US 2208589 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 23, 1940. J. c. P. LEEMHUIS BUILDING MATERIAL AND METHOD 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May 31, 1958 W ATTORNEY INVENTOR do an s C P Learn/11 13 s Sheets-Sheet 2 July 23, 1940. J. c. P. LE EMHU|S BUILDING MATERIAL AND METHOD Filed May 31, 1938 I ATTORNEY July 23', 0- J. c. P. LEEMHUIS BUILDING MATERIAL AND METHOD Filed May 31, 1938 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 bu/ls W ATTO RNEY MEN-r R Jolie/mes GP Laem BY W A ,P W n A Patented July 1940 v PATENT OFFICE azoasas BUILDING MATERIAL AND METHOD Johannes C. P. Leemhuis, Los Angeles, Calif., as-
signor, by mesne assignments, to Edward James Donaldson, Africa- Johannesburg', Union of South Application May 31, 1938, Serial'No. 210,921
This invention relates to a building structure, and especially to one utilizing preformed blocks or plates.
A wall structure constructed in this manner is described in Patent No. 2,071,039, issued to J. C. P. Leemhuis on February 16, 1937, and entitled Hollow wall and plates for its construction. In this patent, plates or slabs with vertical pillar sections are so retained as to provide an interior and an exterior fiat wall, with air spaces between the walls. The courses of the plates or slabs on opposite sides of the wall are furthermore staggered. The vertical pillar sections of the plates on opposite sides of the wall are overlapped and tied together as by pins. Due to the intimate contact of these pillar sections, the wall structure is particularly adapted to resist sagging and vibratory shocks such as may be caused by earthquakes.
In order to render a construction of this character thoroughly practical, a variety of plates or slabs should be made as a. standard assortment. For example, corner structures must be provided where two walls meet; and similarly, sections must be provided to make it possible to take ofl a right angle partition or wall from another wall.
It is one of the objects of this invention to make it possible to reduce the number of standard plates or slabs and yet to permit the construction of angles, take-ofis, etc., in a simple and effective manner.
It is another object of this invention to make it possible to form the corners by mere overlapping of the vertical pillar sections at the contiguous wall portions.
It is another object of this invention to make it possible, by providing a relatively few standard forms of plates, to construct any desired form of building structures which may involve the formation of window or door openings, right angled wall take-offs, corners, etc.
It has been found that by using the principles of construction disclosed in the prior patent, the wall structure exhibits excellent qualities of strength, rigidity, and resistance to shocks; and this in spite of the fact that the plates are not joined by mortar or cement. In fact, the narrow spaces provided between adjacent edges of the plates may be left open; but for the sake of appearance, grouting may be added. The spacing between horizontal courses, however, may be utilized in a variety of other ways, if desired. For example, the grouting in these spaces may serve as a key between courses; or longitudinal metal reinforcement may be placed therein.
In accordance with the present invention, the spaces between the vertical plate edges may provide a passage for fastening elements, such as nails or bolts, to vertical studs that are continuous from top to bottom of the wall. Such studs may be wooden, or of other appropriate material. They contribute very materially to the strength of the structure. They are interposed between vertical pillar sections at the edges of adjacent plates, so as to permit passage of the fastening means to the studs.
It, is accordingly another object of this invention to make it possible effectively to build wall sections of preformed or precast materials, in association with continuous vertical studs that are substantially completely covered by the plates.
It is another object of this invention so to proportion and form the plates and the reinforcement therefor, that the thickness and weight of the plates may be reduced. This feature is especially advantageous, since thereby the spaces between the two sets of plates forming the two sides of a wall are thus sufilciently wide to accommodate plumbing, conduits for electric wiring, ducts for air conditioning, and the like, as well as to provide greater accessability for the insertion of pins or other anchors used in assembling the wall structure. It also permits the use of continuous vertical studs of greater cross section.
