US 2206915 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 9, 1940. s, A, @CHS 2,206,915
ROOFING AND SIDINCr MATERIAL Filed NOV. 2l, 1956 ATTORNEY Patented July 9, 1940 UNITED STATES 2,206,915 ROOFING AND SIDING MATERIAL Sidney A.
Ochs, New York, N. Y.,
assigner to Bakelite Building Products Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application November 21, 193s, serial No. 112,005 6 Claims. (Cl. 91-68) .This invention relates to individual shingles, strips, and roll roofing for` use in covering roofs and sides of buildings, andy to improvements therein providing substantial protection of the weather surface particularly against discoloration and marring during handling in manufacture, packaging, rolling, in storage and during application to a building surface.
More particularly, the invention concerns l0 composition material generally comprising a bitumen, for example, asphalt, saturated and. coated fibrous base which is usually provided with an ornamental weather facing, for instance, a layer of individual granular mineral particles, and/or especially a continuous layer of cement, for example, that described in Harshberger U. S. Patent No. 1,913,667, granted June 13, 1933.
In the production of granule faced composition material, it has been common practice to apply the granules as a final operation while the base bituminous coating is hot and sticky, and subsequently to either form suitable lengths into rolls or cut the fabricated web into individual shingle units or strips and stack these into bundles of suitable number for shipment and/or storage. With either product a plurality of contacting layers of thc surfaced material are obtained, the ornamental granule facing of one touches or substantially contacts the bitumen face of the next, and so on. Under these conditions and in jarring of the bundles in handling, certain layers Aundergo considerable pressure and adhesion of bitumen to the granules may take place, so that when the layers are separated a bituminous blemish may remain upon thegranules. This is especially true rwhen the bitumen is somewhat soft or tacky at the time of forming the contacting layers. Also, in certain instances staining and discoloration of the granules occur by the absorption of the bituminous oils, and both this and the foregoing undesirable results are believed to become more marked by extended periods of storage.
Sometimes fine mica or talc have been dusted upon the bitumen treated base of the material to resist adhesion between layers, and a skin layer of a higher melting point bitumen than the base saturant has also been suggested over the back of the base material where intended for shingles,
but these additions have not obviated the aforesaid undesirable features, and adhesion or bleeding of the thermoplastic bitumen past the mica and/or talc readily manifests itself in storage under warm conditions.
The blemish, `for instance, of bitumen is even mildew may be a further blemish to result.
thermore, the use of an oil or wax over the back o l more marked as a result of handling, particularly during application to a surface where a considerable amount ofabrasion occurs through souffmg between the rough ornamental granule surfacing and the back face of pairs of units or ll layers. The surfacing is generally of a hard material having irregular outlines including sharp proiections and readily 'removes some of the asphalt or the like from the contacting face. Thus, an asphalt blemish readily results, causing dlsl0 coloration and marring of the ornamental surfacing, all of which detracts from the final appearance of any surface covering, and leads to consumer sales resistance. Moreover, while the described results are readily perceivable with in- 16 dividual granule surfacings, they are even more manifest where the ornamental facing is one of an argillaceous cement, for example, a hydraulic cement or similar binding or coating material. In the latter instance the facing is generally a ,o continuous one and provides more surface area to contact or scuff the bitumen face. Also, it provides a good rough surface for holding the blemish producing substance.
However, with either type of surfacing the blemish is' particularly undesirable where the surfacing comprises -a design of white, buff or other light color effect. Obviously, ,the result is more serious where the surfacing is a continuous one than where it consists of interspersed indi- .o vidual granules.
The use of temporary or permanent bitumen resistant coatings over the face Agranules of granule surfaced material to avoid staining in storage does not free the rough surface thereof of the susceptibility of marking, as by adhesion and abrasion in scuing, with the bitumen back of an adjacent piece of material. Also, where these coatings are of a water soluble character,
of cement faced material to resist' adhesion of the plastic cement with the back of an adjacent layer in curing, or the inclusion of a synthetic resin inl the cement composition to form' a surface separating nlm, may both be suitable for 45 the intended purpose of preventing adhesion of the adjacent faces in setting of the cement, but will not overcome discoloration, staining and marking of the cement surface by the blemish producing substances, for instance, bitumen in 5. or on the backs of adjacent layers. The oils will obviously leave a mark upon the finished cement face of the material; the same will be true of waxes. Mica, also will not prevent the described faults as in the case of the mineral surfaced 55 material, while the resin faced cement will still be marked by the asphalt or other hydrocarbonbacks of other units in scuiiing. Moreover, certain paper separators may be effective in storage to prevent discoloration, but are a, nuisance in PIOCeSSng of the material during manufacture and during application and are expensive. Paper separators also do not avoid scuiiing of the material in handling, particularly application, and its resultant effects upon the product to be protected, and create a problem of paper disposal for the applicator.
