US 2202344 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
v ay 3, 1940. J. H HAMILTON ET AL 2,202,344
WASHING MACHINE Filed Jan. 24', 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet l Elma/Mm 000/0 5. fife/70490,?
y 28, 1940- J. H. HAMILTON ET AL 1 WASHING MACHINE Filed Jan. 24, 1936 4 Sheet s-Sheet 2 2 fiuwn whnw nunwHHHhHHHHHW T May 28, 19 0- J. H. HAMILTON ET AL Z- 4 WASHING MACHINE Filed Jan. 24, 193s 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 @7567? /7- Ham/Won.
May 28, 1940. J. HAMILTON ,ET AL WASHING MACHINE Filed Jan. 24, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet. 4 Y
iii!!! I 20 Figure 6 is a partial sectional view of the chanbottles is disclosed in the drawings and described 30 4 the like. tank, carrying the containers alternately and con- 40 "50' Figures 13 and 14 are respectively side elevaporting horizontal bars H and the side supporting Patented May 28,1940 g I 2,202,344
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE" WASHING MACHINE John B. Hamilton and David B. Nicholson,
Raleigh, N. C.
Application January 24, 1936, Serial No. some 8 Claims. (01. 141-1) The object of the invention is to provide an IE, showing the trough compartment closed by apparatus for the washing, soaking, rinsing, stera removable front side. I
ilizing and storing of containers and other similar Figure 16 is a transverse sectional view of the articles. trough compartment, taken on line lG-i6 of The invention provides a method of cleansing Figure 15. 5 various types of containers, which will insure The washing ma hine of the present invention,
that said containers are more rapidly and thorand the methods employed in conjunction thereoughly cleansed than when using conventional with, are adapted for the rapid and thorough methodsi cleansing of various types of containers. The The drawings disclose several preferred forms apparatus is particularly useful in the cleansing 10 of the washing apparatus of this invention, but out of odd-shaped containers, and containers it will be understood that the details of construc which may have left in them, after use, residue tion may be varied to adapt the invention for diflicult to remove by ordinary cleaning methods. various uses. Receptacles of this type, and from which residue In the drawings, which are illustrative, and in is difficult to remove, are used in laboratories and iii no sense restrictive: the like, and it is believed that the present in- Figure 1 'is an endview of the washing tank. vention solves the problem of keeping such con- Figure 2 is a side view of the washing tank. tainers in clean and sterile condition at all times, Figure 3 is a transverse vertical sectional viewwith the minimum expenditure of time and of the washing tank and drum, along the line minimum breakage. I g 20 3-3 of Figure 2, showing one of the end plates Containers such as test tubes, flasks, culture of the dnim equipped with the preferred form of bottles, Petri dishes and the like may be cleansed channels to receive the article receiving troughs, with facility employing the apparatus and meth- Figure 4 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view -ods of the present invention. I of the tank and drum, along the line 4-4 of While the apparatus is particularly adapted for 25 Figure 1. the cleansing of odd-shaped containers, it may Figure 5 is a sectional view on line 5-5 of be modified for use in cleansing such ordinary Figure 3 of the trough compartment sides in posicontainers as milk bottles. A preferred adaptation in the channels. tion of the apparatusfor use in cleansing milk nel arrangement, of the preferred form of the hereininvention, taken along the line 6-6 of Figu 3, The invention comprises broadly, a sealed tank Figure 7 is an enlarged view similar to Figure 6, having mounted for rotation therein a rotatable showing the construction of the keeper bar. drume tank Contains a q y W t Figure 8 is a fragmentary view of th d of or other washing liquid in .the bottom thereof; the keeper bar. and may be filled with steam or other sterilizing Figure 9 is a/partial side elevational view of a vapor or gas above the u a e o he water. The modified type of rotatable drum disc, particurote-table drum is equipped to receive various larly adapted for use in washing milk bottles or types of containers, and t s W t n the Sealed Figure 10 is a partial longitudinal sectional tinilollsly through the Cleansing qu d n 17 view of the type of rotatable drum shown in ili ins v p to thoroughly cl n e same.