It is still another object of this invention to make it possible to use reinforcing material in a simple and effective way; and more particularly to supplement the embedded reinforcement by metal bars accommodated between adjacent horizontal edges of the plates.
When walls have been built heretofore from 0 cement or concrete blocks or plates, it has been observed that condensation or a collection of moisture may exist on the wall surfaces. .The result is that at least the interior walls are required to be treated to correct this condition. It is still another object of this invention to obviate the need of any special treatment of the walls, and particularly by ensuring that the wall, for substantially its entire extent, has no continuous cement or concrete thickness from one tended to be placed in contact. The insulation material, being waterproof, effectively bars the seepage; or collection of condensed moisture from the exterior surface to the interior surface. It is thus still another object of this invention to provide this insulation covering, preferably as an adherent layer directly overlying the plate surfaces.
The use of the paper or insulation is of additional value in the process of casting the plates. Such casting usually involves use of a mold structure, into which the plastic mixture is poured. At the same time, the mold is subjected to vibration, in order to ensure complete filling of the mold cavities, as well as homogeneity and good density. In order that the molds be economically utilized, it is essential that they be emptied as promptly as possible, to permit them to be used promptly for successive casting operations. By lining the mold surfaces with the insulation layer or paper, this economy of mold operation is readily attained. The layer adheres to the molded faces of the newly cast plate; it serves thereby to prevent adhesion of the plate in the mold, and permits stripping of the mold very shortly after the casting operation. Also, the layer of paper or insulation assists in supporting the cast plates, and thereby reduces slumping.
The mold structure and method of molding described herein is made the subject matter of an application filed in the name of Johannes C.
P. Leemhuis, Serial number 226,920, filed August 26, 1938, and entitled Method and apparatus for molding.
This invention possesses many other advantages, and has other objects which may be made more easily apparent from a consideration of one embodiment of the invention. For this purpose there is shown a form in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. This form will now be described in detail, illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to be understood that this detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of this invention is best defined by the appended claims.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a pictorial illustration of a wall plate embodying the invention, a part of the plate being broken away;
Fig. 2 is a horizontal cross-section of a wall and corner structure embodying the invention, parts of the wall plates being broken away in order to limit the size of the figure;
Figs. 3 and 4 are, respectively, fragmentary pictorial views of those plates which cooperate to form the exterior right angle illustrated in the upper left hand portion of Fig. 2, part of the plates being broken away to show the metallic reinforcement;
Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view of a wall structure embodying the invention, shown in conjunction with a foundation and a roof plate structure;
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the plane 6-6 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along plane of Fig. 5;
Fig. 8 is an enlarged fragmentary section showing the adjacent edges of courses of the plates forming a wall structure;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary horiz'ontal sectional view illustrating the manner in which additiona metallic reinforcement may be used;
Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic view showing the manner in which a mold is prepared for the I casting of the plates;
Fig. 11 is a pictorial view showing a wall construction supporting an upper floor;
Fig. 12 is a detail section on an enlarged scale as seen on plane I2-I2 of Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a cross-sectional view" as seen on plane I3-I3 of Fig. 12; and
Fig. 14 is a sectional view of a part of a wall structure, illustrating the manner in which a vertical pier or the like may be formed.
The typical wall structure illustrated by the horizontal section of Fig. 2 utilizes a series of horizontal courses of plates, the section being taken through one such course. The plates are keyed or joined together by the aid of pins or bars, as described generally in the prior patent hereinabove referred to. In general, the plates forming opposite sides of the wall structure are ping from a mold..
These vertical pillar sections all extend on a common side of the plate I. The opposite side of the plate I may form the exposed wall surface 6. As indicated in the prior patent referred to, the pillar sections 2, 3, 4 and 5 cooperate with similar pillar sections of plates forming the opposite wall surface, to produce the hollow wall effect illustrated in Fig. 2.
