|Publication number||US2205730 A|
|Publication date||Jun 25, 1940|
|Filing date||Apr 16, 1938|
|Priority date||Apr 16, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2205730 A, US 2205730A, US-A-2205730, US2205730 A, US2205730A|
|Inventors||Arthur C Morgan|
|Original Assignee||Arthur C Morgan|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (31), Classifications (16)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 25, 1940.
A. C. MORGAN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. Aer-Hue C MORGAN Filed April l 6, 1938 June 25, 1940.
A. c. MORGAN surname cons'mucwmu Filed April 16, 1938 m 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V ENTOR.
A TTORNEY Eatented dune 25, fl rt resu t @Fiiidh 11 Claims.
The invention, in general, relates 'to low cost housing. More particularly; the invention relates to home and other building construction embodying pre-formed building blocks, preferd ably fabricated of sheet metal or molded plastic material, and enabling the erection of the building for the most part with unskilled labor.
It is a primary object of my invention to provide an improved building construction which is characterized by the assembly of building blocks which in themselves'formbearing units resisting bending and contortion both horizontally and vertically.
Another object of my invention is to provide a building construction of assembled building blocks affording in themselves unbroken vertical joints representing structural upright supports.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a novel building construction of the aforementioned character which is termiteproof, fire-proof, earthquake-proof, sound-proof and heat and cold proof as well as durable. Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel building block assembly which is adapted to variations in building design for meeting all vertical and horizontal space requirements to take care of doors. windows, partitions, etc.
A still further object of my invention is to provide a building construction of pro-formed building blocks which presents walls of flush interior and exterior surfaces and thus lend themselves to any desired type of finishing including painting, stuccoing or canvassing, trimming and the like Another object of my invention is to provide means for erecting low cost dwellings and other buildings largely with unskilled labor and with substantially uniform building units.
Other objects of the invention, together with some of the advantageous features thereof, will appear from the following description of a preferred embodiment of my invention illustrated in the accompanying drawings. It is to be understood that while I have shown a preferred embodiment of the invention in the drawings, I am not to be limited to the precise embodiment shown, as my invention, as defined in the appended claims, can be. embodied in a plurality and variety of forms.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure l is a front elevation of an embodiment of my invention, portions thereof being broken away to show the interlocking joints and un- (or. res-ea;
broken columnar formation of the vertical joints. I
Figure 2 is a sectional plan view of a typical arrangement of wall construction embodying my invention.
Figure 3 is a partial perspective view of a building block embodying the invention.
Figure 4 is a perspective view of another building block embodying my invention.
Figure 5 is a perspective view of still another building block embodying the invention.
Figure 6 is a perspective view, partly in section, illustrating a typical building wall assembled in accordance with my invention.
Figure 7 is an enlarged crosssectional view of two interlocked building blocks containing insulation means.
In its preferred form, the building construc tion of my invention, as adapted to the walls and partitions of a building, preferably comprises an assembly'in columns and rows of a plurality of building blocks of hollow box section form presenting flush interior and exterior surfaces, the alternate rows of blocks of the assembly prefer ably being in horizontal alignment and the successive columns oi? blocks of the assembly being in vertical alignment, means on the end faces of each block for efiecting interlocking joints on a horizontal plane between adjacent blocks, and means on the side faces of each block for sheeting interlocking joints on a vertical plane between adjacent blocks; said assembly presenting a structure of broken horizontal joints and unbroken vertical joints, the latter presenting structural upright supports in the form of tubular columns.
The present invention affords the construction of any type or design of building or dwelling since the dimensions of the building blocks, as to heighth and width, are variable permitting the assembly of the building with both whole and fractional blocks thus meeting all horizontal and vertical space requirements. In Figure l of the drawings, a typical assembly of a wall it of a building is illustrated with provision for a window l2 and a door l3. As shown, the successive columnsv of blocks it of the wall ii are in vertical alignment while the alternate rows of blocks, from top to bottom, are in horizontal alignment and, to efiect this latter result, I provide in the alternate columns of the wall both whole blocks it and fractional blocks it. To. meet requirements for the window 02 anddoor l 3, the vertical columns of blocks may include a greater number of fractional blocks it than those lid of the adjacent vertical columns where no windows or doors are specified. Not only can the fractional blocks I6 be of varied heighth to take care of vertical space requirements but they can be of varied widths to take care of horizontal space requirements.