In accordance with the present invention the foregoing objections relative to composition roofing material having an ornamental surfacing are overcome to a marked vdegree by substantially closing ofi the source of the difficulties by means not itself a blemish contributor. Accordingly it is -proposed to treat the face opposite the ornamental weather-face of such material with an adherent coating composition which when hard ened will provide a tough sealing and abrasive resisting layer. Such layers will have sufficient thickness and hardness as not to be readily pierced by the contacting individual granule or cementitious ornamental faces of similar material, during scuffing, in normal. handling, or by pressure contact in storage and shipment. The coating composition when hardened will also be adapted to substantially conform to temperature changes without cracking and will be capable of sealing in the asphalt or the like, of the base to prevent bleeding through of this bitumen and staining of the ornamental weather face of an adjacent layer during manufacture, in storage and in application, Furthermore, the coating compositions produce films resistant to the penetration of moisture and other agents and the preferred coating compositions yield hardened lms that are resistant to the alkalis and acids occurring in the atmosphere. are substantially unaffected by common solvents and continued weathering, and also have a freedom from thermoplastic tendencies in exposure.
The invention moreover, contemplates the treatment with similar compositions of the cut, edges of such roong material, particularly those to be exposed to the weather, to `complete the seal of such edges, and also contemplates the extension of such treatment to edge portions or the whole top surface of the base. A further feature contemplates a lightweight structure of the foregoing character wherein the base is of lighter Weight than the standard felt heretofore 1n use for shingle material, yet because of the treatment given the material it possesses greater rigidity and resistance to deterioration.
These and other objects of the inventiornrelating to the roofing structure and methods of fabrication will more fully appear from the following description and the accompanying drawing, which, however, must be considered as'merely illustrating and in no way limiting the invention to the embodiment shown and described.
In the drawing,
Fig. 1 illustrates a section of a granule surfaced composition material made in accordance with the invention.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of a modified embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 3 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a further embodiment of the invention, wherein the structure includes a continuous ornamental surfacing.
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of one method of packaging cut units, and
Fig. 5 is a front view of a bundling method commonly employed in the roofing industry.
Referring to the drawing, the body 2 of the material may be a felted one comprising a rag and/or asbestos fibre composition commonly employed in the manufacture of prepared roofing. 'I'his base may, however, be one of a cellulose fibre and not necessarily felted, for instance, it may be of the material commonly known as Solka, which is a purified cellulose, i. e., a cellulose processed to remove all useless impurities and leave only purified cellulose. This material when made into a base for roofing is tremendously strong, extremely flexible and highly absorbent to waterproofing material such as asphalt. It is, therefore, particularly adaptable and preferable for light weight structures because of its greater strength and life-providing characteristics, as well as resistance to the effects of moisture. A libre base of this character is generally saturated with a bitumen, for instance, a low melting point asphalt by passing the base web through a vat containing such material in molten condition. Where the fibrous base is not specially impregnated with the asphalt, penetration thereof may be obtained by the application of such material to the opposite faces thereof by coating means such as a spray. Subsequently, before or after this bitumen treatment of the invention has taken place, the side to be exposed may be given an additional layer of bitumen, for instance, one of a high melting point asphalt, a portion 5 of which material may, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, extend over the edges of the fibrous base. While such material is in plastic condition, granular material 6, generally coarse, and of the types well-known in the roofing industry, for instance, slate, ceramic granules, brick, shale, gravel, sand, silica, and quartz may be applied and partially embedded over the surface and edge forming portions of this coating. As illustrated in Fig. 2, a skin layer 1 of bitumen, may' also be applied to the back face of the material.
The aforesaid operations are generally conducted upon a moving base web, and such web may be cut into sections commensurate with the type of units or roll roofing to be fabricated. It is to be understood that the further treatment to be described may also be carried out upon a web, which may also be moving, or cut units may be treated individually or as a moving series.
At any time during the foregoing operations or following them, the side of the material which is to form the back of the finished article is treated with a coating composition, which, when dry, will, as previously stated yield a tough and substantially hard film 8 to form a sealing layer above the base bituminous saturant or back bituminous adhesive skin layer, to prevent bleeding through of these substances and will have sufficient thickness and toughness to resist piercing by the coritacting ornamental surfaces. The coating should be one that will not itself cause marking of the ornamental facing on the weather face of the material, through contact therewith, and preferably, the coating composition will be one that will readily dry and harden prior to formation of the material into packages or rolls. Likewise, it is preferred that the coating film be non-tacky so as to leave no deposit upon the weather face of the material when adjacent layers are separated.
