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Publication numberUS2207662 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 9, 1940
Filing dateJul 22, 1937
Priority dateJul 22, 1937
Publication numberUS 2207662 A, US 2207662A, US-A-2207662, US2207662 A, US2207662A
InventorsEdmundson Jerone
Original AssigneeEdmundson Jerone
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fire extinguishing system
US 2207662 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 9, 1940- J. EDMUNDSON I 2,207,662

FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM Filed July 22 1937 Patented July 9, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 11 Claims.

' This invention relates to fire extinguishing systems, and has particular reference to'systems which operate, automatically through the release of a gaseous extinguishing medium, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and thelike.

A fire extinguishing system, in order to be practical and efficient, should be sure in operation. should be capable of both a localized and general application of the extinguishing medium and at the same time should be susceptible of release at a predetermined temperature selected in view of the conditions attending the particular installation. The present invention has been devised primarily with the foregoing features in mind, and accordingly it is so constructed as. to be thrown in operation irrespective of the nature of the fire, be it localized or general throughout the building, and at-the same time means are provided whereby when a certain predetermined temperature has been reached in the building, the system will operate automatically to disperse an initial supply. of extinguishing medium, and then should the fire spread or become general, the entire system will be applied in the extinguishing operation. Means are also provided to insure against clogging of the system, or to prevent shutting off the main source of supply'from the outlets for the fire extinguishing medium, such means being such as to involve no equipment other than is found in the ordinary dwelling or industrial plant.

The objects and advantages generally of the system will become clearly apparent in view of the following description taken in conjunction with the drawing, the latter showing more or less diagrammatically a conventional dwelling and a fire extinguishing system constructed in I accordance with the features of the present invention operatively associated with the dwelling. Referring to the drawing in detail, a building or dwelling is generally indicated at B and is provided with a plurality of rooms at Rl, R.-2, 'R r3, R4 and R5 and abasement B. The building is shown as being provided with an air conditioning system having a main air pressure duct 5 which is on the pressure side of the system and feeds into various rooms through inlet ducts 6,611, 617, and 6c, the air being exhausted from the rooms through exhaust ducts I, la, lb

' and 1c and returning to the suction side of the system through main return duct 8.

A supply tank for a fire extinguishing medium, preferably carbon dioxide under pressure, is indicated at 9 and adjacent thereto is a conventional hot water tank H], the outlet pipe H from the tank 9 leading through the tank I 0 by means of a connection or conduit Ila and thence through pipe line 12 to a liquid seal generally indicated at l3 and arranged in the form of a U-shaped pipe having a branch l 3a projecting upwardly from the intermediate point thereof, the branch l3a exhausting or opening into a header l4 having connected thereto a plurality of pipe lines l5, I511, I51) and I50 which terminate or exhaust outwardly into the rooms of the dwelling through the ducts: 6, 6a, 6b and 60. Tank 9 is provided with a cut off valve 9a, and pipe line H is provided with an adjustable pressure reducing or expansion valve ll The liquid seal piping I3 is provided with an outlet connection It which leads into a container I1, and from this container a conduit l8 extends upwardly and connects with headers l9 and 20 having a series of fusible plugs [9a, I91) and 20a and 20b projecting therethrough, the plugs, as will be noted, being shown located in the top area of the various rooms of the drawing.

Branching off from conduit I8 is a pipe line 2! having therein a trap portion 22 and 22a and a liquid seal container, or what may be termed a plug 23. Pipe line 22a leads from the plug or container 23 downwardly to a receptacle or container 24 so that liquid displaced from the seal or plug 23 will flow into the receptacle 24. From the receptacle 24 a pipe line or conduit 25 leads upwardly and exhausts or opens into the top room R.5, which as shown is the attic of the dwelling.