In Figures 3 to 5 inclusive of the drawings, I have illustrated in enlarged perspective views the improved building blocks I4 of my invention. It is apparent that the wall or partition block assembly of the building can be constructed by employing the types of blocks shown in Figures 3 and 4. In the block shown in Figure 3, I provide a male dove-tail member I on each end face I8 of the block for interlocking engagement with female dove-tail members l9 provided on the end faces I8 of the blocks I4 of the type shown in Figure 4. As an alternative, however, the building blocks I4 of Figure 5 can be utilized. The latter block preferably comprises a male dove- .tail member I'IAon one end face It of the block inturned to provide an exterior shoulder on each dove-tail member. The blocks I4 also are provided with offset tongues 2| extending inwardly and preferably from the upper extremity of each side face 22 of the block as well as inturned flanges 23 extending from the lower extremities of the side faces 22 to form grooves 24 for receiving the off-set tongues 2| of adjacent blocks M in the assembly, see especially Figure 6 of the drawings. Thus every edge of every block I4 of the assembly engages and interlocks with complementary members on the edges of an adjacent block. It is to be especially observed that the interlock between overlying and underlying blocks I4 of the assembly constitutes telescopic interlocks between the dove-tail members on the end faces of such adjoining blocks by virtue of the inturned upper extremities of the dove-tail members forming the exterior shoulders thereon. The blocks, in place, provide a wall that presents flush surfaces on both sides and is not unlike in appearance to a squared stone surface. The end faces I8 of each block I4 preferably are provided with spaced openings 26 for passing electrical conduits and plumbing pipes, not shown. Since the blocks I 4 are open at the top and bottom, piping may conveniently be passed vertically.
As shown particularly in Figure 4-of the drawings, the blocks l4 may be formed of two parts 21 and 28 meeting in lapped joints 2!! at the ends which. can be conveniently welded together to form the completed blocks. Any mode, other ,thahthat indicated, may be employed for form-v ing the blocks into a hollow box section shape.
Preferably, the blocks |4- are fabricated of sheet building block of the assembly of my invention to any desired plan or design, reference is made to the sectional plan view of Figure 2 of the drawings wherein is illustrated, among other showings, a corner block 3| having a rounded exterior face 32. If desired, of course, the corner block 3| can be so shaped to furnish a square exterior corner, as indicated by the dot and dash lines 33 of Figure 2. The particular corner block 3| shown in this view is provided with a male dove-tail member 34 as well as a female dove-tail member 36 for interlocking engagement with adjoining blocks I4. Of course, if both blocks I4 adjacent to the corner block 3| present male dove-tail members facing into the corner, a corner block3| having only female dove-tail members would be utilized at such corner for interlocking engagement with the complementary members of the adjacent blocks. And it follows also that if both of the adjoining blocks to the corner block presented female dove-tail members facing the cornei, a corner block 3| would be used having complementary male dove-tail members. Figure 2 of the drawings also illustrates a partition block 31 in the assembly for affording the erection of a partition 38 as may be detailed in the plans of the proposed building. Variations in dove-tail members on the partition block-31 correspond to the variations indicated-above with respect to the corner block 3|, depending of course upon the dove-tail members that may face the partition blocks.
The building construction of my invention, as adapted to the erection of a typical dwelling, is particularly detailed in Figure 6 of the drawings. In accordance with conventional practice, a con crete foundation 39 for the dwelling is first poured, the concrete form conveniently being made to a shape for receiving a foundation plate 4| which preferably is fabricated of relatively heavy pressed steel. The plate 4| is aligned on the foundation 33 and levelled carefully, and is fixedly secured in position by suitable foundation anchor bolts 42 and metal shims 43, as shown. The foundation plate 4| is provided with a pair of spaced locking seams 44 for interlocking engagement with the grooves 24 formed on the lower edges of the sides of the first or starter blocks l4 and I6 of the wall. It may be observed that the exterior wall construction of a dwelling may commence at a door, at a corner or at any point desired and, as indicated above, whole blocks l4 and fractional blocks l6 are alternately disposed along the foundation plate or cap-4|. These blocks are slid together with a light driving-fit to interlock the male and female dove-tail members on the end faces of the adjoining blocks. Wherever the plan of the proposed dwelling calls for a partition 38, a partition block'31 is inserted, such partition block presenting locking male and female dove-tail members for receiving the complementary interlocking members of the regular blocks I4 that are to comprise the partition walls, see Figure 2 of the drawings. blocks 3| are placed on the foundation plate or cap 4| at the indicated points, the corner block used having the requisite key or interlocking Likewise, corner dove-tail members on its end faces for effecting aeoarso an interiorly extending flange it which is adapt ed to seat on an interior shoulder tl formed in foundation plate, thus providing an efiective support'for the floor joists." Upon placing of the several floor joists in position, as indicated, the rough flooring can then be laid.