The plate I may also conveniently be provided wtih reinforcing iron or steel wires or bars I. These reinforcing elements may be appropriately supported in the mold preparatory to the casting of the plates. Since the reinforcement elements are carefully spaced so as to impart the desired strength to the structure, it is possible by this means to reduce the thickness of the plate I, and thereby to reduce the weight of the finished product. This reduction in thickness is indicated in Figs. 1 and 2 by the panel 8, forming a rectangular recess on the reverse side of the plate between pillar sections 2 and 4, as well as between pillar sections 3 and 5. The pillar sections 2 and 3 are shown as being spaced a slight distance from the edge surfaces 9v of the plate.
All of the vertical pillars 2, 3, 4 and 5 of each plate are intended to lie adjacent to or overlap similar pillar sections of the plate that forms the opposite wall surface of the hollow wall structure. In order to connect the plates together to form a strong, self-supporting earthquake resistant structure, pins or the like may be passed transversely through the cooperating overlapped pillar sections. For this purpose, apertures such as I0 and II are provided, extending through all of the pillar sections in a horizontal direction. The upper series of aperthe anchoring pins.
They also provide a symreversible. As the courses are laid, the insertion of the pin is readily accomplished by inserting the hand into the hollow formed between the inner and outer plates.
One of the problems in molding of the plate in quantities involves the desirability of reducing the amount of equipment required to produce the plates. For this reason it is advantageous to arrange matters in such a way that the mold structures may be quickly stripped of the molded articles without the necessity of waiting for extended periods for the plates to set therein. Provision must also be made to prevent the articles from adhering to the mold sides. It has been proposed in the past to accomplish this latter result by coating the active molding faces with an oily solution, as by painting or spraying these. surfaces. This, however, entails considerable additional labor, and furthermore, this expedient may not be fully eflicacious. Furthermore, at best the molded article must be retained in the mold until it is sufliciently set to be supported without excessive slumping after stripping.
The present invention overcomes these difiiculties and obviates the necessity of long retention in the molds, or of utilizing a non-adherent liquid coating. For this purpose the mold I 2 (Fig. 10), in which the plate I is to be cast, is lined with paper l3. This paper may be ordinary builders paper comprising a plurality of plies joined together as by an asphaltic or other water-proof composition. The apertures l0 and II in the plates are formed as by the insertion of through rods l4, forming cores for these apertures. 1
After pouring the material into the open mold I2, the top of the mold may be leveled off as by troweling or the like. Then the cores l4 may be removed and shortly thereafter the entire mold l2 with its article may be inverted upon a supporting pallet, and the mold I! lifted. The pliant paper I5, of course, does not adhere to the mold surfaces, but does adhere to the wet plastic material, such as cement or concrete, composing the plate I. This adhesion of the paper [5 to the molded article is ensured by subjecting the article and the paper to a steaming process in a suitable kiln. Upon removal of the cured article from the kiln, the paper is permanently adhered. This adhesion is probably due to the partial dissolution by the steam of the glucose matter used in the manufacture of the paper. This glucose contacts the plastic material of the plate and serves as a bond between the article and the paper.
When the mold I2 is inverted and the molded product stripped from it, the paper It adheres to. the product and assists materially in preventing the newly cast article from slumping. In this way the period of retention in the mold I! for obtaining a sumcient set may be considerably reduced; and the mold if can immediately be used over again. The pallets carrying the newly molded plate, may be placed in appropriate kilns or the like for curing purposes.
The paper I5 is especially useful for preventing adhesion of the semi-dry or plastic concrete to the mold surfaces. Were it not for the paper, the suction between the mold surfaceand the newly made concrete surface would be so great as to lift and distort the freshly made concrete. By the aid of the intervening paper layer, this difflculty is obviated.
As will be pointed out hereinafter, the paper It serves as an insulation medium between the plates forming the front and back side of the wall structure. The paper is substantially waterproof. It stops any moisture that may be condensed on the wall from passing through to the other side of the wall. This is an important feature, which will be hereinafter more thoroughly discussed.