Figure 9, and taken along the line Iii-l0 of In Figure e Sealed tank s Shown at Said Figure 9. tank having mounted for rotation therein a drum 1 Figure 11 is a longitudinal sectional view of a D shown in dotted lines. The tank is preferably 45 modified form of the invention, wherein swinging of cylindrical shape and may be supported above baskets are utilized for receiving the articles. the floor by any suitable structure. In Figures Figure 12 is a transverse vertical sectional view 1 and 2 the tank is shown carried within a strucof Figure 11. ture formed by the vertical legs Hi, the end suptional and transverse vertical sectional views of horizontal bars l2 all being shown in the form a type of basket employed in connection with of metal angle bars. The vertical bars or legs the washing machine of this invention. Ill may be of'any desired length, and should be Figure 15 is a partial longitudinal sectional extensive enough to position the bottom of the view of the drum taken on line l5-l5 of Figure tank above the floor sothat various fittings and 55 connections may be associated with the tank for the control of the same.
The tank comprises two engaging semi-cylindrical parts, the lower part I4 being secured at its open side to the horizontal bars H and I2, and the upper part I5 constituting the lid of the tank. As shown in Figure '3, the side of the lower part of the tank is secured to the inner edge of the horizontal bar I2 as at I6 by welding or the like, but, if more convenient, the side may be bolted to the bar. Referring to Figure 4, it will be observed that the ends of the lower part I4 are also secured as by soldering or welding as at I! to the inner edge of the horizontal end bars II.- By
this arrangement, the semi-cylindrical tank I4 is mounted upon the supporting structure to receive the semi-cylindrical lid portion I5 which is hinged to the supporting structure as shown at I8 in Figure 1.
The lid is constructed to seal tightly with the lower part of the tank I4 when in the lowered position of Figure l, and to insure a steam tight engagement of the two parts of the tank, the lid is provided with a depending inside flange 20 all around its lower edge, thisflange being adapted to closely engage with the inner open edge of the lower part of the tank I4, as shown in Figures 3 and 4. To further insure a steam tight seal between the upper and lower parts of the tank, the lower edge of the lid carries an outside flange 23 provided with a rubber gasket strip 22 which is adapted to engage the upper faces of the horizontal supporting members II and I2. Disposed around the tank are looking devices to lock the lid and the lower part of the tank in sealing engagement, these locking devices being shown in Figures 1 and 2 in the form of angular members 24 pivoted to the supporting structure, which members carry at their upper ends bolts 25 in threaded engagement with the pivoted members 24, which bolts may be tightened against the flange 23 carried by the lid I5 to press the inside flange 20 of the lid firmly down within the lower part of the tank l4, and also to press the outside fiange 23 and gasket 22 downwardly into firm engagement with horizontal supportingv members II and I2.
It will be understood that the inside flange 20, the outside flange 23, and the gasket 22 extend entirely around the tank, so that the two parts of the same will be completely sealed and steam tight when the lid I5 is lowered to the engaging position of Figure 1. The bottom part I4 of the tank is equipped with fittings, as shown in Figure 1, to provide for partially filling the tank with liquid and for heating and controlling the same. The fittings 21 in the lower tank section I4 are to receive a pair of steam lines 28, which extend throughout the length of the tank as shown in Figure 2. The fitting 29 is adapted to receive a liquid inlet pipe 30 in order that the lower tank section may be partially filled with water or other cleansing liquid. The lower tank section will be filled above the level of the steam lines 28, and steam may then be blown through. a plurality of apertures in the lines 28 into the liquid to heat the same as desired. An outlet fitting 3| is fixed in the bottom of the tank and leading therefrom is a drain pipe 32 controlled by a valve 33, to regulate the level of liquid in the tank, and to drain the same.
The level of water inthe tank may be observed by aconventional water gauge secured in a fitting 34 in the end of the lower tank section as shown in Figure l, and any conventional type of thermometer may be attached at the fitting 35 in the end of the lower tank section in order that the temperature of the liquid will be indicated.
It will be noted in Figure 3 that the steam lines 28 are mounted on the inner face of the lower tank section I4, and immediately adjacent thereto, so that the rotatable drum D carrying the containers to be washed. will clear the same during rotation.
The lid I5 of the tank is also equipped with a plurality of lines 36 extending throughout the length thereof, these lines being provided with a multitude of perforations 31 in order that steam or other sterilizing vapor or gas may be discharged throughout the upper part of the tank in a cloud-like manner, in order to thoroughly cover and sterilize the containers. While steam will ordinarily be discharged into the tank through the lines 36, any suitable valve arrangement may be provided in these lines exteriorly of the tank so that either hot or cold water, or other cleansing or rinsing liquid may be projected into the upper part of the tank through the openings 31 to thoroughly cleanse or rinse with liquid the containers carried in the rotatable drum.