After the starter or first whole blocks id and fractional blocks It, alternately disposed, have.
been placed all around-the foundation plate M,
I the erection of the exterior walls and partitions bill lit
can proceed rapidly by superimposing block upon block, in interlocking engagement with adjoining blocks on all edges, until the desired heighth is reached. or course, wherever doors and windows are specified, the fractional blocks it are interposed to meet the vertical and horizontal space requirements. When each wall is erected, it will present an assembly as indicated in Figure 1- of the drawings with the blocks in vertically aligned columns presenting unbroken vertical joints and, in effect, tubular supporting columns. A two or more story dwelling merely requires heavier blocks on the lower floors. It may be observed that interior partitions 3b are preferably assembled upon a channeled shape foundation plate or cap, not shown, having locking seams similar to the locking seams id of the foundation plate ill for interlocking engagement with the members on the bottoms of the first or starter blocks it which are to comprise the partition.
While details for doors and windows are variable to suit the particular design, a desirable arrangement of assembly of the blocks and fractional blocks is to provide female dove-tail mem- After the header or lintel height is reached, keyed door jarnos hi are slid into place for interlocking relationship between the male dove-tail members on the lambs 5i and the female dove-tail members on the adjacent blocks. A header lid is then inserted and the assembly of the blocks is proseeded with as above indicated. In window construction, upon reaching sill heighths a sill member bit is interposed prior to the insertion of the window jambs 56. All sill members, jambs and headers are provided with dove-tail key members for interlocking engagement with adjacent complementary dove-tail members on the end and side faces of the bloclrs adjoining the sills and jambs and headers.
a When all walls have been erected to the specifled height, a ceiling cap 5d, preferably fabricated of relatively heavy metal, is fitted over the wall, see Figure 6 of the drawings, and secured thereto in any desired manner such as by small screws and nuts. Preferably, the ceiling cap 56 incorporates a roof gutter bl and the cap is provided with openings til for passing electrical conduits and piping which are passed vertically through the blocks lid and id. I A convenient means for mounting ceiling joists 59 and rafters ill is pro vided in the same manner as the mounting of the floor joists upon the foundation plate til, by
forming slots 62 in the side and top facesof the ceiling cap, as indicated. Slots d2 receive tongues veniently be filled with asbestos fibre.
screws or suitable fur-ring devices.
85 provided on the ends of the ceiling joists and rafters, and the ceiling cap is formed with an interior flange it for supporting the ceiling joists. The struck-out portions of the side faces of the cap 65 can be clipped ontop, after placing of the ceiling joists, to prevent dislodgment of the joists when the ceiling is fastened to the wood filler of the joists exposed on their under sides. It may be observed that the ceiling joists 59 key at their interior ends to interior partition caps, not shown,
in the same manner as fitted to the ceiling cap 56. The rafters ti preferably are of U-shaped metal with wood fillers and can be notched at their lower ends, as shown, for fitting to the celling cap. All rafters can be supported by light metal struts or in whatever mannerdesired over the interior walls and ceiling and, of course, any desired pitch of roof may be employed in the dwelling.
Sincethe building blocks of the assembly are of hollow box section form, the structure can be rendered not only sound-proof but also hot and cold proof by the insertion therein of insulation material 6t preferably of granulated form. Llkewise, the ceilings conveniently may be covered on the attic side with suitable insulation material, such as wool batting.