The manner of laying the courses in horizontal series is best illustrated in Figs. 2 and 5. For example, the plates l which form the exterior wall of the structure shown in Fig. 5, may be placed in a series of horizontal courses. The vertical edges 9 of the course forming one wall side is kept in alinement for the entire height of the wall; but the courses forming the other wall surface are vertically and horizontally offset or staggered from the courses forming the exterior wall surfaces.
The manner in which the vertical pillar sections may be utilized to produce the staggered positioning of the plates on opposite sides of the wall may be best explained in conjunction with the wall structure illustrated at the left hand portion of Fig. 2. This figure represents a horizontal section through one course. Therein it is seen, for example, that the vertical edges 9 of the adjacent plates forming the exterior wall surface, are staggered with respect to the corresponding vertical edges 9 of the adjacent plates forming the interior wall surface. At about the middle portion of the left hand wall illustrated in Fig. 2, there are shown respectively the edge pillar section 2 of one plate and a corresponding edge pillar section 3 of the next adjacent plate Hi. There is a space between the adjacent edges 9 of these two plate structures 1 and i6. These pillar sections 2 and 3 on the left hand wall are disposed within the space formed between the intermediate pillar sections 4 and 5, of the opposite plate I'I.
These four pillar sections 2, 3, 4 and 5, thus have cooperating surfaces that would be in direct contact, were it not for the separation afforded by the layers of paper l5. In this form of the inverrtlon, the edge pillar sections 2 and 3 do not completely fill the space between the intermediate pillar sections 4 and 5. Instead a. space is provided for a vertical stud l8, which is continuous from the bottom to the top of the completed. wall structure. This vertical stud l8 may be of wood or the like. Due to the vertical space between the edges 9 on the interior wall, opposite the stud l8, the stud I8 is available through this space for utilizing the stud as an anchoring means for elements to be supported on the interior wall.
A similar vertical stud I9 is indicated in the lower portion of Fig. 2, as accommodated between the cooperating edge pillar sections 2 and 3. These edge pillar sections 2 and 3, with the stud l9, fill the space between the intermediate vertical pillar sections 4 and 5 of a plate I. The space between the vertical edges 9 on the exterior of the wall structure permits access to the vertical stud l9.
When the course immediately above the course illustrated in Fig. 2 is laid, intermediate pillar sections corresponding to sections 4 and 5 are placed squarely above these sections 4 and 5; and similarly, the edge pillar sectons 2 and 3 are laid immediately over the edge sections of the lower course.
A vertical offset is provided between the inner plates I and the exterior plates 1. This is illustratedl most clearly in Fig. 5. This is accomplished (Fig. 5) by arranging the lowermost course'of the inner wall of plates to have only half the height of the other plates I. In this way the meeting edges 2| of the adjacent courses on the interior wall are vertically staggered from the exterior plates by a distance corresponding to half the height of a complete plate. The top course of the exterior wall structure is formed by plates22 similar to'plates 26, but in reverse position.
Attaching or anchoring means for the plates are provided in the form of elongated pins 23 which pass transversely through the apertures l0 and H in the plates I, 16, I1, 20, 22, etc. These anchoring pins 23, of course, must also pass through the continuous vertical studs I8 and I9, provided with apertures for the accommodation of these pins. The reinforcing wires or bars 1 are so arranged as to strengthen the concrete behind the pin holes.
As most clearly seen in Fig. 2, the multiple layer of builders paper I5, being disposed over the interior surface of all of the plates that form the wall structure, serves completely to insulate the interior wall from the exterior wall. Condensed water or moisture is prevented from passing from the exterior to the interior wall, by the intermediate layers of paper.
Due to the reduction in the thickness of the plates intermediate the pairs of vertical pillar sections 2, 4 and 3, 5, the insertion of the anchoring pins 23 by hand is rendered easy, for adequate space is provided for the hand of the operator. As one staggered course of plates is being laid, holes l0 and II for the pins 23 are but onefourth of the distance below the top of that course which is opposite the course being laid.
