US 2205404 A
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June 25, 1940; w. c. FULLER SWEATPROOF MASONRY WALL Filed March l5, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENT W53@ C, alla w. c. FULLER 2,205,404
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' INVENT Wa Y@ gigmw .p-l r M ATTORNEYS Patented June 25, 1940 einerr orifice SWEATPROOF MASONRY WALL Wayne C. Fuller, Seattle, Wash. Application March 15, 1939, Serial No. 262,061
5 Claims. (o1. 'z2-43)v i My invention consists essentially in providing a wall structure, having two or more air spaces disposed between its outside and inside surfaces, which wall, for simplicity of construction so that labor may be reduced `to a minimum, is formed of special building brick. This special brick, when properly arranged will provide a wall that even though exposed to the elements on one side may be satisfactorily used as a plaster base on the other side. In providing my wall I have of necessity produced a plurality of building members which lend themselves to constructing a symmetrical wall in such a manner,l to the end that either side might be the outside wall.
'Ihe building oi masonry walls has been greatly complicated by modern methods of air conditioning and the more general acceptance of heating an entire structure, particularly in the home where formerly only those rooms actively used were heated. However, when an entire house is heated there is a very appreciable difference in temperature and humidity between the inside and the outside of the walls; such a condition is very conducive to condensation within the wall and once water has collected in the form of drops or globules it will seek its outlet by the path of least resistance, and for this reason it has in the i past not been considered practical to plaster direct to a masonry wall, but instead furring strips were applied to which the plaster base was secured. However, with the construction shown in the views of my wall in this present application, it will be noted that ample drainage is provided and that there is no single piece of masonry, either building blocks or plaster mortar, which extends through the wall. In each instance I have employed three short mortar joints so ar-` ranged that even if condensation or moisture, passing through the wall, pass through the one layer of building material and mortar it could then enter the second one and even if that were to become saturated it wouldk not be possible for the wall upon which the plaster is secured to become saturated to the extent that the plaster could in any way become affected.
Theprincipal object of my present invention, therefore, is to supply a wall structure which will prevent the passage of moisture through the wall.
Another important object of my presentinvention is to provide a symmetrical masonryl wall, either side of which may be used as a plaster base.
A further object of my present invention is to provide building block units which can be quickly and easily laid so as to reduce the cost of labor in the erection of a wall.
Still another object of my present invention is to provide a wall having continuous air chambers which may be used as voids to form insula- 5 tion or which are receptive to being'lled with any of the various types of granular insulating materials.
A still further object of my present invention is to provide a wall in which no piece of building material or mortar joint extends from one space to the other.
Other and more specific objects will be apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, l -5 wherein Figure 1 is a perspective view of one of the building blocks used in my wall structure.
Figure 2v is a perspective view showing a companion block which is used with the block shown in Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a top plan View of a wall built after the teachings of my present invention in which the mortar joints are shown in section and where it is further assumed that the drawing shows the rst course of blocks laid in the wall.
Figure 4 is a perspective View showing' one form of outside corner blocks.
Figure 5 illustrates the corner blocks that would beused in alternate courses with the blocks shown in Figure 4 to form the outside corner,
Figure 6 is a perspective View showing the block usedto form one of the inside corners.
Figure '7 is a view similar to Figure 3 but taken as a horizontal section through the course of blocksvnext abovethose shown, .in plan, in Fig- Figure 8 is a typical, vertical, sectional View through a wall built after the teachings of my invention and particularly as though taken along the line 8-.8 o'i Figure 3. y Figure 9 is an elevation of a wall built after my invention'such as it would appear ii taken along the broken section line 9 9 of Figure 3.
Figure 10 is a perspective view similar torFig- 4--5 ure 1 but showing the building blocks without the grooves shown throughout the various other drawings.
Figure l1 is a perspective view of a building block of modi'ed form but which employs the same features of construction when embodied in a wall.
Figure l2 is a vertical sectional view through a wall, similar` to Figure 8, but showing building blocks of the form umstrated in Figure 11;
Figure 13 is a sectional view in plan taken along the line I3-I3 ofFigure 12.
Referring to the drawings, throughout which like reference characters indicate like parts, numerals I5 and I6 designate two typical blocks such as have been found to be most desirable for the production of my improved wall. Block I5 is, in effect, two blocks as I8 and I9 formed after the showing of Figure 2 and which are then joined together by the cross webs 2| and 22. In this manner a central opening is provided at 24 and end openings are provided at 25 and 26, each of these being substantially onehalf of opening 24, so that when two similar blocks are abutted the resulting opening is substantially the same as the center` opening. Throughout the various drawings I have illustrated this block and also the single block I6 as grooved at 28 and 29. This is for the purpose of providing mortar anchorage for the relatively short runs of mortar employed. A similar ribbing is used on the other blocks illustrated in Figures 4, 5, 6, and 1l. This grooving While desirable is not essential and when economy in constructing the blocks is a vital issue, it may be dispensed with after the showing of Figure 10. The lack of this grooving will normally entail more careful work on the part of the mason, however, and may offset the saving thus effected.