Referring to Figure 2, it will be noted that the lid I5 carries a convenient handle 40 for raising and lowering the top of the tank, and various fittings may be provided along the front face of the lid, so that the attendant may check on the condition within the tank during operation, As shown in Figure 2, a steam gauge may be provided at 4| to indicate steam pressure within the upper part of the tank, and a thermometer may be disposed in a fitting 42 to indicate the temperature of the vapor or gas within the upper part of the tank. A relief valve for relieving vapor from the upper part of the tank may be mounted in the lid as at 43 and an air exhaust valve 44 may be utilized to permit the exit of air from the upper part of the tank when the same is being filled with vapor.
The rotatable drum comprises a pair of end circular discs or plates 46 and 41 mounted on circular couplings 48 by which said discs are fixed to a shaft Bill which extends longitudinally and centrally through the tank. As shown in Figure 4, the shaft is protected by a sleeve 5| which surrounds the shaft at its portions which extend through the tank and where it is exposed to steam or other fluid.
The shaft 50 is mounted for rotation in bearings 53 secured to the horizontal frame members I I, and the shaft may be driven from any suitable source of power. In Figure 2, the shaft is shown provided with a pulley 54 to which may be operatively connected a belt or the like. The shaft is broken and equipped with a clutch 55 which is convenient for use in connection with loading and unloading the drum.
In the preferred embodiment of the rotatable drum as disclosed in Figure 3, the inner faces of the drum discs 46 and 41 are provided with a plurality of correspondingly arranged channel members 60, said members being bolted or riveted at their backs to the inner faces of the discs as shown in Figure 5. Each of these channel members is adapted to receive a removable foraminous trough forming side 6|, (Figs. 4 and 5), which is held at its ends within the channels between the opposed drum discs. Each side comprises a substantially rectangular frame of metal members secured together, with wire,
screen or the like strung-between the frame mem- 75 bers.,-The channels 60 are provided as shown in Figures 4 and 5 with aligned openings near each end of the channels, said openings being adapted to register with apertures 62 in the and frame members of the trough sides so that the latter may be removably secured inposition in the channels by means of cotter keys 63.
As disclosed in Figure 3, each of the drum discs 46 and 41 is provided with banks of the channel members 60, the banks being disposed substantially 90- apart around the discs. When the drum is in the positionshown in Figure 3, the upper and lower banks of channels are disposed in substantially horizontal planes, and the right and left banks of channels are disposed in substantially vertical planes. In the'arrangement shown in Figure 3, each bank is shown as comprising four radially spaced parallel channel members.
The washing machine" of this invention will be equipped with a plurality of the trough sides SI, and these sides may be selectively positioned in thechannels to form trough compartments of various dimensions depending upon the type of container or article being cleansed. For in; stance, and referring to Figure 4, a .top trough side 6| is shown positioned in the second set of channels from the top and a bottom trough side 6| is shown positioned in the bottom set of channels, to form a compartment therebetw'een to receive containers or articles of a certain size. In Figure 5, a trough side is shown in each set of channels, thus forming three separate compartments in the trough, to accommodate smaller containers or articles. Obviously in Figure 5, the two intermediate trough sides could be omitted to form a relatively large compartment Thus it will be seen that we have provided a rotatable drum which may easily be arranged to accommodate containers or articles of various sizes and that the number and dimensions of the compartments in which the articles are to be carried may be varied with facility.
As shown in Figures 3 and 6, each bank of channels may have mounted at one end thereof a permanent trough .back side which is secured to-thc inner face of the discs 46 and 41 at right angles to the direction in which the channels 60 extend. The trough back side members 65 are of sufficient width to extend across the entire line of channels 60 in each bank, so that said trough back side will form the back of the compartment formed no matter how many or in what manner the trough sides are assembled in the channels. While we have disclosed the trough back sides 65 as being permanently attached between the drum discs 46 and 41, these back sides may be remov-' ably mounted in channels in a manner similar .to
that shown in connection with the trough sides 6|.
