US 2200075 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May f7, 1940. w. T. CALDWELL HYDRAULIC POWER DHILLING RIG N .LEZ
May 7'1940 w. T. CALDWELL 2,200,075
HYDRAULIC POWER DRILLING RIG Filed April 6, 1938 4\Sheets-Sheet '2 INVENTOR i ATToh'Ey May 7 1940- w. T. CALDWELL 2.200.075
HYDRAULIC POWER DRILLING RIG Filed April e, 1938 4 sheets-sheets www ATTORNEY May 7, 1940. w. T. CALDWELL HYDRAULIC POWER. DRILLING RIG Filed April 6, 1958 A .ORNEY 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR Wa/er 7. fa/awe/z .Patented May 7,y 1940 PATENT oFFIcE fameuse",
HYDRAULIC POWER DRILLING RIG walter T.- Caldwell, Ema, okla., assigner to The George E.
Failing Supply Company,
kla., a corporation of Oklahoma A Application April s, 1938, serial No. 200,389
freezing in the hole due tothe packing of mud or sludge used in the drilling operations, and another disadvantage is that it is difficult to control the amount of pressure applied to the drill bit. When drilling through certain formations it is desirable toA apply pressure in excess of the pressure applied by the weight of the drill pipe and at other times it is desirable to relieve this weight for efficient operation. Also when the hole` reaches substantial depths the weight of the drill pipe is such as to interfere with rotation of the bit with the result that the drill pipe is often twisted apart. To overcome theseA disadvantages various hydraulic powers have been used to seiective'ly sustain or apply control pressure on the drill bit, however, the movement of the hydraulic powersare relatively short and it is customary to provide a drive rod through which the drill pipe extends, the drill pipe being connectingly engaged with the drive rod by .means of chuck mechanisms carried on the rod. It is therefore necessary to stop the drilling operations and to re'chuck the drill pipe numerous times to feed the bit the length of each standof drill pipe that is connected into the string as the drilling proceeds. Thisretards the drilling and results in greater cost in operation. V.
It is, therefore, the principal object of the present invention'to provide a drilling unit of the rotary type with a hydraulic power device of longer length and. whichsis incorporated in and made a part of the tower or mast employed in the drilling rig so as to reduce the drilling time and to avoid the necessity of a drive rod and chuckV for connecting the drill pipe with the hydraulic mechanism. A f- It is alsoran important object of the present .45 invention to provide a drilling apparatus of this character which is particularly adapted for vport- ,able' drilling outiits, such as used in core drilling, seismic surveying of subterranean formations, and the like.
Itis a further objection of the invention to provide a hydraulic power device and mast structura whereby the hydraulic mechanism may be readily moved out of position to permit running in and removal of the drill pipe.
55 In accomplishing these and other objects of the (Cl. Z55-22) invention, as hereinafter pointed out, I have provided improved details of structure, the preferred forms of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is an end view of a portable drilling unit equipped with a mast'and hydraulic power device embodying the features of the present invention, parts of the unit being show-n in section to better illustrate the construction.
Fig. 2 is a vertical section of the swivel head y through which hydraulic power is applied in controlling the pressure on the drill bit.
' Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of the drilling unit, parts of which are also shown in section.
Fig. 4I is a cross-section through the mast onl the line 4--4 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is a similar horizontal section on the line 5-5 of Fig.' 1.
Fig. 6 is a plan view of the drilling unit.
Fig. 7 is a horizontal section on the line 1--1 of Fig. 3.
- Fig. 8 is a side elevational Viewv of the drilling unit showing the mast moved to position for transportation.
Referring more in detail to the drawings:A
In carrying out the invention I have shown it as applied to a portable drilling unit which in# cludes a wheeled support such as the chassis I of a motor vehicle 2. Supported on the frame 3 of the chassis is a platform 4 forming a base for supporting a. mast or'drilling tower 5. The mast 5 includes a pair of spaced standards or legs 6 and 'I having substantially parallel lower end portions 8 and 9 and converging upper portions .I0 and I I terminating in forwardly extending ends I2 and I3 carrying eyes I4 and I5 for journaling trunnions I6 and I1 of a cross head I8, later described, the trunnions I6 and I'I being threaded and provided with nuts I9 which cooperate with shoulders 20 on the head for spacingly retaining the upper ends of the standards so that when they are in perpendicular position, as shownin Fig. 3, the axis of the trunnions are in plane with the axis of a turntable 2l that is carried on the platform 4, as later described.
