US 2203167 A
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June 4, 1940. I T, F, LODWICK l 2,203,167
MEANS FOR IDENTIFYING AND REPRODUCIG COLOR HARMONY INVENT OR.
June 4, 1940. T. F. LoDwlcK 2,203,167
MEANS FOR IDENTIYING AND REP'RODUCING COLOR HARMONY Filed Jan. 18, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 O O v O O C C C)v O O mxJNGT/LB rouR QIMNTITIES 0F I1ATIZFIIAL5 NEEDED FOR ONE BALLON 0F MATERIAL FOR EACH 0F THE VARIOUS TUNES WHEN PROFORTION BETWEEN ALL COLORS I5z 3 1 1 N VENTOR.
T F LUUWIEK Patented June 4, 1940` UNITED STATES MEANS FOR IDENTIFYING AND REPRODUC- ING COLR HARMONY Thomas F. Lodwick, Mystic, Iowa Application January 18, 1939, Serial No. 251,589
The principal object of this invention is to provide a method of and means for identifying and reproducing'color harmony which enables the user to reproduce accurately and quickly, 5 the color desired. l
A further object of my invention is to provide a method of and means for identifying and reproducing color harmony which provides an accurate and precise method'of matching hue chroma, and value of a color.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a means for quickly identifying, comparing My invention consists in the construction, ar-
rangement and combination of the various parts of the device and methods employed in its use, whereby the objects contemplated are attained 30 as hereinafter more fully set forth, pointed out in my claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings; in which: ,f
Fig. 1 is a top elevational view showing the arrangement of the hue matching directory. u Fig. 2 is an end elevational `viewA of the hue matching directory more fully illustrating its structure.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged side sectional view of one ofthe binding elements used in the construction n of the hue matching directory.
.j Fig. 4 is a view of one of the pages of` my directory showing one of the Amixing tables or charts.
Fig. 5 is a rear view of one of the color tone 45 vcards incorporated in my directory.
Heretofore, color harmony has been4 largely left to guess workand tothe ability of the painter. This manner of obtaininga harmony in color tones is very unsatisfactory. These painters and 50 color workers have no concrete basis upon which to establish a certain color tone or know that the paint"'when dry, will achieve the results desired in "afgi'ven instance. Heretofore, there has been no Away of acc'. -ately foreseeing changes 65 occurring in the coloiibne of a given paint from color tone card within the directory may be re- 4 moved at will without disturbing the other cards its moist state to the drying stage and a's its color tone has an entirely different characteristic from dry over. the wet state. There is no way of denitely, knowing the exact color produced Aexcept; by the trial and error method. I have 5 overcome such disadvantages as will be appreciated and as will hereinafter be more fully set forth. My process or method involves the use of a cross indexed complete color tone directory and method for making or producing the tones of the desired and specific characteristics.
Referring to the drawings, I have used the numeral I0 to designate a rigid base board upon which are mounted the directories II and I2.
. These directories are made `up of a plurality of leaves of color tones progressivelygraded as to change of values of the respective colors of the visible spectrum. I have used the numerals I3 and I4 to'indicate hollow post members rigidly secured to the base II) and slidably embracing a locking bar or'rod I5 as shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings. It i's upon these locking members and tube members that I place the various leaves of my directories which I will now describe. The numeral I6 indicates a plurality. of color tone 2., cards operatively mounted on the binding eiements comprising the members I3, I4, and I5. On each specific page of this' directory is a plurality of these color tone cards progressively valued from the deeper values of a lspecific tone :tu to the lighter values as illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawings. Similarly, the numeral I'I indicates color tone cards operatively mounted or bound together to form the directory I2. 'I'hese color tone cards mounted inthe directory I2 are com- 2:. plementary colors-of those mounted and listed in the directory II. Each of these color to'ne cards is bound to the base by three of the binding elements in this specific instance so that any of the series. Separating each of these color value graduation indexes is an identication page or sheet I8 and I9 for identifying the colors directly -adjacent this page within the directory Il and the directory I2 respectively. Upon these pages I8 and I9 is printed indicia describing the speciiic tone, naming it, and givingpall references relative to obtaining the desired Ivalue and giving a color lharmony referencefor arriving at 5o the complementary color of the base color selected, and also the colors necessary for obtaining a balanced three or four tone harmony. The numeral 2li indicates reference tabs spaced throughout the directory for quickly and easily iinding the color or tone specied on the identification sheets IB and I9. I have used the numeral 2| to designate one of the pages of the directory containing one of the mixing tables for obtaining a given color as selected from the directory. This page has thereon indicia for suppl'ing a formula for obtaining the desired color thereonv and is referred to upon the directory pages I8`and I9 adjacent the color tone cards I6 and I1.
