US 2205685 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 25, 1940. G. o. CONNER CONTAINER CLOSURE Filed Sept. 21, 1936 i x 4 m, aewex zma.
Patented June 25, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT FFICE Wheeling Steel Corporation, Wheeling, W. Va, a corporation of Delaware Application September 21, 1936, Serial No. 101,701
This invention relates to a container closure such as a cover for a drum, pail or bucket, and
in particular to a cover of the so-called lug" type.
Lug-type covers have been proposed heretofore, several forms thereof being shown in United States Patent No. 1,434,831. Such covers as heretofore made, however, have not proved entirely satisfactory in service. The standards set up by the Interstate Commerce Commission for shipping containers having covers of this type require that a container filled with water be capable of withstanding a drop of five feet on the edge of the cover, without separation of the cover from the container. So far as I am aware, lug-type covers larger than 11%", as previously made have not been able to meet this requirement.
I have invented a novel form of lug-type cover which, on test, satisfactorily meets the drop test above mentioned. In accordance with my invention, I provide a container cover or closure having a central portion surrounded by a plurality of reversely bent beads, and a peripheral groove or channel adapted to receive the false wire usually provided around container openings or the open end thereof. Lugs depending from the outer wall of the channel are adapted to be bent under the false wire in the usual manner. The cover is preferably made from sheet metal by drawing in suitable dies, and the magnitude of the overall "draw" or the sum of the maximum displacement of the metal from its original plane in both directions appears to exert an important effect upon the shock resistance exhibited in the drop test. This is also controlled to a considerable extent by the proportion of the periphery of the container opening which the lugs overlie. All these characteristics, viz., the multiple bead, the proper draw, and the proper number and width of securing lugs, are essential to the making of a closure which will satisfactorily withstand the drop test.
A complete understanding of the invention may be gained from the following detailed description thereof referring to the accompanying drawing illustrating a preferred embodiment. In the drawing,
Fig. 1 is a side elevation partly in section showing a lug-type cover according to my invention;
Fig. 2 is a partial sectional view through the edge of the cover, to enlarged scale; and
Fig. 3 is a partial sectional view showing the cover after application to a container.
Referring now in detail to the drawing, a cover Ill constitutes a closure for a container II which may be a drum, bucket, pail or the like, having a false wire or peripheral bead I2 around its open end or any other opening in the container. The cover I comprises a central portion I3 which 5 may be flat, crowned or dished, but is preferably flat, to facilitate stacking. The entire cover, in fact, is made from fiat sheet metal stock, e. g. 22-gauge steel sheet, by suitable die-drawing operations. While I have illustrated in the drawing a cover of circular shape, the invention may be applied with equal readiness to covers of other shapes.
Surrounding the central portion [3 of the cover are a plurality (in the illustrated example, two) of reversely displaced beads I4 and I5. The beads M and I5 are concentric with the central disc-like portion B3 of the cover. The inner bead I4 is displaced from the original plane of the material, indicated by the dotted line it, a distance somewhat greater than the bead I5. The inner bead M is displaced upwardly and the outer bead I5 downwardly.
The periphery of the cover is formed into a channel or groove ll adapted to receive the false wire I2, as shown in Fig. 3. Lugs I8 depend from the outer wall of the groove or channel Il and are adapted to be bent around the false wire to hold the cover on the container.
The sum of the maximum displacements of the metal of the cover in opposite directions from the original plane of the material represents the total draw to which the stock is subjected. In the cover shown, the draw is equal to the sum of the dimensions d and d representing, respectively, 5 the displacements of the original metal to form the bead I5 and the groove I1. I find that the amount of draw relative to the diameter of the cover, materially affects the resistance of the cover to shock or impact such as is exhibited in the drop test. For best results, the draw should be greater than about 5% of the diameter of the cover. As a specific example, a draw for a cover 14" in diameter gave the cover suflicient shock resistance to pass the drop test satisfactorily. In this example, the draw was exactly 5.34% of the cover diameter.
The number and width of the lugs It also have a pronounced effecton the performance of the cover in the drop test. I find that the lugs should be sufficient in width and number to overlie at least of the periphery of the container or the opening therein with which the closure cooperates. In the example aforementioned, I provide twenty lugs, each 1%" in width, at
representing a coverage of the container periphery'by' the lugs of 80%.