The system operates as follows:

Carbon dioxide or a like gaseous fire extinguishing medium may be stored in the tank 9, such tanks being obtainable in loaded form on the market in a manner well understood by those versed in the art; or it may be substituted by suitable apparatus for generating and maintaining a constant supply. of CO2 under pressure, depending entirely upon the character of the installation, especially as regards size. Assuming the valve 9a is open, carbon dioxide under pressure passes through reducing valve II, at which point the pressure and temperature of the gas is reduced due to expansion of the fluid, the expanded gas passing through the pipe connection Ha and. into pipe line 12'. Since the tank It contains the hot water supply for the dwelling, the CO2 in the connection Ha will be prevented from freezing. This is an important feature since it insures against clogging of the supply line and at the same time entails no additional expense in the installation and upkeep of the system. The liquid seal l3 may be provided with a suitable fluid such as mercury or the like which may be relatively heavy as comparedwith the CO2 or fire extinguishing medium.

Let us assume, for example, that a-fire breaks out in room Rl, thereby melting the fusible plugs 20a and releasing the pressure in conduit l8 and header 20. When this happens, the mercury or other liquid in the seal I3 will become displaced and flow into the container or trap ll,

thereby releasing the fire extinguishing medium in the line I2, which obviously is of lower pressure than that stored in the tank 9, and clearing this line CO2 will then fiow up through conduit and outwardly through the fusible plugs 20a, or such of the latter as have been released. The mercury or like sealing fiuid will also clear line I3a so that CO2 gas will also flow into header I4 and thence outwardly into the various rooms through pipe lines I5, I5a, I51) and I50. Thus not only will the extinguishing medium be applied through plugs 2Ela, but it will also be applied through pipe Ma and outlet 6b, and if the air conditioning system is operating dispersion of the gas will be facilitated. Should only one or more of the plugs be fused, the supply through line I50, will make up for the deficiency.

The liquid seal or plug 23 provides a safety means which is in effect a selective arrangement whereby CO2 gas may be discharged into the interior of the building when the temperature therein, rises above a certain predetermined point. This point may vary in certain dwellings or buildings. For example, suppose the maximum releasing temperature is F., then a liquid having a boiling point in that range may be utilized, such as dichlorethylene or the like. When this temperature is reached, the liquid in the seal or plug 21% boils and passes out through outlet extremity of pipe line 2211 into container 24, the latter being provided with a suitable liquid or medium to prevent escape or volatilization of the liquid from plug 23. After the lines 22 and 22a are clear, pressure is released in pipe line 2 I, conduit I8 and container ll, whereupon the mercury in the seal I3 flows into container I1 and CO2 flows through the lines I2 and I3, into container H, from the latter through conduit I8 into pipe line 2|, thence through line 22, plug 23, line 22a, into container 24 and thence upwardly through pipe line or conduit 25 into the top area of the dwelling or other point to which the conduit 25 may extend. As will be obvious, this may take place prior to release of the main system, or release of the fusible plugs I9a or 20a. For certain types of buildings, for example, such as warehouses or the like, the liquid seal or plug 23 may be arranged to operate at a temperature lower in cold weather than in warm weather. It is preferred to place the plug or seal 23 in the return duct of the air conditioning system since this is the most sensitive point of the entire system and will indicate a rising temperature regardless of in what portion or area of the room or building the fire may take place.

It will thus be seen that the system may be arranged so that the seal 23 is first released to fiood the entire building with CO2 gas or other fire extinguishing medium, and then should the fire continue, the entire system will be thrown into operation through the medium of the overhead plugs Iila and 20a and the header outlets I5 to 55?) inclusive.

While not shown, it will be obvious that liquid seals similar to that at 23 could be installed in conjunction with the pipe lines l5, I5a, I51) and I50 and so located as to be influenced by the temperature of the respective rooms and thus avoid release of gas in any room other than that in which the fire may occur.

The seal or plug 23 may be used alone or constitute the only control if desired, in which event the conduit 25 leading to the top of the dwelling would exhaust into each individual room, for example, through a series of connections such as those leading from the header I4. This feature renders the system particularly adaptable displaceable through pressure of the said mediumoperatively associated with said conduit, and means normally closing the outlet end of said conduit and located to be influenced by the temperature of the air in said compartment for opening said outlet.

