US 2208010 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 1940- H. G. WHlTb AORE 2,208,010
PORTABLE AND SECTIONAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 19. 1937 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 49 Q 40 l I v 49 40 -,-'5/;;: 55 i* 6i a: 52/ 55 w w. 5*
ll ldl Ill h Invenkior .Aziorneys July 16, 1940. H. G.'WHITMORE PORTABLE AND SECTIONAL- BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 19. 1937 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Aiiormeys July 16, 1940. H. e. WHITMORE PORTABLE AND SECTIONAL' BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 19, 1937 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Invenior .BZWW
memes July 16, 1940 NI TED STA roa'mnm AND sncrromr. nnnlumc CONSTRUCTION Horace G. Whitmore, Minneapolis, Application April 19, i937, Serial No. 137,726
This invention relates to portable and sectional building structure and particularly to a construction adapted for compact, rugged cabins, housings for work crews, filling stations, garages,
rural taverns and the like.
It is an object of my invention to rovide a simple, comparatively light but exceedingly strong v atively set up and associated with the sectional panels.
It is a further object to provide a structure of the class described with efllcient means associated with the panels and members of the inner and outer supporting and reinforcing frames which facilitate doors and windows of eflicient structure to be utilized.
Another object is the provision of portable and sectional building structure which may be added to from time to time when erected with the least amount of effort and inconvenience.
A further object is the provision in such a building construction of sectional flooring as well as sectional roofing and, if desired, also ceiling construction which co-operates with and is con- 'nected with the inner and outer skeleton framework previously described.
These and other objects and advantages of my 40 invention will be more fully set forth in the following description made in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views, and, in which: 45 1 is a front end elevation of a cabin embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same; Fig. 3 is a partial vertical section takepapproximately on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2 and showing the manner in which the roof peak, the sectional wall,
roof and ceiling panels are secured and associated with parts of the inner and outer frame structures;
Fig. 4 is a section taken approximately on the.
55 line 4-4 of Fig. 2, showing relationship between built but are very strong and rigid when operthe side wall and partition member, corner coni struction and typical side wall connection without partition;
Fig. 5 is a vertical section taken along the line 5-5 of Fig. 1; I .5 Fig. 6 is a vertical section taken along the line 6-4 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 7 is a vertical window section taken along the line 1-1 of Fig. 2';
Fig. 8 is a horizontal window section taken 10 along the line 8-8 of Fig. 2; a
Fig. 9 is a bottom view of a typical floor section;
Fig. 10 is a vertical section through two floor sections-showing connection between the same;
Fig. 11 is an elevation showing my invention applied to the five panel cabin; 1
Fig. 12 is a vertical section along the line l2-I2 of Fig. 1 showing the construction at the roof hip between the end wall and one of the intermedi- 20 ate cross beams on construction plates;
Fig. 13 is a vertical section taken along the line l3-I3ofFlg.2;
Fig. 14 is a continuation of the sectional view in Fig. 13;
Fig. 15 is a detail perspective of the outside corner plate; and
Fig. 16 is a. detail perspective view showing one of the insulated sectional wall panels detached.
In the form of my construction illustrated, a
series of sectional wall panels. each indicated as an entirety by the letter 1 are provided and, as shown, each of these wall panels is made up of, two sheets 20 of suitable wall material, such as fibrous wall board spaced apart and secured together by top and bottom horizontal spacing members 2| and side spacing members 22 which form a rectangular franie between the two sheets and which help to define the edges of the panel. In addition horizontal and vertical spacing and reinforcing members 22band 23 may be provided, if desirable, said spacing members being constructed of suitable material, such as wood.
The sectional panels P referred to are for the purpose of forming the vertical side and end walls of a cabin or other building constructionand as will later be described special panels are provided with windows and doors therein and which are interchangeable withthe panels P as may be desired in the construction of the building.
The building is preferably mounted on a suitable foundation which, as shown, comprises a series of heavy spaced floor joists 24,. preferably extending longitudinally of the building, structure and being suitably mounted in parallel and hori- 55 zontal relation. Floor sections, each'indicated as anentirety by F, are supported uponsaid joists, one of said floor sections being illustrated in bottom plan view in Fig. 9. Said floor sections 5 are preferably of the same width as the width of the sectional wall panels P. The floor sections, as shown, have the upper flooring elements 25 and the floor insulating sheets 26 spaced from the floor elements by suitable spacing and reinforcing means in the form of crossed wooden elements. The flooring elements of floor sections F have their ends extending beyond the undermost portions of the floor sections and overlie the upper sections of the floor joists 24, as clearly shown in Fig. 3.