Accordingly, it is relatively easy to insert these pins. By spacing the apertures I0 and I I for connecting pins 23 one-quarter of the height of the plate above and below the lower and upper edges of the plate respectively, the panels aremade reversible. This results in a substantial decrease in the number of molds required. It also makes the erection of the wall easier and increases the horizontal strength.
The manner in which the foundation is provided for the vertical wall structure is illustrated most clearly in Fig. 5. In this figure the foundation is shown as of poured concrete or other plastic cementitious material. It may include a rather broad base 24, a wall portion 25, and a top portion 26, shown as extending for some distance between the lowermost plate courses. Reinforcement, indicated in general by the bar 21, may be provided as desired. Ordinary wood or other means for pouring parts 24 and 25 of the foundation may be provided, but the lower edge of the vertical wall structure may be used as the form for the pouring of the top portion 26 of the foundation. This top portion, due to the enlarged lower edge 28, effectively keys and anchors the bottom wall structure. The continuous vertical studs, such as 18 and I9, may be similarly anchored in place in the concrete foundation.
A roof structure may be supported upon the top of the Wall illustrated in Fig. 5. This may include a roof plate 29 (Figs. 5 and 6). ture as described provides a convenient fastening means for the roof plate 29.- Thus as illustrated in Fig. 6, the intermediate pillar sections 4 and 5 and. the edge pillar sections 2 and 3, to-
' gether with the vertical stud l8 adjacent the top of the wall structure, may be joined together as by The wall structhe anchoring pin 30. These anchoring pins may have a vertical extension 3| with a threaded end 32. The vertical extension 3| is intended to pass through appropriate apertures in the roof plate 29. A nut 33 threaded on the extension 32 may be used to fasten the roof plate 29 on top of the wall structure. Only some of the uppermost series of anchoring pins need be extended upwardly as indicated.
A complete vertical wall structure of any height and width can readily be constructed by utilizing the form of plate illustrated in Fig. l; together with plates, such as plate 20 (shown in the lower portion of Fig. 5), which correspond to the lower or upper edge of the plate shown in Fig. 1; together with plates corresponding to the right or left hand half of the plates shown in Fig. 1. Also, by omitting appropriate plates or half plates in the courses, door and window openings are formed. The openings can be made to conform to desired sizes by providing for appropriate omissions of parts of the wall plates, during the molding operation of the plates. The plates have closely contacting vertical pillar sections through which the anchoring pins pass. Accordingly, the plates forming these wall openings are adequately and securely supported, even when lateral or vertical support is omitted at the edges of these openings.
It is necessary, of course, for a complete building structure, to provide for corner structures. Such a corner construction is most clearly illustrated in Figs. 2, 3 and 4. c
In order to form this corner construction, the plate l1 defining one exterior side of the angle, has, in addition to the edge pillar section 34 (Figs. 2 and 4) another spaced pillar section 35. These two pillar sections form a channel or space for the accommodation of a corresponding pillar section 36 formed on the edge of plate 31 defining the other exterior side of the angle.
The pillar section 35 is arranged to overlap the pillar section 5 formed on the inner plate l6. Similarly, the inner surface of pillar section 36 of plate 31 is arranged to overlap the pillar section 2 of a plate I. faces of pillar sections 35 and 36 define an inner right angle within which a continuous triangular corner post stud 38 maybe located. This stud 38 is overlapped by the edges 9 of the plates l and I6.
Fig. 4 illustrates the location of the reinforcement material within the pillar sections 34 and 35 of the plate l1.- These can comprise a series of horizontal bars 39 extending across the whole length 'of the plate l1, together with U-shaped bars 49, the legs of which extend into the pillar sections 34 and 35. These horizontal reinforcing bars may be joined as by the vertical bars 4|.