The foregoing description pertains only to the erection of exterior walls and interior partitions. Details of interior finishing are variable but any type of finishing is adaptable to the assembly of my invention. For example, all building blocks for bath and kitchen walls can be provided with baked enamel surfaces for pleasing and sanitary effects and wherever soap receptacles are desired, one or more of the building blocks may be formed with pressed recesses. Registers for heating facilities may be afforded by providing the base blocks with a hams and grilled face at the time of erection of the wall. All medicine cabinets, ironing boards and the like may constitute an integral part of the wall by insertion into the keying slots of the wall as the wall is assembled. For coolers, grilled screened openings may be provided in certain of the exterior wall blocks. If it is desired to. provide fire places of 'metal in the structure abovedescribed, lined fire bricks can be utilized and the chimneys formed of the block units of my invention which can surround a due of terra cotta. These chimney units may corr= Exterior door thresholds may be of metal and attached to the foundation plate ll. of course, to adapt the invention to varieties of design, unusual shaped building blocks can be substituted to form unique arches, gable ends, etc., or any part of the building where the standard blocks cannot be employed;
The erection of the whole structure is simplicity itself, as no welding or bolting is necessary nor are structuralmembers required. Moreover, the major construction work can be carried out for the most part with unskilled labor. Every member has its own particular place in the structure,
which may be indicated on the floor plan by some painted, sand finished, stucco dashed, or plastered on chicken wire held in place by sheet metal Interior wallsand partitions may be faced with baked enamel, painted, canvassed and painted, tinted, plastered or papered. Ceilings admit of any desired treaterection of a typicalhome, wherein variations in gauge of'sheet metal may be employed even as low as 18 to 20 gauge with effective results, it is to be appreciated that my invention is also entirely suitable for the construction of large and relatively high office buildings, it merely being necessary to provide heavier and larger building blocks, especially on the lower floors, for supporting the increased loads. Moreover, the building construction of my invention is equally adaptable to the erection of many other types of buildlugs and structures including silos, and watertanks of arcuate surfaces as well as for the construction of tunnel interiors and like structures.
In addition to the foregoing, my invention contemplates miniature structures as my fundamental and underlying inventive concept in the assembly of building blocks of hollow box section form having broken interlocking horizontal joints and unbroken, interlocking vertical joints forming tubular supporting columns is especially suitable for the erection by children of various types of doll houses or other play houses. In these miniature structures, a relatively light gauge sheet metalcan be employed in fabricating the blocks and the dimensions of the blocks can be reduced.
It is to be understood that'the appended claims are to be accorded a range of equivalents commensurate' in scope with the advance made over the prior art.
1.-A building construction comprising a foundation, a foundation plate fixedly secured upon said foundation, a pair of upwardly extending locking seams on said foundation plate, a plurality of whole and fractional building blocks of hollow box section form alternately disposed around said foundation plate, means on the end faces of each of said blocks for effecting interlocking engagement between adjacent blocks on said foundation plate, means on the side faces of each of said blocks for effecting interlocking engagement between said blocksand said foundation plate, an assembly of a plurality of building blocks of hollow box section form disposed in overlying relationship upon said whole and fractional blocks spaced around said foundation plate, means on all edges of said overlying building blocks for effecting interlocking engagement with adjacent blocks including the whole and fractional blocks on said foundation plate, and means on the end faces of said whole and fractional blocks for effecting telescopic interlocking'joints between adjoining super-posed and sub-posed blocks in the assembly.
2. A building construction for multi-storied ofiice buildings and the like, said construction comprising a foundation, an assembly in rows and columns of a plurality of relatively light and relatively heavy building blocks of hollow box section form disposed upon said foundation presenting flush interior and exterior surfaces, the successive columns of said buildingblocks being in vertical alignment and the heavier blocks of said assembly being disposed adjacent said foundation, means on each of said blocks for effecting interlocking joints between adjacent blocks disposed end to end in said assembly, and means on the end faces of each block in the assembly for effecting telescopic interlocking joints between adjoining super-posed and sub-posed blocks in the assembly said joints in a vertical plane being unbroken and constituting tubular columns.
3. In a building construction, a foundation, a foundation cap on said foundation, said cap having a top surface and a plurality of spaced slots below said top surface, a plurality of floor joists, a tongue on the end of each floor joist for insertion into said slots of said foundation cap, a pair of upwardly extending locking seams on said cap, and a plurality of whole and fractional building blocks of hollow box section form alternately disposed upon said foundation cap and in interlocking engagement with said cap through the medium of said locking seams on said cap.
partitions of buildings, said construction comprising an assembly in rows and columns of a plurality of'building blocks of hollow box-section form presenting flush interior and exterior surfaces and having interlocking members on the end faces thereof, adjoining blocks disposed end to end in the assembly being connected together in interlocking joints on horizontal planes through the medium of said interlocking members, and adjoining blocks in super-posed, and sub-posed relationship in the assembly being connected together in telescopic interlocking joints through the medium of said interlocking members on the end faces ,of the blocks; said interlocking connections presenting unbroken vertical joints in the form of tubular structural supporting columns.