I provide sectional interior and exterior skeleton frames for reinforcing the building structure and supporting and securing the wall panels P, as well as for supporting and securing the roof sec- 0 tions later tobe described. The said skeleton frames are preferably made from light structural steel and the two skeleton frames are so related that the wall panels, as well as the roof panels, will be clamped between said frames and sup- 'ported by and secured thereto.
Referring to the interior skeleton frame conerably 90 degrees, and having intermediate webs through which securing bolts29 clamp the inner and outer corner posts together with the side.
edges of wall panels P clamped therebetween.
The outer corner posts 3d are also preferably constructed from light sheet steel of substantially similar shape in cross section to the inner post 28 but having a wider central web to enable the side webs or flanges to be disposed in parallel relation with the flanges of posts 28 and to emciently clamp the marginal side portions of the l wall panels P, as is clearly shown in Fig. 4. The lower ends of the outer corner posts 30 extend below the level of the floor and overlap the ends of the. floor joists and side members of the floor frame and the inner posts are rigidly secured to the floor by bolts 3i. Inner and outer channel-studding members 32 and 33 are provided in the skeleton frame structure for each of thejoints between a pair of the section panels P on each of the side walls of the building and serve to reinforce and support the overhead portion of the frame structure as well as to clamp the marginal vertical edges of two adjacent panels, as will be clear from Fig. 4. The inner and outer channel .studding members 32 and 83 are preferably constructed from sheet steel and the inner members 32, as shown, may be provided with suitable vertical filler strips 34 having rabbeted vertical side edges for engaging the flanges of the channel and such filler strips are secured by any suitable means, such as by adhesively fastening them or by securing the filler strip to the spacing blocks with screws, as shown. Light steel cross beams 35 span the side walls of the building rigidly connecting the upper ends f a pair of oppositely disposed studding channels 32 of the opposing side walls and serve also as ceiling joists. These cross beams 35, as shown,
7 are of inverted channel shape and may be provided with wood filler strips 36, if desired, to finish off the appearance of the ceiling construction. As shown, the ends of cross beams 35 are provided with attachment plates 31' bolted, spot 75 welded or otherwise secured beneath the middle web of the channel of each having an upturned panel engaging position 31a and a socket or bolt receiving portion 31b which is apertured to receive an elongated clamping bolt 38 which secures the cross beam to the side walls and which 6 extends only through the inner plate 39.
Figs. 7 and 8 indicate a construction which may be utilized for the window panels. In Fig. 7, the upper frames 4| and lower sill member a of the window are shown with vertically projecting 10 extensions Mb at their edges. These extensions are adapted to fit between the inner and outer sections 20 of the wall panels P. As also shown in Fig. '7, the edges of the window frames adjacent the extensions Mb are cut inwardly and the 15 edges of the panel sections are similarly shaped so the frame members will be firmly engaged by the panels. Of course, they may be secured in any suitable manner which will retain the frame member with sufficient rigidity. The window it- 29 self is preferably of a little less thickness than the thickness of the panel P and its side members 52 are provided with shoulders 43 which fit into cut out portions in the side frames ti, making a relatively air tight joint. A hinge at is provided 25 at the top of the window so that it may be opened. On the inner side of the window and in a. recessed portion of the frames is suitably secured a screen t5 which is indicated generally since its particular structure is of no importance in connection with the building structure except that thescreen frame members should be made thin enough so that the screen will be flush with the inner wall surface of the panel.
Since the window is adapted to swing outwardly 35 and the screen is positioned inside of the window, any suitable window opening lever may be used, such as that type which is found on all standard outwardly swinging metal sashes. These operating levers or rods may extend either through 40 the sides of the frames til-Ma or through the screen itself. This particular structure is not shown'since means for opening the window is not a particular feature of this invention.
Fig. 8 is a transversesection of a portion of 45 the window and a side frame element 6. The joint between the window and the frame element is the same as that shown in Fig. '7, but the side frame member 46 is held in position by clamping between a pair of inner and outer stud elements 0 32 and 33 in the same manner in which the wall panel elements are secured.