In using the embodiment of the invention of Figure 3, articles of glassware, such as bottles,
flasks, test tubes and the like, will be placed in the trough or compartment formed by the trough top and bottom sides 6! and thetrough back sides 65. These articles may be placed loosely within the trough compartment if they .are of sufficient 1 size, or if small they may first be placed in baskets or racks in a manner hereinafter described and then said baskets or racks may be placed within the trough. In either event, the loose articles, baskets or racks of containers are retained within the trough by a keeper bar 61 of the type shown in Figure '7; The drum discs 48 and 41 are provided with a plurality of apertures 68 dis-' posed between the channel members 60 as desired. Referring to Figure 3, three of these apertures 68 are shown in alignment between each of the channel members 60, and oneof such apertures is shown at'the opposite end and between the channels adjacent the back trough side65. By reason of these apertures, a keeper bar may be positioned to securely hold the articles or racks of articles within .the' trough compartmentsto prevent the articles from moving about during the rotation of the drum. Furthermore, by reason of the plurality of aligned apertures 68, the
longitudinal dimension of the trough may be varied to accommodate the number or size of articles being cleansed.
If it is not desired to utilize a permanent back trough side 65,.this member may be omitted, and
the back of the trough may be closed by means of a keeper bar or bars'placed in the aperture 68 located adjacent the normalposition of the back trough side 65. Such an arrangement is suited to the type of containers being cleansed .and will increase the flexibility of the assembly.
Thekeeper bar is shown in Figures .7 and 8 as comprising a tube 69 having a pin Hi of slightly smaller diameter than the tube permanently secured as by riveting in one end thereof, and a movable pin or latch "ll of like diameterin the other end thereof. The pin or latch His normally urged toward an outwardposition by means .of a spring 12 carried within the tube and retained at one end by a pin 13 extending through the tube. The latch" is provided with anengaging handle 14 which extends through a slot .15 in the tube 69. The slot 15 has offset portions 1-8 and 11 at its ends, so that the latch ll may be secured in locked or unlocked condition. In use,
' pin 10 of the keeper bar is inserted in one of the apertures 68 in one of the drumdiscs, and the latch "Ii is drawn inwardly by thehandle 14 against the tension of the spring 12 until the keeper bar is in proper position with its latch.
aligned with the proper aperture 68 in gthelother drum disc. The engaging handle It may be placed in the extension 11 to hold the latch 1| retracted to facilitate this operation. When the keeper bar is in position the engaging handle may be permitted to move through the slot I5, thus forcing the latch ll into its proper aperture 68, after which the engaging handle may be moved into the extension 16 of the slot 15 to lock the keeper bar in place. Itv will be noted that the ends of the tube as abut against the inner faces of the drum discs 46 and 41 to assist in retaining the keeper bar in place.
In operating the washing machine of the present invention, the troughs may be formed with top, bottom and back sides as desired, after which loose containers or articles or baskets or'rack's of containers or articles may be placed in the trough. These articles may then be secured in position by placing the keepers in the apertures. The tank top IE will, of course, be raised during this operation, and each of the banks of channels may be brought to the upper position, at which time the troughs will be filled with the articles. The tank is then closed and sealed, and water or other cleansing solution is admitted to the lower part of the tank and is heated to the desired temperature by steam which is. blown in through the lines 28. If it is desired to have a sterilizing atmosphere in the upper portion of the tank, live steam or other vapor or gas may be blown in through the steam lines 36 in the lid of the tank. Air may be a in the troughs.
exhausted during the inflow of vapor, through the air relief valve, and the desired condition in the upper and lower parts of the drum may be brought about by regulating the liquid by inletv the containers passthrough the fluid in the bottom of the tank, they will become filled, and will empty when they pass through the upper part of the tank. To carry out these operations, it
is desirable that the containers be positioned in the troughs with their mouths directed toward the axis of rotation of the drum whether they are disposed alone in the trough compartments, or in baskets or racks placed thereon, so that they will fill by gravity during the lower part of I the cycle of rotation, and discharge by gravity during the upper part of their cycle of rotation.
. Obviously, the movement of the drum and consame.
tainers through the fluid will cause considerable agitation, whichwill assist in a more thorough cleansing of the containers or other articles. Furthermore, steam may be blown into the water orother cleansing solution through the pipes 28 in as violent a manner as desired to secure fur- .ther agitation of the cleaning fluid.