In building up a wall it is normal to employ a course of the blocks I5 after the showing of Figure 1 which are approximately square on the outside and then a row of the blocks I6 shown in Figure 2 on the inside. The next course is the reverse of this with a row of blocks I6 on the outside and the double or square blocks I5 on the inside. In this manner thesquare kblocks form the locking members in the wall which tie the two rows, forming each course, together. Attention is invited to the fact that the vertical and horizontal mortar joints are relatively short, it requiring three such joints across the wall in both the horizontal and vertical planes to complete the bonding. This effects a very desirable arrangement in that the motor joints which are normally most given to conducting water or moisture through a wall are thus broken into three units with no possibility of moisture being carried through the wall on these joints. This arrangement gives positive assurance against moisture penetrating from one face of the wall to the other and should sweating or condensation occur in the wall it still cannot pass through the walls so as to cause damage on either face. A plurality of air spacesare thus formed which are shown in the vertical and horizontal views, particularly in Figures 3, 7, 8, and 12. The air lchambers of the various courses are inter-communicating so that insulating material can'be injected into these spaces if desired. However, experience has indicated that with the two air chambers separated by the solid masonry inner wall that unusual insulation is provided. For, in effect, the wall consists of the masonry portions as 30, 32 and 34, which are separated by the air chambers 36 and 31. The outside'walls as 30 and 34 are formed in alternate courses by the square blocks I5 andthe single block I6. The inner wall 32 is formed in all cases by the inner brick portion of block I5 and these members serve as the tie or lock members of the wall.
In carrying out the principles of my wall it is necessary to provide special blocks for the corners, openings and the like. These are shown as the small corner blocks 40 which are used at the outer corner of Figure '7. To form the inside corner as shown in Figure 3, block 42, illustrated in Figure 6, is employed, and to form the outside corner of Figure 3, block 44 illustrated in Figure 5, which is similar to block I5, illustrated in Figure l, is used, excepting that it has inserted in adjoining sides, instead of the opposed sides, openings 46 and 41. out the wall structure after the showing of Figure 3. In this instance it is desirable to form the bonding grooves 28 and 29 after the showing of Figure 5.
A wall constructed of blocks as illustrated in Figures l to l0, inclusive, provides unusual bearing surface and forms consequently a wall of sufficient strength to be built to considerable height.
In Figure 1l I have illustrated a modified form of builing block which, where bearing loads are not excessive, provides the same general character in the wall, namely the mortar joints are broken into three parts in passing through the wall so that they do not provide a means for moisture to pass through the wall.
Block 48, illustrated in Figure 11, consists of a face portion 50 and the key portion 52. The key portion is provided with one through opening 54 which is comparable to opening 24 in block I5 and at each end is provided with two half openings 56 and 51. The key member 52 is reduced in vertical extent so as to provide both lightness and air cell structure and is provided with a through opening 58. Both the bearing surfaces of the face portion 50 and the key portion 52 are preferably provided with grooves 28 and 29 lsimilar to the grooves in blocks I5 and I6 and for the same reason, namely, that mortar joints may thus be relatively short without sacrificing a thorough bond for the mortar joints or runs.
The method of laying blocks 48 will no doubt be understood from a study of Figures 12 and 13. They are laid in alternate arrangement and provide as in my previously illustrated and described walll two surfaces that are identical in structure and insulating qualities so that they will form This carries excellent walls where the bearing pressures are not excessive.
The foregoing description and the accompanying drawings are believed to clearly disclose a preferred embodiment of my invention but it Will be understood that this disclosure is merely illustrative and that such changes in the invention may be made as are fairly within the scope and spirit of the following claims. I
1. A building wall comprising a course of double-blocks each having a pair of spaced Webs between their ends forming an intermediate cell, and half-cells at each end of the double block, a parallel course oi` single blocks spaced from the iirst course, an upper course of double blocks extending over a lower single course and also extending over an adjoining single row of the double blocks, an upper course of single blocks laid over the other lower single course, and mortar bonds between adjoining faces of the blocks.
2. A building wall comprising a course of dou- Vble blocks forming two spaced rows of single blocks, and each of said double blocks havingspaced webs forming end half-cells and an intermediate full-size cell, a parallel course of single blocks spaced from the course of double blocks, an upper course of double blocks forming a row on the single blocks and a spaced row on one of the rows of the double blocks, a single row of blocks laid on the other spaced row of the rst mentioned double blocks. v
3. A building wall comprising a course ocE double-blocks having longitudinally spaced air cells between its spaced rows, a parallel course of single blocks spaced from one row of the double blocks, an upper course of double-blocks having one row laid on the course of single blocks and another row laid on an adjoining row of the double blocks, and a single course of blocks laid on the other row of the rst course of double blocks.
4. A building wall comprising a course of double-blocks having longitudinally spaced air cells between its spaced rows, a parallel course of single blocks spaced from one row of the course of double blocks, an upper course of double blocks having one row laid on the course of single blocks and forming air cells therebetween, the second row of said upper course being laid on the adjoining inner row of the first course of double blocks, and an upper course of single blocks laid on the outer row of the lower course of double blocks thereby forming air cells therebetween, the upper and'lower faces of the blocks having spaced grooves and a mortar bond therein, and the ends of adjoining blocks also having mortar `bonds therebetween.
5. A building Wall comprising a course of double blocks having longitudinally spaced air cells between its spaced rows, a parallel course of single blocks spaced from the adjoining row of double blocks, an upper course of double blocks .having its outer row laid on said single course