The reinforcement for plate 31 is clearly illustrated in Fig. 3. Here alternate horizontal bars 42 are shown as having outwardly turned elements 43 to extend toward the tip of the pillar section 36.
The locking pin 44 is provided for passing through the pillar sections 35, 36, and 34. Similarly, the locking pin 45 may pass through the pillar section 2 of the plate I into the pillar section 36.
By appropriate reversal of the position of the plates l1 and 31 for alternate courses, the corner construction is strongly keyed to the corner Furthermore, the inner' horizontal courses more strongly together. For this purpose the horizontal edges of the superposed plates I, 81, 22, etc., are provided with grooves 46 (Fig. 8). These grooves, as illustrated most clearly in Fig. 5, define horizontal channels intermediate the front and rear surfaces of the plates. At the front surfaces 6 of these plates the edges do not quite contact, as illustrated by the slot 41 in Fig. 8. Reinforcement bars, such as the square bar 48 (Figs. 8 and,9) which may be of iron or structural steel, may be inserted in the groove 46 and may be grouted or otherwise secured in place. The bars 48 thus serve as keying elements for the series of vertically arranged courses of plates defining the wall structure. The groove 46 is purposely made large enough and with suflicient clearance to permit the use of grouting or mortar. Furthermore, the groove is not truly circular, but is oval so as to enlarge the cross section within which the bar 48 is accommodated, and to serve effectively as a,trap for moisture, should any pass through the slot 41. Also, the shape of the groove 46 assists in minimizing slumping of the inner edges of the plates during the molding operation.
The groove 46 formed between the adjacent edges may also be utilized for anchoring take-off walls. Such a structure is shown most clearly in Figs. 5 and '7. Here the anchor bar 49 is shown as formed in a right angle. The wall construction 50 is accommodated by one arm of the bar 49. The other arm is accommodated within the wall construction 5| extending at right angles to the wall construction 50. The horizontal leg of the bar 49 is of course accommodated within the groove 46 formed between courses of wall 6|. Where the bend occurs in the bar 49, the slot 41 leading to the groove 46 is enlarged, to permit the passage of the bar at right angles to the groove. The anchor bar 49 may be grouted in place.
Adjacent the place where a half plate 52 cooperating with plates forming the other side of the wall structure 5|. The bars 48, in addition to their utility for purposes of reinforcement, or anchoring, also insure better alinement of the individual plates forming the wall structures. The spaces between vertical edges of the plates, and the spaces between horizontal courses may be left intact in the finished wall. Alternatively, these spaces may be filled with mortar or grouting, as desired, to secure a decorative efiect. Such mortar or grouting is not at all essential for strength, the structure being remarkably self-supporting due to the provision of the overlapping pillar sections and the pins passing transversely therethrough.
The exposed wall surfaces may of course be treated in any desired manner for providing a decorative finish. The wall, however, can be rendered sufliciently decorative on the exterior by the addition of a layer of stucco. Or provisions may be made to embed sand within the exposed face of the plates, as by placing sand,
during the molding operation, upon surfaces of these plates which rest upon the pallets. This serves to prevent the concrete mixture from which the plate is formed from adhering to the pallet, as well as giving a pleasing finish to. the exterior of the wall. It is often desirable to provide supports for floor joists, when a multistory building is constructed. The structure thus far described is adapted for such multi-story it contacts the wall, structure 56, the wall structure 5| may utilize buildings; and several ways in which additional stories may be provided will now be described.
Thus plates I are so arranged in conjunction with the vertical studs, such as |8, |9 in Fig. 2,
that it is a relatively simple matter to provide a support for floor joists. In Figs. 11, 12 and 13,
the wall structure 66 is formed of inner and outer plates 56, 51, having inter-engaging pillar sections 58 and studs 69, pins 29 holding the wall in assembled relationship, all as before. At the place where the floor is wanted, a header 66 is secured to the wall 63 by a plurality of eye-bolts 6|. The manner in which these bolts are supported by the wall will now be described.