In the normaloperation of washing laboratory equipment, we have found that temperatures within the tank of from 135 F. to 212 F. are suitable, depending upon the condition of the article being cleansed, and the kind of residue or foreign matter to be removed. When more complete ,steriliza tion is desired, steam pressure of fifteen pounds per square inch may be maintained. After the containers or articles have been thoroughly cleansed, each trough may be stopped beneath the perforated pipes 36 and cold water or other fluid may be projected upon the articles from these pipes in order to rinse the The articles may be removed after rinsing or articlesmay be removed from one trough and replaced with soiled articles and these may then be washed along with the articles already inposition in the other trough compartments.
The washing apparatus of this invention has been found to be particularly successful in cleansing ampoules or other narrow necked containers. As is well known, containers of this character are very difficult to wash owing to the fact that fluid cannot be readily. expelled through the narrow neck due to the capillary effect.
In cleansing ampoules in accordance with the method of the present invention, they may be disposed in the troughs with their mouths facing toward the axis of rotation of the drum and, then they may be slowly immersed and raised from the cleansing fluid by revolving the drum at a slow speed, usually around three revolutions per minute. When carrying out this method, we have found that the temperature of the water orcleansing fluid should be materially lower than the temperature of the steam or other sterilizing vapor in the upper part of the tank. We have foundthat a desirable condition exists when the temperature of the Water or other cleansing liquid is approximately 135 F. and
the temperature of the vapor in the upper part of the tank is approximately 200 F.
When,the ampoules with their mouths disposed radially toward the axis of rotation are rotated in the machine with the above conditions existing, they will alternately be exposed to relatively cold liquid or other fluid and relatively hot steam or other vapor or gas. .When the ampoules pass through the relatively cold liquid, the air in the same will contractand draw liquid into the inside of the ampoules, and when they are slowly passed through the upper part of the tank, and through the relatively hot steam or other vapor, the change of temperature will cause the air trapped within the ampoules to expand, thus expelling the water or other cleansing liquid from the ampoules. Thus it will be seen that during each rotation of the drum, the ampoules will be partially filled with liquid and then will be caused to expel thesame, thus thoroughly cleansing their interiors.
In Figures 9 and 10 is shown an alternative rotatable drum disc construction adapted for I use in cleansing such containers as milk bottles and the like. It will be understood that this form of drum may be used in the same tank arrangement as shown in Figures 1 and 2. In this embodiment, the channel members 80, similar to the channel members 60 of the embodiment of Figure 3, are bolted or riveted radially to the drum discs, so that when the trough sides 8! are fixed in these channels they will converge toward one another as the center of rotation of the drum is approached. The milk bottles or the like may be positioned between the trough sides as shown in Figure 9. Between adjacent channels members, a plurality of keeper receiving apertures 83 are provided in the drum discs, said apertures being spaced radially along a diameter of the drum and between adjacent channel members. With this arrangement, different sizes of bottles may be accommodated between the trough sides and retained by disposing a keeper bar in the proper apertures 83. As shown in Figure 9, identical adjacent troughs may accommodate, for instance, a half pint, a pint and a quart bottle as shown. If a larger bottle such as a flask of some sort is to be washed in a rotatable drum of this type, certain of the channels may not be provided with trough sides, thus providing a larger compartment to retain the larger article or container. That is, trough sides may only be inserted in alternate or every third channel to make the trough compartments as extensive as needed.
In washing milk bottles or the like with a drum of this embodiment of the invention, it is preferred that the bottles should be disposed within the trough with their mouths directed toward the center of rotation of the drum, as shown in Figures 9 and 10.
In operating the machine employing the drum of this embodiment, the drum will be rotated in the tank and the open mouth containers will alternately be exposed to the cleansing liquid and the sterilizing vapor in the'tank, and it will be obvious that the containers will be alternately immersed with their mouths directed upwardly and permitted to drain with their mouths directed downwardly. The rotation of the drum through the liquid will cause agitation of the latter which may be increased as desired by increasing the pressure of the steam projected into the liquid through the steam pipes 28.