My method employs the use of the directory as shown in the drawings and I will now describe the various stages outlining my method of and means for identifying and reproducing color harmony. When a Acertain color tone has been dei cided upon forl use in a speciiic instance, this tone is identical within either of the directory portions II or I2'. Reference is then made to i the reference made directly adjoining or adjacent the color tone selected and all of the characteristics, formulas, and otheridentification is readily ascertainable. Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, it will be noted that upon the directory II, I have shown a specific color tone, in this case indicated upon the colorA tone card I6. This tone card by reference to thereference page I8 shows that the color is identified as "magenta rose and also identifies the hue'oas toits respective relationship to the other 'hues within the directory,
the chroma, the permanence of the hue, and a reference to the mixing table. This specific mixing table I `have shown in Fig. 4 and from this table, there is shown the proportions ofrnixture 'to obtain the tone as indicatedopposite each'of the color cards I6. Furthermore, the indicia upon this reference page indicates the hue that'is the complement o f the oneselected andalso shows which hues combinejwith this specific hue for obtaining either the balanced three tone harmony orr a balanced four tone harmony in conjunctionfxwith this hue.
Thus all ofthe necessary indicative references are listed upon the pages 18 and I9 with respect to theA hues shown on the color tone cards I6 and I1 respectively. Referring to Fig. 5fof the drawings, it will be noted that upon the back of the color tone card I6,an'din this specific instance, the one having the lower value has printed upon its rearward side an identification number. The first two numbers, including the lzero, identify the hue painted upon the forward The third number indiside of the color card I6. cates the chroma of that particular tone and the last number indicates the `tone number as applied to the mixing table. Thus, an individual card has thereon the identification necessary to convey the descriptive properties of the particular hue with reference to the directory and its basic characteristics may be found by reference to the numbers upon the back of the color tone card.V
Any card within either the directory II or I2 may be removed by sliding the portion I5 of the binding element until the shorter end is out of engagement with the tubular standard I4, and each card in the directory is supported upon three of thesebinding elements. Thus a card may be detached from the directory and used asl a reference or matching unit. Thus-every characteristic of an individual color or tone is ascertainy able within my directory.
tainingA tone 2 which identifies o n'"the reference page 18 the tone of the lowervalued card I6,
the ratio between oil color or like and white is l 1 to l. In graduating to the tone of the next highest value, the proportion of white to the basic color is 3 to 1. For obtaining the next highest value, the proportion of white, or value reducing agent, to the basic color is 7 to 1, and so the` colors color tone may be produced accurately at-any time and everyone using my directory and method will be assuredv of a color having a tone value that is constant and xed in every other directory and for every other use. My directory accurately gives the complementary hue which cannot beA accomplished by mixing visual comparison, and' in the case of balanced three tone and four tone harmony, it is very diiiicult to ascertain visually the proper hues making up a harmonious combination. A With the methods now employed, it' is merely a matter of trial and error with no pre= cision and accuracy. In fact, the balanced color harmony is left to the eye of the decorator, painter or the like. With my method, the. accurate and precise hues are'listedthat-balance and harmonize with the given or base hue. Heretofore, when a certain color. had been selected, it was impossible to accurately and quickly reproduce the tone desired. With my method, the tone selected can be accurately and quickly reproduced with the references given, andA without any guess work or 4experimentation, thaty tone can be reproduced at any time with precise resultsand accurate toning quality. This phase has heretofore been one of the mostv difficult to accomplish where colors ,and tones are concerned. My method provides for -the precise graduations of values uniformly throughout the color spectrum which hitherto has been impossible and. by following my formula for the progression of values, absolute uniformity of color vvariation is attained.