Connected with the standards are truss-like legs 22 having upper portions 23 diverging from the upper end of the standards and terminating above the platform 4 in angularly extending portions 24 that are connected with the parallel portions of the standards.- The `truss members 22 are interconnected at spaced points by girth. or tie bars 25 to form a derrick-like structure. Connected with the standards 6 and I and with the truss bars 22 are pairs of arms 28`and 21 terminating in ears 28 and 29 that respectively engage the opposite sides of mounting brackets 38 and 3| carried upon the platform 4. The ears 88 and 68 are plvotally 'connected with the brackets by a tie rod 32 having reduced threaded ends 33 and 34 extending therethrough as best shown in Fig. 7, the projecting portions of the threaded 'ends 38 and 34 being provided with nuts 35 which cooperate with the stop shoulder 38 on the tie rod to retain the parts in assembly.A The brackets 38 are located' on the platform so that when the mast is in erect position. as shown in Fig. 3, the parallel lower ends 8 and 9 of the standards are in position to substantially engage the rear face 31 of the platform. When in this position the standards are' secured by straps 38 that are hinged to the platform, as indicated, at 38, and which have seat portions 48 engaging over the standards and terminating in slotted ends 8| whereby the seat portions are clamped against the standards by swing bolts 42 so that the mast is rigidly retained in erect position.
The foot portions of the standards are internally threaded to mount jack screws 43 having base plates 44 that are moved into engagement l with mud sills or the like so that the mast and drilling equipment carried thereby is partly supported uponl the ground independently of the chassis. Y
In order to raise 'and lower the mast, I provide double acting hydraulic cylinders and 41 having ends pivoted to the platform as indicated at 48, Fig. 3, and operating rods 49 connected with brackets 58 projecting from the truss-like members of the mast, as shown in Fig. 3,. The hydraulic cylinders 45 and 41 are supplied with a pressure fluid to act on the respective sides of pistons carried by the rods 49 so as to move the derrick from carrying position as show n in Fig. 8, to the operative position as shown in Fig. 3 and back to carrying position.
'Ijhe cross head |8, previously mentioned, includes a substantially yoke-shaped bar 5|', having ring-like ends 52 and 53 carryingthe trunnions I6 and I1 previously described for suspendingly supporting a hydraulic'mechanism as now to be described.
The hydraulic mechanism includes a-pair of tubular cylinders 54 and 55 having their ends projecting through the ring-like ends of the cross head and are rigidly retained therein by cylinder heads 56 and 51. The heads 56 and 51 are in the form of internally threaded caps mounted on the projecting ends of the cylinders and engaging the cross head to draw shouldered portions 58 and 59 of the cylinders into rigid engagement with the opposite side of the cross head, yas clearly shown in Fig. 1. 'I'he lower ends of the cylinders depend from the cross head when the mast is in erect position and terminate subY stanuauy half-way the height of the mast in ends 68 and 6| that are sleeved' within the ringshaped ends 62 and 63 of a yoke-shaped cross bar 64, as best shown in Fig. 4. 'I'he ends of the cylinders project through the ring-shaped endsof the bar 64 and are externally threaded to mount couplings 65 and 66 that are threaded into engagement with the cross bar to retain vthe cross bar in engagement with shoulders 61 and 68 on the cylinder.
Dependin'gly connected with the couplings '85 and 66 are tubular guides 69 and 18 having longitudinal facing slots 1| and 12 for passing the terminal endsof a guide yoke 13, later described. The lower ends of the tubular guides terminate slightly above the platform when the mast is in erect position and are connected by a tie member I4 similar to the cross bar. 64.v 'I'he ends of the tubular guides are closed, as at and 16, and are provided with centering sockets 11 and 18 for engaging bosses 19 and 80 on adjusting screws 8| and 82. 'I'he adjusting screws 8| and 82 are threaded in openings 83 and 84 of the framework 85 of the turntable, previously mentioned, so that when the mast is in erectedlposition and the hydraulic cylinders are located in alignment with the turntable, the adjusting screws 8| and 82 may be manipulated t0 engage the bosses thereon in the sockets of the tubular guides whereby the tubular guides and cylinders are retained in'perpendicular position as shown in Figs. l'and 3.
