14 and 15. Slightly modified forms of the hinged upper plate is used for these purposes. The general form of the plates are identical as is also the hinged connection to they auxiliary frame. The occlusal template plate is usually first employed in conjunction with the lower denture. Afterwards this is removed and the plate with the upper denture substituted. This is readily accomplished, as the only operation necessary to remove the one for substitution of the other is retraction of the plunger 63 and lifting the trunnions of the bracket 68 from the diagonal upwardly opening bearings. The other plate may be as readily applied, as is obvious. The only difference in the two hinged plates is in the means of attaching the respective members which cooperatively engage the lower denture.
The occlusal plate templet is secured to bracket 22 by the following described means. as shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 8, and-9., Bracket 22 has a spherical seated aperture 86 in which is-located a spherical clamp 81, the latter having a central bore 88 and upper and lower slits 89. A
templet hanger rod 90 extends through bore and is secured therein by a locking plate 9I having spherical seated aperture 92 which engages the upper portion of spherical clamp 81. Plate 9I has apertures 93 through which extend locking screws 94, the latter being screwed into tapped apertures 95 in plate 68, the screws each having a head 96, shoulder 91-, and an operating pin 98 which extends through the head 96. It should be obvious that the tightening of the screws 94 will clamp the rod 90 in any desired angular position.
In a majority of cases the lower denture is made before the upper denture and the mechanism which is described is peculiarly adapted for such a procedure. In making the'upper denture,
the mechanism shown in Figs. 6 and '7 is particularly advantageous, the upper bracket being shown at 22a and having elongated plate 68a to which is attached a denture mounting plate 33a substantially similar to plate 33 and having a threaded central aperture 34a, a locking screw 35a extending through aperture 36a in plate 68a. A centering aperture 31a is formed in plate 33a to accommodate the head of centering stud bolt 38a. Plate 33a is provided with a pair of arcuate apertures 33b to facilitate the securing of the usual plaster cast and plate 33 hereinabove described is similarly provided with arcuate apertures not shown in the drawings.
In Figs. 7, 14, 15, and 16 is shown an inclined foot plate 28a having a substantial inclination angle of 23 degrees, similar to that of the bearing ways 54. I
In Figs. 8, 9, and 10 I show more in detail the templet support which consists of a templet rod 99 adapted to be secured to hanger rod 90 by means of a sutured clamp or clutch I00. Rod 90 has a flattened portion II with radial sutures I02, a tapped aperture I03 to receive the threaded portion I04 of a wing bolt I05, the templet rod 99 having a flattened portion I06 provided with radial sutures I01 and an aperture I08 to receive the bolt I05. A soft metallic disc I09, preferably of aluminum, is placed between the sutures I02 and I0! by which the clamp is adjustable to any position. Templet rod 99 is preferably provided with a plurality of radially-extending prongs IIO which may be secured as by welding or otherwise to the standard occlusal templet I. If, due to an irregular denture, the standard templet is not to be used, a special or irregular templet II2 (Figs. 10 and 11) may be formed of plaster, as will be clear to those familiar with the art.
In Figs. 14 to 18 is shown modified means for supporting ends securing the dentures, and I show a base mounting plate 330 secured to the base 20 in a manner similar to that of plate 33, plate 330 being further provided with stop portions II3, the plate being elongated to provide for the same. Upper .plate 33d, secured to plate 68a similarly to plate 33a, is provided with bosses 4, each having a bore I I5, a threaded aperture IIB communicating therewith, and adapted to receive a'wing bolt I I I which provides locking means for a guide rod II8 having a foot portion I II9 whichmay engage stop portions II3 of plate the upper end of each rod II9 has a 330; knurled knob I20. Plates 33c and 33d are preferably provided with a plurality of conical bored apertures I2I to facilitate the adhesion of the plaster I22 which forms a base for thefwax portion I23of the lower denture having the occlusal plane curvature I24. In a similar manner,
plaster I25 is secured to the upper plate 33d and secures the wax portion I26 of the upper denture. Fig.7 shows the plaster and wax denture formations secured to plates 83 and 33a, and Fig. 2 shows the lower denture similarly secured. The operation of my invention should be obvious from the foregoing description, it being apparent that the various features of the invention are provided with the maximum adjustability for the most efficient formation of irregu-- lar as well as standard dentures,,and that the hereinabove referred to objects maybe achieved by devices constructed according to this specification.