5. A building construction for the walls and partitions of buildings, said construction comprising an assembly in rows and columns of a plurality of whole and fractional building blocks of hollow box-section form presenting flush interior and exterior surfaces and having interlocking members on the end faces thereof, alternate'columns of the assembly having said fractional blocks as the bases thereof; the adjoining blocks placed end to end in the assembly being connected in interlocking joints on horizontal planes through the medium of said interlocking members, and the adjoining blocks in super-posed and sub-posed relationship in the assembly being connected in telescopic interlocking joints through the medium of said interlocking members on the end faces of said blocks; said assembly presenting a structure of broken horizontal courses and unbroken vertical joints in which the latter constitute structural supports in the form of tubular columns.
6. A building block formed from a continuous length of sheet material, said block comprising a pair of side walls, a pair of end walls, dove-tail members on said end walls, and an offset portion on each dove-tail member defining a shoulder thereon; said dove-tail members serving to effect interlocking joints on a horizontal plane with adjoining blocks disposed end to end therewith and having complementary dove-tail members thereon, and also serving to effect telescopic interlocking joints on a vertical plane with adjoining super-posed and sub-posed blocks having similar dove-tail members thereon.
7. In a building construction, the combination with a suitable foundation of an assembly of building blocks each consisting of a unit formed from a continuous length of sheet material and having a pair of side walls, an oil-set inturned tongue extending from the upper extremity of each of said side walls, an intumed, turned-over flange defining an interior groove at the lower extremity of each side wall; said tongues and grooves serving to effect interlocking joints on a vertical plane between adjoining super-posed and sub-posed blocks in the assembly, a pair of end walls, dove-tail members on each end wall, and an inturned, off-set portion at the upper extremity of each dove-tail member defining an exterior shoulder; said dove-tail members serving to effect interlocking joints on a horizontal planebetween laterally adjoining blocks in the assembly and also to effect telescopic interlocking. joints: on a vertical plane between adjoining super-posed and sub-posed blocks in the assembly.
8. A building construction comprising a foundation, a foundation plate secured upon said,
foundation; said plate including a top portion lying upon the top of said foundation as well as a pair of sides lying against the sides of said foundation, a pair of locking seams extending upwardly from the top portion of said plate adjacent to the lateral edges thereof, a plurality of whole and fractional building blocks alternately disposed upon said plate, means forming a part of each of said blocks for effecting interlocking engagement between adjacent blocks end to end on said plate, and means forming apart of each of said blocks for efiecting telescopic joints between each of said blocks and said foundation plate through the medium of said locking seams.
9. In a building construction, a foundation, a foundation cap secured upon said foundation;
said cap including a top portion lying upon the top of said foundation as well as a pair of sides lying against the sides of said foundation, a pair of locking seams extending upwardly from the top of said cap adjacent the lateral edges thereof, a plurality of whole and fractional building blocks alternately disposed upon said top portion of said cap, the outer surfaces of the sides of said blocks being substantially flush with the outer surfaces of the sides of said cap, and means forming a part of each of said blocks for eifecting telescopic interlocking joints between said blocks and said cap through the medium of said locking seams.
10. A building construction for the walls and partitions of buildings, said walls and partitions having openings therein at predetermined locations; said building construction comprising the combination defined in claim 1 and including a plurality of building blocks in said assembly bounding each of said openings at said predetermined locations, and interlocking members on each of said last named blocks exposed to said openings for receiving in interlocking engagement complementary interlocking members on elements for closing said openings.
11. A building construction for the walls and partitions of buildings, said walls and partitions having window and door openings, respectively,
therein at predetermined locations; said building construction comprising the combination defined in claim 1 and including a plurality of building blocks in said assembly bounding said window and door openings, and interlocking members on each of said last named blocks for receiving in interlocking engagement complementary interlocking members on window sills and door jambs.
ARTHUR c. MORGAN.
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|U.S. Classification||52/204.1, 52/284, 52/274, 220/DIG.900, 220/4.28, 220/691, 52/590.2, 52/439, 52/605, 52/300|
|International Classification||E04B2/02, E04B2/18|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S220/09, E04B2/18, E04B2002/0239|