j Slldably mounted within the cylinders are pis tons 86 and 81 connectedwith rods 88 and 89 that are slidable through stuffing boxes 98 and 9| carried in heads 92 and 98 closing the lower ends of the cylinders, the .rods 88 and 89 being of suilicient length to allow for full movement of the pistons within 'the cylinders and to connect with the guide y oke 18. The guide yoke 13 is best illustrated in Fig. 5 and includes a bar 94 having cylindrical ends 95 and 96 provided with Formed in the intermediate portion ofthe bar is a semicylindrical oilset |88, having a semicylindrical seat |8| for accommodating a cylindrical neck |82 on a swivel head |83, later described. Plvotally supported on the bar by a hinged pin |84 is a gate |85 which is providedA with an arcuate seat |86 cooperating with the seat in the bar toh encircle the neck of the swivel head.- 'I'he gate |85 is retainedvin closed position by means of a pin |81 extending through an ear |88 and through aligning, ears |89 on-the gate. The connecting bar vand gate thus form a connection for the swivel' head whereby the power of the hydraulic cylinders is applied to the drill pipe, as later-described. A
In order to actuate the pistons 86 and 81 hydraulically in either direction, the heads'at the respective ends of the cylinders are provided with ports ||8 and"||| in which are threaded fittings II2 and IIS asbest shown in 1, the upper fittings |.|2 being connected by a exible hose ||4 with a control valve ||5 while the lower nttings 3 are vconnected byv a similar hose H6 with another voutlet of the control valve. The control valve also includes connections |I1 and ||8 with the intake and discharge connectionsl Y of ahydraulic pump ||9 whereby pressure iiuid may be selectively discharged on one orthe othersides of the pistons and drawn from the opposite sides depending uponthe setting of the control valve. For example, when the pressure iiuid is admitted through the upper connections, pressureof the hydraulic iluid is applied to the pisports the pistons are moved upwardly to relieve pressure acting on the Adrill bit, as later described. '.llfhev turntable 2|, previously mentioned, may
be of ordinary construction and includes a beveled gear |20, having a ring-like hub 2| that is journaled in suitable bearings |22 in the supporting frame of the turntable. Formed in the ring-like hub is a shouldered socket for mounting a slip carrier |23 having slips |24 for engaging the drive faces |25 of aKelly rod |26 or the drive,
slips may be removed land other slips inserted for supporting the drill pipe incidental to running in or removal thereof as in customary practice. The gear |23 is rotated from a suitable prime mover (not shown), located on the truck, the prime mover being connected through a power shaft |21 having a beveled pinion |28 meshing with the teeth of the ring gear. 'Ihe swivel head |03 includes a body |29 having a reduced portion provided with an annular groove |3| forming the neck |02l and annular shoulders |32 and |33 for engaging the respective upper and lower sides of the guide yoke 13.
Rotatably mounted within astufilng box |34 of the swivel head is a tubular nipple |35 having a anged collar |36 supported within the swivel head by antifriction bearings |31 respectively engaging ashoulder |38 and a packing nut |39 that is threadedly supported in the bore of the head. Also received within the socket and engaging the nut |39 is a packing |40 that is compressed about the nipple by a packing lgland |4|. The packing gland |4| is of substantially standard construction and has a connection |42 for connecting a' flexible hose |43 with a sludge pump *drill pipe for discharge through the drill bit into the bore-hole. The lower end of the nipple is internally threaded, as at |44 to connect the -pin of the Kelly rod |25. The Kelly rod |25 has its lower end provided with a suitable coupling for connecting the upper section of the drill pipe, as indicated at |45 in Fig. 1. 'The swivel head is provided with'the usual bail |45 for connection with atackle mechanism, as indicated at |41, including a cable l|48 operating over a pulley |43 that is carried bythe cross head I8, the opposite end of the cable being wound upon a suitable winding drum (not shown) thatis carried on the truck. j
'When it becomes necessaryto add sections of drill pipe or to withdraw or run in the drilling string, it is desirable to move the hydraulic cylinders away from the turntable. This is effected by disengaging the adjusting screws 8| and 82 with the lower ends of the guides, whereupon the cylinders and tubular guides are free to b'e swung retractively as shown in dotted lines, Fig. 3. To facilitate movement of the cylinders and retain them in retracted position,v the platform carries a double acting hydraulic cylinder |50, having a piston rod |5| that is connected with the lower cross bar 14 by means of a link |52, as best shown in Fig. 3. Pressure fluid is selectively admitted to the respective end s of the cylinder by wayof a control valve |53 which is suitably connected with a source of fluid pressure.