Thus it will 'be seen that I have provided a method of and means for identifying and reproducing color harmony which fullls all of myy objects and which quickly and accurately gives all information necessary concerning any selected tone or hue from the initial selection through the preparation and reproduction of the color, the
monizing with a plurality of other hues.
Some changes may be made in the construction and arrangement of the various portions of my directory and in the method ofl and means for use of mechanical equivalents or variations in the method employed which may be reasonably included within their scope.
I claim: l. The'means for. identifying and reproducing color harmony comprising, a plurality of tone value cards adjacent each other, a reference page complement of the hue and the balanced haradjacent said cards including identification of V the hue and chromaon said' cards, indicative references concerning said cards, and references indicating harmonious and complementary colors.
2. -In a directory forv color identification andl reproducing. a base member, a plurality of binding elements secured to said base member, a directoryoperatively mounted on said binding elements comprising, a plurality of color tone .cards operatively secured by said binding eleence indicia on said reference page, a plurality 'of binding elements secured to said base member spaced apart and' parallel. with said first men? tioned, binding elements and comprising, a plu'- rality of color tone cards .complementary to said color tone cards of said first mentioned directory and operatively )mounted on said second mentioned binding elements, acolor reference sheet each lof said color tone cards indicating its complementary and harmonizing colors, and accurate infomation indicia for reproducing each of said tonal values indicated on said color tone cards'.4
3. In a directory for lcolor identification and reproduction, a plurality of binding elements, a directory operatively mounted on said binding elements comprising, a plurality of color tone cards operatively secured1 by said binding elements and of progressive values, a color reference pageoperatively mounted on Asaid elements and adjacent said color tone cards, indicative reference indicia on said reference page, a second set of binding elements, a directory operatively mounted on second set of binding' elements comprising. a pluralityl of color tone cards complementary -to said color tone cardsv of rst men' -tioned directory. a color reference sheet operatively mounted on said second binding element adjacent said color tone'cards, indicative refer-v ence indicia on said color reference sheet, indicia for identifying each of the color hues of said color tonev cards, indicia adjacent to said color tone cards indicating its complementary and harmonv izing colors, and information indicia for reproducing each of said tone values indicated on said color tone cards.
4. In a means for identifying and reproducing color harmony, a plurality of colored cards each progressively reducing in value the color of said card on succeeding adjacent color tone cards, indicia on each of said cards indicating reproduction of said tonal value of each of said color tone cards, indicia adjacent said color tone cards for the identification of hue and chroma of each of said color tones, andgindicia for indicating the harmonious and complementary hues to each of said color tone cards.
' 5. In a means for color identification and reproduction, a. base member, a directory operatively mounted on said base member comprising, a plurality of color tone cards operatively secured Vto said base member and of progressive values, a
color reference page operatively mounted on said7 base member and adjacent said color tone cards. indicative reference indicia. on said reference page, a second directory operatively mounted on said base member spaced apart and parallel with said rst mentioned directory and comprising. a plurality of color tone cards complementary to said color tone cards of saidfirst mentioned directory and operatively mounted on said base member, a color reference sheet operatively mounted on said base member adjacent said second mentioned color tone card, indicative reference indicia. on said second said mentioned base, indicia for identifying each of the color hues and chromas on said color tone cards, indicia adjacent each of said color tone cards indicating its complementary and harmonizing color, and accurate information indicia for reproducing each of said tonal values indicated on said color tone cards.
'rx-roms F. Lonwrcx.