The drum of this embodiment may also be coninto a plurality of compartments to receive and veniently used in the pasteurizing or sterilization of containers filled with milk. In this use, the bottles of milk or cream with their tops applied,
will be positioned in the troughs as shown in Figure 9. Liquid may or may not be present in the bottom of the tank, and the tank may be completely filled with steam or other vapor or gas at the desired temperature and p sspre. The closed bottles of milk or cream m' hen be slowly revolved in the vapor atmosphere or through the liquid to accomplish the sterilization or pasteurization. It will be apparent that ,the
rotation of the drum will continue to turn the bottles upside down, resulting in an even distribution of the cream content of the fluid during the sterilization or pasteurization. In carrying out this method, the temperature within the,
tanks should be from approximately 142 to 145 F. After the bottles have been subjected to this temperature for the desired length of time, they may be rapidly cooled by passing cold water or brine through the tank, or spraying said bottles with cold water or brine from the lines 3;, org; both. i r
In laboratory operations, it is frequently desirable to sterilize flasks of liquid of the type.
1 shown in Figure These flasks will contain a quantity of liquid,and the necks of the flasks will generally only be closed by a wad of cotton or the like to prevent contamination of the contents. In sterilizing the liquid in such flasks, it is necessary to keep the flasks at all times in upright position, although we have found it to be desirable to move the flask and contents throughout the atmosphere in which they are being sterilized.- Referring to Figures 3, 11 and 12, four lugs 86 are disclosed projecting inwardly from the drum discs and disposed substantially 90 apart, alternately with respect to adjacentbanks of the channel members 88. When it is desired to sterilize open mouthed flasks of liquid,
the trough sides may be omitted from the channel members 88 and a flask cradle 81 of the type shown in Figures 11 and 12 may be mounted on opposed lugs 88. The cradles '81 comprise a foraminous body 88. The end members 88 extend upwardly and are bent outwardly and downwardly at their ends to form hook-shaped portions 88, said hookshaped portions being slotted as at 8| in order to fit over the projecting ends of the 1ugs86. Referring particularly to Figure II, .it' will be noted that the projecting ends of the lugs 88 are enlarged as at 8| in order to retain the hook-shaped end of the cradle in position when mounted thereon. By this arrangement, the flask cradles are suspended on the lugs 88 and they will remain in upright position throughout the complete cycle of rotation of the drum, the hook-shaped ends of the plates 88 being adapted to pivot upon the lugs 86.
The lugs. 88 are of such length that they project inwardly from the inner face of the drums l8 and 41 to a sufllcient extent so that the channels 88 will not interfere with the relative movement of the cradles with respect to the drum during. the rotation of the latter.
In Figures 13 and 14, a rack arrangement is are a plurality of spacing elements "II, as shown in Figure 13, which divide the length of the rack 88 and metallic end members] hold in spaced relation the Petri dishes I82.
This rack may be filled with Petri dishes outside of the tank, and the rack will be of such dimension that it mayv be disposed within the trough compartments formed by the trough sides 6| as shown in Figures 3 and 4. The racks may be of such dimension as to extend theentire length of the troughs, or they may. be of smaller overall length and a plurality of them may be positioned within the troughs in end to end relation. In either case, these racks will be retained in the troughs by properlypositioning one of the keeper bars.
In connection with the embodiment of Figure 3, a front side member I85 of the type shown in Figures l5 and I6 may be used if it is desired to completely close the trough compartment, in order to carry articles too large for racks such as is shown in Figures 13 and 14. This member islgcomposed of metallic side members I06 and 181* of'angular form, adapted to rest on the edges of adjacent trough sides 8| as shown in Figure 16, metallic'end members I88 and I88 and a foraminous bottom 8. This front side member is held in place by one or the keeper bars 61, thus completely closing the trough compartment;
It will be noted in Figure 15 that the member I85 is of such length-that it may be positioned between the inner edges of opposed channel members 68', .on opposite drum discs 48 and 41. While in Figure 16 we have disclosed the member I05 as being only wide enough to extend between adjacent channel members, this front side member may be wide enough to bridge any 1 number of channel members, depending on the size of the trough compartment which has been formed, as hereinbefore described, without interfering with the channel members not in use.
=The use of this front side member has been found useful in washing Roux culture bottles and Blake flasks, and might be found to be convenient in washing any articles or material where it is desirable to completely close. the trough compartment.
r In connection with any of the embodiments of the invention discussed above, and if the cleansing and sterilizing operations have been completed, it will be obvious that the containers may be stored within the tank until such time 1 as their use is desired, at which time any or all" of the containers or other articles may be removed. Furthermore, if it is desired to store the containers or other articles in a sterile atmosphere until their use is desired, the liquid cleansing solution may be removed from the tank and 1 the articles left sealed' in the tank which may .be kept filled with steam at any desired temperature and pressure.