Tests of the cover of my invention have demonstrated conclusively that the multiple beads, the ratio of draw to diameter of the cover, and coverage by the lugs of the periphery of the container described above provide sufiicient resistance to shock or impact to enable the cover to withstand the I. C. C. drop test consistently. Experiments further indicate, though this is not conclusive and I do not wish to be bound thereby, that omission of any one of the three features cited will result in failure of thecover under test.
A sealing gasket I9 may be placed in the channel I'I before the cover is applied to the container. The head iii, in addition to contributing shock resistance, also facilitates stacking of the containers, as shown in Fig. 3, the bottom chime 20 of the container being dimensioned to fit into the bead.
As will be apparent from the foregoing, the invention described above represents a marked improvement in the manufacture of closures, in that it provides, for the first time, a lug-type cover larger than 11 in diameter capable of satisfactorily meeting the rigid requirements imposed by the I. C. C. on shipping containers using covers of this type. Lug-type covers larger than 11%" in diameter as made heretofore have not been capable of withstanding the drop test and have, therefore, been unacceptable for shipping containers.
I find that especially satisfactory results are obtained by making the cover substantially as shown in Figure 2, the metal about the central rtion I3 thereof extending outwardly and up- ?rdly, as shown at Ila, at an angle (the angle s own being in the neighborhood of 45, which is preferred) and then extending outwardly and downwardly, as shown at Mb, the metal being rounded at its upper portion where it changes direction to form the bead I4. The metal is preferably rounded substantially in the arc of a circle whose center 0 lies above the plane of the central portion II of the cover. The portions Ila and Ilb of the metal are preferably substantially rectilinear when viewed in cross section as in Figure 2, the portion Ilb being inclined downwardly and outwardly at a small angle to the vertical. The metal then extends outwardly and upwardly, as shown at Isa, the metal being rounded at its lower portion where it changes direction to form the bead IS. The metal is preferably rounded substantially in the arc of a circle whose center 0 lies not substantially above the plane of the central portion I3 of the cover and preferably somewhat below such plane. The portion lid of the metal is preferably substantially rectilinear when viewed in cross section and is inclined upwardly and outwardly at a small angle to the vertical. The metal then extends outwardly and downwardly, as shown at i'ia the metal being rounded at its upper portion where it changes direction to form the channel II. The metal is preferably rounded substantially in the arc of a circle whose center c lies above the plane of the central portion I3 of the cover and preferably substantially in the plane of the upper surface of the bead I4. The lugs I8 form substantially smooth continuations of the portion Fla and such portion IIa and lugs I8 preferably extend substantially rectilinearly vertically downwardly from the outer extremity of the channel I 'I. Thus each of the beads I4 and II and the channel I! is curved through an angle.
greater than the radii of both of the other circles.
A straight line L passing through the centers 0 and 0 preferably makes an angle of in the neighborhood of 45 with the vertical. Likewise, a straight line I? passing through the centers e and 0 preferably makes an angle of in the neighborhood of 45 with the vertical but in the opposite direction, and the lines L and L" are therefore approximately perpendicular.
The features above described are believed to aid in producing the best results under test, although the reasons why this is true are not in all cases known to me. However, I wish it distinctly understood that a superior structure may be proversely turned and thence extends downwardly and outwardly as shown at lid. The lugs are thus bent by an appropriate tool, each lug being provided with a tool receiving opening Ila; as well known in the art.
While I have illustrated and described but one preferred embodiment of the invention, such dis closure is illustrative only and no limitations upon the scope of the invention are 'to be implied therefrom except as expressed in the appended claims.
1. A closure for a container having a false wire extending around the upper end thereof, said closure comprising a sheet metal stamping including a central disc-like portion substantially undeformed, aninner bead pressed upwardly from said portion, an outerbead pressed downwardly below said portion, and a gasket groove pressed upwardly from said portion beyond said outer bead and adapted to receivesaid false wire, the sum of the extreme displacements of the metal forming said outer bead and said groove being at least equal to about 5% of the diameter of the closure, said groove having downturned lugs of such number and width as to overlie at least of the circumference of the closure.
2. A closure as defined by claim 1 characterized by said beads being concentric, the inner bead being displaced farther from the plane of said central portion than the outer head.
3. A closure as defined by claim 1 characterized by said beads being concentric, the inner bead being displaced farther from the plane of said central portion than the outer bead, and said groove being displaced farther from said plane than said inner bead.
4. A closure as defined by claim 1 characterized by said sum being about 5.35% of the closure diameter, and said lugs overlying about 74% of the closure's circumference GUY O. CONNER.