While I have'illustrated and described the prefcrred form of construction for carrying my invention into effect, this is capable of variation and modification without departing from the spirit of the invention. I, therefore, do not wish to be limited to the precise details of construction set forth, but desire to avail myself of such variations and modifications as come within the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. An articulator comprising a base for a lower denture having a pair of upstanding supporting posts, an auxiliary frame mounted on said posts,
a bracket provided with a pair of trunnions,
said frame having forwardly and downwardly inclined ways each open at the upper end and terminating at the lower end in semi-cylindrical bearings for said trunnions, retractlble pressure means for yieldingly maintaining said trunnions in said bearings, said means including means for locking said trunnions in said bearings, means on said bracket for cooperative engagement with the lower denture and anincisal pin adapted to position said bracket relative to said base.
2 An articulator comprising a base for a lower denture having a pair of upstanding supporting posts, an auxiliary frame mounted on said posts, a bracket provided with a transverse shaft terminating in trunnions, inclined ways in said supporting frame terminating in bearings for said trunnions, said adjustable frame also provided with a threaded bore positioned radially with respect to said shaft, a pressure regulating and clamping screw threaded therein, a. spring pressed plunger in said screw and bearing member adapted to engage said shaft to yieldingly hold the trunnions in said bearings,-substantially as described.
3. An articulator comprising a base for a lower denture having a pair of upstanding supporting posts, an auxiliary frame mounted on said posts, a bracket provided with a transverse shaft terminating in trunnions, inclined ways in said supporting. frame terminating in'bearings for said trunions, said adjustable frame also provided with a threaded bore positioned radially with respect'to said shaft, a pressure regulating and clamping screw threaded therein, a spring pressed. plunger in said screw and having .a bearing member adapted to engage said shaft to yieldingly hold the trunnions in said bearings, and said clamping screw adapted to be adjusted to impinge against the bearing member on the plunger as and for the purpose specified.
4. An articulator comprising a base for a lower denture having a pair of upstanding supporting posts each provided with a plurality of recesses, an auxiliary frame mounted on said posts, set
screws ensageable with the recesses in said posts '75 having a for securing the frame in predetermined vertical position, a bracket provided with a transverse shaft terminating in trunnions, inclined ways in said supporting frame terminating in bearings for said trunnions, said adjustable frame also provided with a threaded bore positioned radially with respect to said shaft, a pressure regulating and clamping screw threaded therein, a spring pressed plunger in said screw and having a bearing member adapted to engage said shaft to yieldingly hold the trunnions in said bearings, and said clamping screw adapted to be adjusted to impinge against the bearing member on the plunger as and for the purpose specified.
5. An articulator as described comprising a base for a lower denture having a pair of upstanding supporting posts, an auxiliary supporting frame on said posts, a bracket for an upper denture having a pivotal connection with said frame, said connection including bearings in said frame radially open at one side thereof, a shaft in said bearings, means for retaining said shaft in said bearings said means including a spring biased bearing disc. and a locking sleeve therefor, an incisal pin adapted to adjustably position said bracket in relation to said base.
6. An articulator as described comprising a base for a lower denture having a pair of upstanding supporting posts, an auxiliary supporting frame on said posts, a bracket pivotly mounted on said frame, a templet hanger rod mounted for universal adjustment on said bracket and having a plurality of laterally extending prongs at the lower end thereof, and an incisal pin adapted to adjustably position said bracket in relation to said base.
7. An articulator as described comprising a base for a lower denture having a pair of upstanding supporting posts, an auxiliary supporting frame 'on said posts, a bracket pivotly mounted on said frame, a templet hanger rod adjustably secured to said bracket and having a jointed portion and a plurality of laterally extending prongs at the lower end thereof, and an incisalpin adapted to adjustably position said bracket in relation to said base.
B. An articulator comprising a base for a lower denture having a pair of upstanding supporting posts, an auxiliary frame mounted on said posts, a bracket comprising an elongated plate having a pair of spaced hubs in longitudinal alignment, a shaft adjustably mounted in said hubs, means for securing said hubs and shaft in fixed relation, trunnions on the ends of said shaft, inclined ways in said supporting frame terminating in bearings for said trunnions, said adjustable frame also provided with a threaded bore positioned radially with respect to said shaft, a pressure regulating clamping screw threaded therein, a spring pressed plunger in said screw and having a bearing member adapted to engage said shaft between said hubs to yleldingly hold the trunnions in said bearings,
substantially as described.
EDWARD L. CHOTT;