While we have found that better results are accomplished by using steam in the upper part of the tank, it is obvious that simple washing of containers or other articles may be carried out by continuously immersing the containers in the cleansing liquid without using steam or other sterilizing vapor in the upper part of the tank.
If desired, thelower part of the tank may be filled with liquid and articles carried in the trough compartments may be soaked therein, the drum remaining stationary.
It will be obvious that we have provided an apparatus of great flexibility which may be employed in cleansing and sterilizing containers and other articles of various sizes and shapes.
The details of the construction shown herein may be considerably modified without departing from the scope of the invention, and the apparatus described above is susceptible of great variation in size to accommodate the machine to the type of work for which it is desired. Furthermore, it will be evident that the apparatus shown herein may be used, or modified for use, incleansing any type of articles or materials and is not limited in its usefulness solely to the cleansing of containers.
1. In an apparatus of the class described, a drum comprising a pair of opposed end plates, a plurality of substantially rectangular trough sides, ooperating means on said plates and the ends of said sides for removably securing said sides between said plates in spaced relation to one another, to form a trough compartment with an open side for receiving articles to be cleansed, and a keeper bar, said plates having aligned openings between said trough sides for removably securing the ends of said bar between said plates across an open side of said trough compartment, to retain the article therein. I
'2. In an apparatus of the class described, a drum comprising a pair of opposed plates, a plurality of substantially rectangular trough sides, cooperating means on said plates and the ends of said sides for removably securing said sides between-said plates in spaced relation to one another to form a trough compartment with an open side for receiving articles to be cleansed, and a keeper bar, said plates having a plurality of pairs of aligned openings between said trough sides for removably securing the ends of said bar between said plates across an open side of said trough compartment, to retain articles of various sizes therein.
3. An apparatus of the class described, a drum comprising a pair of opposed plates, a plurality of substantially rectangular trough sides, a plurality of pairs of aligned means on said plates cooperating with the ends of said sides for removably securing said sides between said plates in spaced relation to one another to selectively form trough compartments of various sizes having open sides for receiving articles to be cleansed, and a plurality of keeper bars, said plates having aligned openings between said trough sides for removably securing the ends of said bars between said plates across the open sides of said trough compartments, to retain the articles therein.
4. An apparatus of the class described, a drum comprising a pair of opposed plates, a plurality plates across the open sides of said trough compartments to retain the articles therein.
5. An apparatus of the class described, a drum comprising a pair of opposed plates, a plurality of substantially rectangular flat trough sides, cooperating means on said plates and the ends of said trough sides for removably securing said sides between said plates in spaced parallel relation to one another to form a trough coming said sides between said plates in spaced relation to one another and radially with respect to the axis of rotation of said drum, to form a trough compartment with an open side for receiving articles to be cleansed, and a keeper bar, said plates having aligned openings between said trough sides for removably securing the ends of said bar between said plates across an open side of said trough compartment, to retain the articles therein.
7. In an apparatus of the class described, a rotatable drum comprising a pair of opposed plates, a plurality of substantially rectangular trough sides, cooperating means on said plates and the ends of said sides for removably securing said sides between said plates in spaced relation to one another, and radially with respect to the axis of rotation of said drum, to form a trough compartment with an open side for receiving articles to be cleansed, and a keeper bar, said plates having a plurality of pairs of aligned openings between said trough sides for selectively and removably securing the ends of said bar between said plates across an open side of said trough compartment, to retain articles of various sizes therein.
8. In an apparatus of theclass described, a rotatable drum comprising a pair of opposed plates, a plurality of flat Ioraminous trough sides,
a plurality of pairs of means on said plates for cooperation with the ends of said trough sides for removably securing said sides between said plates in spaced relation to one another and radially with respect to the axis of rotation of said drum, to form trough compartments of various sizes having open sides for receiving articles to be cleansed, and a plurality of keeper bars, said plates having aligned openings between said trough sides .for removably securing the ends of said bars between said plates across open sides of the trough compartments, to retain the articles therein.
, JOHN H. HAMILTON.
DAVID B. NICHOLSON.