Coating compositions suitable for this invention may consist of, for instance, a calcium resinate composition made from a .270 (melting.
point) rosin, calcium hydroxide and'calcium acetate in the proportions of about 100; 5; and ik, respectively, by weight. Such a composition may be prepared by heating the rosin to 260 C., adding the calcium acetate and a small portion of calcium hydroxide; then holding at 260 C. and gradually adding the balance of calcium hydroxide. This composition will produce a hard film. A more flexible abrasive resisting and rapid drying film may be obtained by adding 20-30 parts of China-wood oil. Zinc oxide and zinc acetate may be used in place of the calcium hydroxide and calcium acetate, respectively, if desired, and in about the same or slightly greater amounts to produce a zinc resinate composition. Suitable llers are incorporated in the composition and these further aid in retarding bleeding. These coatings are preferably used where low cost is a factor and where the treatment is specifically desired for the concealed side of the roofing. Hard resins, for instance, ester gums having melting points of about 195 F. formed into solutions with suitable solvents, preferably those which will not act as solvents for the base asphalt may be used also, but where treatment of the roofing is extended to Weather exposed portions of the roofing, I employ, preferably, a
o dispersion in a volatile solvent of a phenolic resin and prefer an oil-resin composition polymerized to an advanced condition, for example a modified phenolic resin modified with extending oils, for instance, a highly polymerized oil, whereby to obtain rubbery characteristics and a fiexible film. An oil-resin composition is further preferred as it deposits a layer upon Aevaporation ofthe solvent that is substantially unaffected by atmospheric conditions and common solvents, has substantial weather resistance, resistance to moisture absorption, oxidation, alkalis'and acids, dries very rapidly, does not hold on to the solvent and bonds particularly well to the material to be treated. A satisfactory composition may.
be formed by ball milling together 100 parts of an oil-resin composition of this character, 100 parts filler, for example, lithopone, and 100 parts of solvent, for instance, toluol.
Coating materials of the foregoing character are preferably reduced to a spray consistency with mineral spirits, such as Solvesso #2 which is a petroleum thinner, generally hydrogenated, which includes high aromatic solvents, or toluol. or solvents having similar moderately fast evaporation rates and whose solvency rates are not conducive to bleeding of the bitumen through the protective coatings employed for my invention, before application. A feature of the invention is to apply the coating composition of the invention prior to the application of certain hot bitumen portions in order to accelerate and vsubstantially complete evaporation of solvent without any inhibiting means. For example by applying the coating to the saturated base prior to the application of the high melting point bitumen adhesive layer l upon the weather side, the initial heat of the saturated base is obtained to start rapid evaporation of solvent, and subsequently the full heat value of the additional bitumen applications, for example, the subsequent application of the adhesive layer l is obtained and evaporation of solvent and hardening of the coating is assured. Where, as in Fig. 1, a protective coating similar to 8 is to be applied directly to edge portions and adjacent top surface portions of the saturated base to create layers I0 and Il respectively, to complete an edge seal such treatment may be applied where desirable. prior'to applying the bitumen or other layer I. The layer Il. may extend over the entire surface as in Fig. 3, to prevent blistering/effects by the base. The layers 8, Il) and Il in these gures may be applied simultaneously, or at different times. Also certain of these layers may be applied aftery bitumen layers, but as previously indicated it is preferred that bitumen applications follow these protective layers. For example it is preferred that the layer 8 be first applied and subsequently the bitumen coating l. Obviously, where as in Fig. 2, a back skin layer of bitumen is provided to reduce absorption of the protective coating composition, such will obviously be applied firstand the layer B subsequent thereto.
It will be noted that the protective layer I in Figure `2 extends over an edge portion, normally the weather edge of the material, having under layers of bitumen and coarse granules and greatly assists in protecting the asphalt coating at this edge, as well as improving the anchorage of the ,granular particles. In certain instances a layer of granular lmaterial I2 may be applied to the edgeportions over the layer I0 to impart further protection thereto and to further cover the base at this 'vulnerable point. Applications of this character are shown in Figs. 2 and 3, but may also be included in that of Fig. 1. It is preferred that these granules be much finer (about 50-100 mesh) than the granules 8, (generally about a #8 mesh) used on the face of the material in order to obtain more complete coverage. A feature of the inventionresides in the deferring application of the edgegranules where applied over the layer I0 until such time'as the coating 4 has been applied to the base and before these coatings have set or hardened. Following application of the granular materials the exposed surface and edge portions may, where desired',be treated with a further surfacingof, for instance, hydraulic cement I4. A product thus coated is illustrated in Fig. 3.
It is to i@ observed that the treated edge in Fig. 2 is chamfered and such will, where the product has substantial thickness, form an exposed and readily observed band of contrasting effect with `the normal weather surface. Such a contrast may be made more effective by employing granules I2 of a different color from the granules 6 and is useful for depicting ,bands of Ademarcation, as mortar bands, or shadowL effects. It is to be understood that this construction as well as the previously described edge treatments may be extended to all or a limited number of edges.
Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate themultiplelayer formation of shingle units; Fig. 4 showing an arrangement in a fibre carton, and Fig. 5 of a bundlev of shingle units maintained between end members, for instance, of wood, by suitable surrounding straps. In this condition the adjacent faces are under static pressure and the layer 8 forms a protective film, preventing bleeding of the saturant or skin layer asphalt-through to the weather surface of the `adjacent units. The same conditions will exist where the material has been formed into rolls. Thus it lwill be obvious that the protective lm of the invention is highly desirable where the weather exposed face of the material comprises light colored granules, whether they be of natural color or coated, or where such surface is one of a cement surfacing of light color. In the latter case the water insoluble protective layer 8 will prevent discoloration of the cement during the curing stage, particularly when such material is wet and plastic. However, the layer 8, even, protects the ornamental surfacings where they are of dark shades as any deposit of bitumen upon the exposed face is obviously undesirable. From Figs. 4 and 5 it will'also be apparent that as the units are removed, abrasion will readily occur between the weather face of one and the treated back of another. Likewise this action will be even more marked when the units are laid upon a surface, particularly in applying the material to a wall. For this normal character of handling, the layer 8 will provide the necessary protection to prevent bituminous discoloration and marring of the exposed surface.
Where the layer 8 is one of the aforesaid phenolic resin character and is applied over the saturated base the open pores of the base absorb a substantial amount of this composition and will receive additional protective properties. In combination with a cellulose fiber base the structure may be made quite light in weight without loss of weathering qualities and life to the structure.
It is desired that the4 invention be construed as including all equivalents and such modifications as may be readily made by one skilled in the art with the foregoing novel features in mind. Moreover the invention may be applied with equal eiect to bitumen mastic products. It is desired that the claims be construed as broadly as the prior art may allow. The term roofing in the foregoing description and in the claims is to be construed to include individual shingles, multi-shingle strips and roll roofing and allsurface applications, for example, roofs and sidewalls of buildings.
1. Roofing comprising a bitumen treated base, a rough ornamental weather surfacing on one side of said base, and a hardened, substantially waterinsoluble metallic resinate coating upon the opposite side,'sealing in' the bitumen on said side and adapted to substantially prevent discoloration thereby of the ornamental surfacing of similar roofing through bleeding in storage, said coating being also of suiiicient thickness and toughness to substantially prevent said discoloration by the bitumen through normal scuiiing in storage and handling.
2. Roofing comprising a bitumen treated base, a rough ornamental Weather surfacing on one side of said base, and a hardened, substantially water-insoluble calcium resinate coating upon the opposite side, sealing in the bitumen on said side and adapted to substantially prevent discoloration thereby of the ornamental surfacing of similar roofing through bleeding in storage, said coating being also of suflicient thickness and toughness to substantially prevent said discoloration by the bitumen through normal sculng in storage and handling.
3. Roofing comprising a bitumen treated base, a rough ornamental weather surfacing on one side of said base, and a hardened, substantially Water-insoluble zinc resinate coating upon the opposite side, sealing in the bitumen on said side and adapted to substantially prevent discoloration thereby of the ornamental surfacing of similar roofing through bleeding in storage, said coating being also of sulcient thickness and toughness to substantially prevent said discoloration by the bitumen through normal scumng in stor` age and handling.
4. Roong comprising a bitumen treated base, a rough ornamental weather surfacing on one side of said base, and a hardened, substantially water-insoluble metallic resinate coating including a drying oil upon the opposite side, said coating sealing in the bitumen on said side and adapted to substantially prevent discoloration thereby of the ornamental surfacing of similar roofing through bleeding in storage, said coating being also of suicient thickness and toughness to substantially prevent said discoloration by the bitument through normal scufling in storage and handling.
5. Roong comprising a bitumen treated base, a rough ornamental weather surfacing comprising argillaceous cement on one side of said base, and a hardened, substantially water-insoluble metallic resinate coating upon the opposite side, sealing in the bitumen on said side and adapted to substantially prevent discoloration thereby of the ornamental surfacing of similar roofing through bleeding in storage, said coating being also of sumcient thickness and toughness to substantially prevent said discoloration by the bitumen through normal scuing in storage and handling.
6. Roofing comprising a bitumen treated base, a rough ornamental weather surfacing of light color effect on one side of said base, and a hardened, substantially water-insoluble metallic resinate coating upon the opposite side, sealing in the bitumen on said side and adapted to substantially prevent discoloration thereby of the ornamental surfacing of similar roofing through bleeding in storage, said coating being also of sumcient thickness and toughness to substantially prevent said discoloration by the bitumen through normal scuilng in storage and handling.
SIDNEY A. OCHS.