2. In combination with a building having a compartment or space therein, a fire extinguishing system including a supply of fire extinguish! ing medium such as carbon dioxide or the like, a conduit communicating said supply with said compartment, fusible plugs controlling the outlet of said conduit, and a liquid seal operatively.

associated with said. conduit to normally maintain said supply in said tank and adapted to be displaced through pressure of said gas when the outlet of said conduit is opened due to fusion of said plugs. 1

3. In combination with a building having a compartment or space therein, fire extinguishing apparatus'comprising a supply of carbon dioxide or the like under pressure, a conduit communicating said sup-ply with said compartment, one or more fusible plugs normally closing the outlet of said conduit, another conduit communicating said supply with said compartment, :2. liquid seal I operatively-associated with said conduits to' normally prevent escape of said supply from said tank a receptacle between andin communication with said seal and said conduits, said receptacle arranged to receive the displaced liquid of said liquid seal upon displacement through excessive temperature reaction on said plugs. s

.4. In combination with a building having'a compartment or space therein, fire extinguishing;

apparatus comprising a source of supply of carbon dioxide or the like, a conduit communicating said source of supply with said compartment, one or more fusible plugs controlling the outlet of said conduit, a liquid seal operative-1y associated with said conduit and normally blocking flow of gas therethrough, a receptacle between and in communication with said seal; and said conduit, said receptacle arranged to receive the displaced liquid of said seal, and an'additional conduit provided with sealing means arranged to be influenced by the temperature of said compartment prior to fusio-nof said plug, said plug comprising a container filled with fluid whose boiling point approximates a dangerous tem-;

perature rise, said latter conduit communicating said source of supply with said compartment beyond said liquid seal. i i

5. In combination with a building having a compartment or space therein and inlet and exhaust ducts for admitting 1 air into and withdrawing air frorn said compartment, fire extinguishing apparatus comprising-a source of sup ply of carbon dioxide or the "like under pressure,

a conduit communicating said supply with said compartment, one or more fusible plugs located in the top area of said compartment and controlling the outlet of said conduit, a liquid seal 6. Incombination with a building having a' compartment or space therein, fire extinguishing apparatus including a source of sup-ply of carbon dioxide or like fire extinguishing medium under pressure, a conduit communicating said source of supply with said compartment, a liquid seal operatively associated with said conduit and normally blocking flow of carbon dioxide therethrough, and a temperaturerelease plug in the form of a container having therein a fluid whose boiling point approximates a dangerous temperature rise in said compartment and arranged to be influenced by the temperature of said compartment, said plug being operatively connected into and closing said conduit beyond said liquid seal and upon boiling and displacement of the fluid therein, opening said conduit and permitting pressure of the carbon dioxide to displace the said liquid seal.

'7. In combination with a building having a v compartment or space therein and an air return duct through which air is withdrawn from said space, fire extinguishing apparatus including a tank or the like containing a supply of carbon dioxide or like fire extinguishing medium under pressure, a conduit communicating said source of supply with said compartment, a liquid seal operatively connected into said conduit and normally blocking flow of carbon dioxide therethrough, and a temperature release plug in the form of a container having therein a fluid whose boiling point approximates a dangerous temperature rise in said compartment, said plug being located in. said air return duct and connected into said conduit beyond said liquid seal to normally close the outlet of the conduit.

8.v In combination with a building having a compartment or space therein and anair inlet and an air return duct for supplying air to and withdrawing air from said compartment, a fire extinguishing system including a tank or analogous supply of carbon dioxide or the like fire extinguishing medium under pressure, a liquid seal adapted to maintain the carbon dioxide against release from said tank, a conduit communicating said tank beyond said seal with said compartment and having one or more fusible plugs in the outlet thereof, another conduit communicating said source of supply with said compartment beyond said seal and communicating with said compartment through said inlet duct, and an additional conduit communicating said supply with the interior of the building, said latter conduit being controlled by a plug in the form of a container having therein a liquefied gas whose boiling point approximates a dangerous temperature rise in said compartment, said plug being located in said air return duct.