The door, shown generally in Fig. 11, is hinged in a frame 41 which is preferably clamped and held in position by the vertical stud members in 5 the same manner in which the window frames are clamped. T
The roof includes inner and outer skeleton frames similar generally to the inner and outer wall frames and is adapted to rigidly and detach- 60 ably secure a plurality of roof panel elements similar to the wall panels.
As best shown in Figs. 3 and 6, the roof includes a plurality of inner rafter members 48 and outer rafter members 49 which extend from points ad- 65 jacent the upper edges of the vertical walls to the longitudinal center of the building where they are connected to the upper ends of similar rafters extending from the opposite side walls. The rafters are of channel shape similar to the vertical stud members which make up part of the side wall frame of the structure and adapted to clamp the roof panels P in the same manner in which the vertical side wall panels are clamped. The upper adjacent edges of the roof panels are secured 'detachably by inner and outer ridge plates 50 and bi respectively. These ridge plates are preferably of a length equal to the width of the roof panels and wall panels. The connection between the lower edges of the roof and the upper edges of the wall panels is generally similar as I was pointed out in a detailed description thereof Figs. 12, 13 and 14 show the connector plates used insecuring portions of the roof frame and panels to the irregularly shaped end panels 52. In Fig. l2is shown the upper edge of a roof panel in section, as indicated by the letter P. A broken away portion of a complementary panel section on'the opposite side of the ridge line of the roof is also indicated in Fig. 12. The ridge plates so and 5|, described in connection with Fig. 3, are also shown, the interior and exterior ridge plates being indicated by the same numerals in Fig. 12.
' lit will be noted that the connector plates (a is readily seen that these connector plates used perspective view of one being shown in Fig. 15) are of similar construction to the connector plates used at the sides of the building. However, it
on the corners of the building are of substantially the same peculiar construction with the interior connector plate 5d having a narrower corner face than the exterior plate or cap 55. This same relative difference in size was mentioned in describing the connector plates 39 and till inFig. 3. A
In Fig. 13, there is shown in cross section portions of roof panels P with the ridge plate 50 as in Fig. 3 and with a roof end cap 55 which is also generally indicated in Fig.1. This roof end cap is similar to the connector plates or caps described in connection with Figs. 12 and 14, except as its angle is different to conform with the angularity of the pitch of the roof. A metal tongue 5b is preferably connected to the roof end,
cap its to provide means for connecting with a vertical stud member at that'portion of the frame. This plate may be provided with an aperture so a bolt may be inserted therethrough and through a similar aperture in one of the radially formed studs of channel shape, It will be noted that the inner and outer corner cap connector plates bl] and M, respectively, in Fig. 14, are also of the same general construction but their angle is determined by the angle between the vertical straight and vertical front wall and the slanting The vertical front wall is indicated gen-.
roof. erally in this view by the letter W. V
Fig. 16 is a perspective view of one of the panel elements which is used for wall or roof construction. It will be noted that the panel is of regular rectangular shape and, of course, will be furnished in a standard size with all metallic elements used to construct the framework formed in sizes which will adapt them for use with these panel elements without any fitting or trimming when the building is erected,
It will be noted particularly in Figs. 3, 4, 12, 13 and 14 that there are spaces left between the adjacent edges of the panel elements between the various types of connector. plates and connector panels. The studding is caps. In order to improve the insulation of the building construction it is preferred that a suitable insulating material, preferably of a fibrous typ will be placed in the opening between the edges of said panels. This fibrous filling is indicated at 59 in Figs. 3 and 4. While this spacing is filled with aninsulating material as set forth,
vI also find that electric wires can be run in these open spaces between the edges of adjacent panels, giving protection to the wire and also concealing it from view. The wires, however, may be run between the spaced sections oi the wall panels, as
well as in the spaces indicated above, and it is also possible to utilize space behind the filler strips 34 which are inserted in the channels formed by the interior stud members 32.