In using a drilling rig constructed and assembled as described, it is moved to location with the mast in position as shown in Fig. 8. Upon arrival at the drilling location the mast is moved to an erect position by means of the hydraulic cylinders 48 ,and 41, as shown in Fig.`3. The straps are swung` about the standards `ofthe mast and secured by the swing bolts. -The jack screws' 43 are then vadjusted so that: the foot portions 44 thereof firmly engage a mud sill or the slips in the turntable.
the like topartially support the load independently of the truck chassis. The screws 8| and 82 are threaded so that the bosses 19 and 80 engage in the centering sockets 11 and 18 of the tubular guides 69 and 10; The Kelly rod is connected with a drill bit. The guide yoke 13 is moved to its uppermost position by adjusting the valve ||5` so that the pressure iiuid is delivered to the lower ends of the cylinders 54 and 55. In this position of the Valve the liquid above the pistons is displaced through the upper ports. The Kelly rod is connected with the drill bit and lowered through the turntable to a position where the neck |02 on the swivel head engages within theI seat of the guide yoke 13. .The gate of the guide yoke is then closed about the neck and the pin inserted to retain the swivel head in connection with the yoke. Driving slips are then inserted in position within the turntable and the rotating mechanism started toefl'ect rotation of the drill bit. If desired hydraulic pressuremay be imparted to the drill bit by adjusting the control valve ||5 so that the pressure is .admitted to the upper ends of the hydraulic cylinders to apply downward pressure on the Kelly rod through the yoke-shaped guide 13.
As the drilling proceeds, the yoke-shaped guide reaches the bottom of the tubular guides whereupon the drilling string is raised by the tackle mechanism and a stand of drill rods is connected in the string. During this operation the screws 8| and 82 are backed off to release the lower ends of the cylinders, whereupon the hydraulic cylinder |50 is actuated to retract the hydraulic powerunit away from the well hole to eiect the respective connections in the drilling string. The drilling string is lowered into the bore hole so that the swivel head is in position to engage with the guide b ar 13. The hydraulic cylinder |50 is again actuated to return the hydraulic cylinders of the power unit to operative position, after which the screws 8| and 82 are again adjusted tothe positionas shown in Fig. 2. The yoke is then adjusted relatively to the neck of the swivel head so that it seats within the yoke and the gate is closed to retain the head. In this position the yoke is at the upper end of its stroke and the lower end of the Kelly rod is engaged with The rotating mechanism is again started to rotate the Kelly rod during which rotation the swivel head rotates withgresses and it, is necessary to partially supportv the weight of the drill pipe, this may be eiected by applying the uid pressure under the pistons of the hydraulic cylinders. When the drill bit is operating in loose formations it may be desirable to admit the pressure fluid to the lower ends of the cylinders so as .to regulate downward movement of the Kelly rod. WhenA running the casing the hydraulic unit may be swung retractively out of the way of the borehole so that the casing may be run into the hole, as in standard practice.
From the foregoing it is obvious that I have provided a drillingrig equipped 'with a hydraulic power device wherein the 'entire eiective length of a Kelly rodl may be utilized without making it necessary to change the connection between the hydraulic unit and the swivel head.
Attention is also directed to the fact that when thei hydraulic cylinders and tubular kguides are ed to move in an arc to and from drilling position, hydraulic means on the platform for moving the hydraulic device to and from operative relation with the turntable, and means connecting the hydraulic means with the hydraulic device, said connecting means including means for compensating for said arcuate movement of the hydraulic device.
2. In a device of the character described, a
platformfa mast carried by the platform, a turntable carried by the platform, a pair of hydraulic cylinders pivotally suspended from the mast, a pulley carried by the mast intermediate said cylinders, a tackle operating over the pulley to support a drilling string rotated by said turntable, pistons in the cylinders, guides connected with and depending from the lower ends of the cylinders, a cross head slidably connecting the guides, piston rods connecting the` pistons with the cross head, means connecting the cross head with the drilling string, means for moving the cylinders to carry the guides away from operative relation with the turntable, and means on the platform centeringly engaging the lower ends of the guides whereby the cylinders and guides c0- operate with the mast in supporting the load of the drilling string when the guides are in operada tive relation with the turntable.
3. In a drilling apparatus, a rotarytable, a Kelly rod rotated thereby, positive feeding mechanism for the Kelly rod including power devices disposed at opposite sides of the rotary table and between which the Kelly rod extends, said feeding devices including hydraulic cylinders, guides depending from the lower ends of the cylinders, means pivotally anchoring the upper ends of the cylinders whereby the guides are swingingly movable away from the sides of the rotary table, and jack screws selectively anchoring the lower ends of the'guides for fixed support relatively to the rotary table.
4. In adrilling apparatus, a supporting platform, spaced standards on the supporting platform, a cross head connecting the standards, a rotary table, a Kelly rod rotated thereby, positive feeding mechanism for the Kelly rod including power devices carried by the cross head and disposed at opposite sides of the rotary table, -said feeding devices including hydraulic cylinders, means pivotally supporting said cylinders from the cross head, guides depending from the lower ends of the cylinders, a Kelly rod engaging member slidable in the guides, pistons in the cylinders, rods connecting the pistons with the Kelly rod engaging member, and means for anchoring the lower ends of the guides to the supporting platform.