9. In combination with a building having a 1 compartment therein, fire extinguishing apparaguishing medium underpressure, a conduit leading from said tank, an expansion valve in said conduit, a liquid seal operatively associated with said conduit and normally blocking fiow of gas therethrough, a receptacle or trap for receiving the liquid from said seal, a conduit connecting at its inlet end with said receptacle and at its outlet end being provided with a plurality of fusible plugs which upon fusion open and permit the carbon dioxide to exert pressure on the liquid of the seal and cause it toflow intosaid receptacle and permit carbon dioxide gas under pressure to pass through said conduit and outwardly into said compartment through said plugs.

10. In combination with a building-having a compartment therein. and an air inlet duct for admitting air to said compartment, fire extinguishing apparatus comprising a tank or analogous source of supply of carbon dioxide or the like fire extinguishing medium under pressure, a conduit leading from said tank, an expansion valve in said conduit, 2. liquid seal operatively associated with said conduit and normally blocking fiow of gas therethrough, a receptacle or trap for receiving the liquid from said seal, a conduit connecting at its inlet end with said receptacle and at its outlet end being provided a plurality of fusible plugs which upon fusion open and permit the carbon dioxide to exert pressure on the liquid of the seal and cause it to fiow into said receptacle and permit carbon dioxide gas under pressure to pass through said conduit and outwardly into said compartment through said plugs, said liquid seal having an additional conduit branching therefrom opening into said coma partment through said air inlet duct whereby an additional supply of carbon dioxide gas is provided for said compartment upon release of said seal.

11. In combination with a building having a compartment or space therein and air inlet and return ducts for admitting conditioned air into and withdrawing air from said compartment, fire extinguishing apparatus comprising a tank or analogous: source of supply of carbon dioxide under pressure, a conduit leading from said tank and having an expansion valve therein for expanding and reducing the temperature of said gas, a liquid seal in said conduit normally maintaining the carbon dioxide gas against escape from said tank, a receptacle or trap for the liquid in said seal, a conduit leading from said receptacle and provided'at its outlet end with one or more fusible plugs located in the top area of said compartment, the conduit in which said liquid seal is located being provided with a branch which communicateswith said compartment through said inlet duct, whereby upon fusion of said plugs the liquid seal is displaced and flows into said container and clears said conduit so that carbon dioxide gas is exhausted into said compartment through said plugs and also through said air inlet duct and an additional conduit connected into the system beyond said liquid seal and having therein a plug in the form of a container loaded with a liquid having a predetermined boiling point, said latter plug being located to be influenced by the air flowing into and through said air return duct and discharge means from said plug to release the liquid at said boiling point.

J ERONE EDMUNDSON.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3497012 *May 18, 1967Feb 24, 1970Chemetron CorpMethod and apparatus for extinguishing fires
US4593529 *Dec 3, 1984Jun 10, 1986Birochik Valentine LMethod and apparatus for controlling the temperature and pressure of confined substances
US4936388 *Nov 8, 1988Jun 26, 1990Le Lande Jr Walter CFire suppression system
US4991657 *May 16, 1989Feb 12, 1991Lelande Jr Walter CFire suppression system
US5287702 *Apr 1, 1993Feb 22, 1994Preferred Co2 Systems, Inc.Carbon dioxide storage with thermoelectric cooling for fire suppression systems
US8336636Oct 29, 2007Dec 25, 2012Kidde Ip Holdings, LimitedFire suppression system with freeze protection
WO2009056780A1 *Oct 29, 2007May 7, 2009Kidde Ip Holdings LtdFire suppression system with freeze protection
Classifications
U.S. Classification169/11
International ClassificationA62C99/00
Cooperative ClassificationA62C99/0027
European ClassificationA62C99/00B2B