In Fig. 5 there is shown theponnection between the upper edge of a wall panel in the end of the building and the lower edge of one of the irregularly shaped upper end panels of the wall. The upper end section is shown provided with a metallic element formed asan upwardly open channel member 6 I, and an angular strip 62 is secured on the upper edge of the lower panel section. The channeled element 62 is provided with a horizontal projection 63 which supports the edges of the ceiling panels 64. Then, between the abutting edges of the end panel members is placed a flashing element 65, as shown, to prevent moisture and dust from entering the joint from, outside the building. A similar flashing 65a is shown in Fig. 3 where the lower edges of the wall panels meet the edges of the-floor 25. A molding 66 may be suitably secured in any well known manner at the junction of the ceiling and floor panels with the wall panels, as shown in Figs. 3
From the foregoing description, it will beseen that I have provided a sectional building construction which can be completely finished inso-v far as cutting and fitting is concerned at the factory. All of the vertical panels are of the same width and height, except for the specially cut panels used at the ends of the building, and the roof panels are also of the same width as the wall the same throughout the entire building and theparts need not be marked individually, since any stud ridge plate, rafter,
etc, which is used on either the inner or outer framework can be placed in any one of the number of positions where an article of this type 15 needed. In other words, the person who assembles a building 'of this type need only familiarize himself of the-few difierent shapes of assembling units and once he has installed one of these units,
the others are placed in exactly the same relative positions with a minimum amount of difficulty. A building of this type can be constructed at any desired length, depending upon the number. of side wall panels used. A wall panel with a' window in it may be placed at any desired spot, and, as a matter of fact, if a change in window location issdesired, after the building has been constructed, it is not a diflicult job to shift the window panel to another location.
Buildings constructed along the lines of myinvention may be completely assembled by an unskilled person in a few hours. There is no permanent foundation necessary, and if desired, the buildingcan be dismantled and moved from one location to another with a of difllculty. It is contemplated that when the building is to be transported, a special trailer may be provided for carrying the parts in a compact condition. However, itis, of course, not necessary to provide any Because of its insulated construction, the building is adaptable as a year around habitation. It is, of course, primarily for use as a vacation home and its insulation will make it much more comfortable than an uninsulated structure both in summer and in winter. It is a structure which is *sufiiciently rigid that it can be assembled and left permanently to provide comfortable living quarters, but if it is desired to utilize the building for short periods, as for vacations, it may be assembled upon a rented property and then removed conveniently at any desired time.
It will, of course, be understood that various changes may be made in the form, details, arrangement and proportions of the various parts without departing from the scope of my invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a portable and sectional building structure, a plurality of vertical wall panels, a sectional inner reinforcing skeleton frame and a sectional exterior reinforcing frame, said interior and exterior frames including oppositely disposed spaced interconnected interior and exterior stud members and cross members connecting adjacent pairs of inner stud members and adjacent pair of outer stud members, said panels being rigidly and detachably clamped between said stud members, and said frames including spanning members connecting and reinforcing the opposite sides of said frames adjacent the top of the building.
2. In a portable and sectional building structure, a plurality of vertical wall panels, a sectional inner reinforcing skeleton frame and a sectional exterior reinforcing frame, said panels being clamped at'their side and top edges between said inner and outer frames, said clamp means including interior and exterior stud 'members adapted to engage the side edges of said panels, and stud connecting elements positioned between the edges of adjacent panels and adapted to rigidly and detachably secure said stud members and the adjacent edges of said panel members.
3. In a portable and sectional building strucspecial conveying means for the parts making up' 7 the building.
ture, a plurality of vertical wall panels, a sectional inner reinforcing skeleton frame and a sectional exterior reinforcing frame, a plurality of slanting roof panels, a sectional inner reinforcing roof frame and 'a sectional exterior reinforcing roof frame, said wall panels and roof panels being rigidly and detachably secured between said inner and-outer frames, and rafter plates rigidly and detachably connecting said inner and outer wall frames and panels with said inner and outer roof frames and panels.
4. In a portable and sectional building structure, a plurality of vertical wall panels, a sectional inner reinforcing skelet'on frame and a sectional exterior reinforcing frame said wall panels being rigidly and detachably secured between said inner and outer frames, a sectional inner reinforcing roof frame and a sectional outer reinforcing roof frame, said roof frames including inner and outer rafter members, roof panels rigidly and detachably secured between said inner and outer roof frames and said rafter members being connected to said will frames by rafter plates extending along the top edges of said well frame members and rigidly and detachably connecting the upper edges of said wall frame members with the lower edges of said roof frame members, and top plate members rigidly and detachably securing the adjacent upper edges of said roof frame members.
5. In a portable and sectional building structure, a plurality of vertical wall panels, a sec- 1 tional inner reinforcing skeleton'frame and a