, 5.,In a .drilling apparatus, spaced standards,
K a cross head trunnioned on the standards, a pair of cylinders connected with the cross head, a
' pulley connected with th cross head intermediate with the cylinders,A means for selectively anchoring the lower ends`of the guides, pistons in said' cylinders, piston rods connected with the pistons and operable within the tubular guides,'a Kelly rodl engaging member connecting the piston rods and having portions slidably engaging' said guides, means on said Kelly rod engaging member for connecting the Kelly rod, and means for eiecting trunnioning movement of the `lcross head to carry said Kelly rod engaging member away from a position in alignment with the pulley and the rotating means.
6. In-a drilling apparatus, a platform, spaced standards pivotally supported on the platform for movement from erect to substantially horizontal positions, a cross head, means trunnioningly supporting-the cross head at the upper ends of the standards, a rotary table carried on the platform, I
a Kelly rod rotated thereby, a powder augmeiiting mechanism carried by the cross head and hav-- ing removable connection with the Kelly rod, and meanson the platform for moving said power augmenting mechanism incidental to said trunnion mounting of the cross head.
'7. In a drilling apparatus, a platform, spaced standards pivotally supported on the platform for movement from erect to substantially horizontal positions, a cross head, means trunnionyingly supporting the cross head at the upper ends of the standards, a rotary table carried on the platform, a Kelly rod rotated thereby, a power augmenting mechanism carried by the cross head and having removable connection with the Kelly rod, means on the platform for moving said power augmenting mechanism incidental to said trunnion mounting of the cross head, and means on the platform for. raising and lowering the standards to carry the power augmenting mechanism to an inclined position on the platform.
8. In a drilling apparatus, a platform, spaced standardsV pivotally supported on the platform for movement from erect to substantially horizontal positions, a cross head, means trunnioningly supporting the cross head at the upper ends of the standards, a rotary table carried on the platform, a Kelly rod rotated thereby, a power augmenting mechanism carried by the crossY head and having removable-connection with ,the Kelly rod, means on the platform for moving said power augmenting mechanism incidental to said trunnion mounting of the cross head, means on the platform for raising and lowering the standards to carry the/power augmenting mechanism to an. inclined position on the platform, and
means for latchingly retaining the standards in y erect position on the platform.
9. In a drilling apparatus, a platform, spaced standards pivotally supported on the platform for movement from erect to substantially horizontal positions, a cross head, means trunnioningly supporting the cross head at the upper ends of the standards, a rotary table carried on the platform, a Kelly rod rotated thereby, a power augmenting mechanism carried by the cross head and having removable connection with the Kelly rod, means on the platform for moving sai'd poweraugmenting mechanism incidental to said trunnion mounting of the cross head, means on the platform for raising and lowering the standards to carry the power augmenting mechanism to an inclined position on the platform, and means for latchingly retaining the standards in erect position on the platform.
10. A drilling apparatus including a supporting Platform, a mast carried by the platform, a rotary mechanism vcarried by the platform for rotating the Kelly rod of a drilling string, feeding mechanism for engaging the Kelly rod including hydraulic power cylinders disposed at opposite sides ofthe rotary mechanism,. means pivotally connecting the upper ends of the cylin- 'ders with said mast, guides connected withthe lower ends of the cylinders and having lower ends terminating near the supporting platform, and jack4 screws connecting said lower ends of the guides with the platform whereby the cylinders are retained from swinging movement in the mast and the cylinders including the guides cooperate with the mast in supporting the load,
ing the pistons with the drilling string for raising and'lowering the drilling string responsive to movement of the pistons in the cylinders, and anchor means engaging the lower ends of the cylinders to'anchor the cylinders on the plat- 12. In a rotary drilling unit, a platform, a mast on the platform including a pair of laterally spaced cylinders and legs having connection with the cylinders and platform to cooperate with the cylinders in suspendingly supporting a. drilling string, pistons in the cylinders, means connecting the pistons with the drilling string for raising and lowering the drilling string responsive to movement of the pistons in the cylinders, anchor means engaging the lower ends of the cylinders to anchor the cylinders on the platform, supports on the platform, and means hngedly connecting said legs with the supports .whereby said legs and cylinders are adapted to bemoved 20 to a transport position on the platform.
WALTER T. CALDWELL.