Each bolt 6|, as clearly shown in Fig. 12, includes an eye 62 through which one of the anchoring pins 26 is passed. The threaded shank 63"of the bolt 6| passes through wall plate 56 and header 60. Nut 64 secures the header against the wall. The studs 59 are mortised as indicated at 65, to accommodate the eye 62. An eye bolt 6| may be provided at each stud 59, to form a horizontal series; the bolts thus have a spacing corresponding to the spacing of studs 69, or some of these studs may be left free of the eye bolts. Alternate studs 59, being opposite the slots formed between adjacent adges of plates 66, the eye bolts 6| cooperating with such studs can pass through the slots, as illustrated in Fig. |8., For those bolts 6| which must extend through the center ofa plate'66, appropriate apertures may be formed in these plates. Floor joists 66 may then be supported on the header in a well understood manner.
Thicker columnar portions, as illustrated in Fig. 14, may be provided at desired points in the vertical walls, for providing strength as for long walls, and also for supporting additional stories. Thus a special half plate 61 is intended to be inserted in place of a standard half-plate, and made deeper, to provide a large vertical recess 68. This recess may be used to receive large plumbing pipes, or for forming heavy supporting piers.
In the latter cases the recess 68 may be filled, if desired, with concrete. These piers may be used for supporting a superstructure, or for walls of considerable length without interconnecting walls.
What is claimed is:
1. In a hollow wall and anchoring foundation therefor, a series of inner and outer courses of plates respectively defining spaced inner and outer wall surfaces, fastening means for holding said inner and outer courses together, and a foundation east through the space in the wall between the inner and outer plates and extending below said wall structure and into the wall space.
2. In a wall structure, a plurality-of preformed plates forming an exterior wall surface, a plurality of similar preformed plates forming an interior wall surface, the plates forming one wall surface having vertical pillar sections overlapping similar vertical pillar sections of the plates forming the other wall surface, fastening means passing through said pillar sections, at least some of the fastening means nearest the top of the wall having vertical extensions, and a roof plate anchored by said extensions.
3. In a wall structure, a plurality of preformed plates forming an exterior wall surface, a plurality of similar preformed plates forming an in terior wall surface, the plates forming one wall surface having vertical pillar sections overlapping similar vertical pillar sections of the plates forming the other wall surface, pins passing through said pillar sections, at least some of the pins nearest the top of the wall having vertical threaded extensions, and a roof plate through which the extensions pass and fastened to the top of the wall by said extensions.
4. A wall structure comprising a set of exterior and a set of interior plates formed of cementitious material, said plates having interengaging pillar sections between the interior and exterior plates, and supplemental separating means permanently adhered to at least some of the plates, and interposed between the exterior and interior plates to prevent substantial direct contact between any exterior and anyinterior plate.
5. A wall structure comprising a set of exterior and a set of interior plates formed of c'ementitious material, and a layer of insulation permanently adhered to the interior surface of at least some of the plates to interrupt substantial direct contact between any exterior and any interior plate.
6. A preformed plate for building purposes, made from a cementitious material, and a closely adherent pliant layer of insulation material permanently adhered to at least a portion of that surface of the plate which is intended to be placed adjacent a similar plate to form an exterior and an interior wall surface.
v'7. In a building structure, a plurality of courses of interior and exterior plates, said plates having vertical pillar sections, the sections of the 8X: terior plates overlapping the sections of the interior plates, and a continuous stud adjacent said sections and extending through all of the courses.
8. In a building structure, a plurality of courses of interior and exterior plates, each of said plates having vertical edge pillar sections as well as spaced intermediate pillar sections, the exterior and interior plates of each course having edge pillar sections of one plate cooperating with intermediate pillar sections of the opposite plate, and continuous vertical studs extending between adjacent edge pillar sections.
9. In a building structure, a plurality of courses of interior and exterior plates, each of said plates having vertical edge pillar sections as well as spaced intermediate pillar sections, the exterior and interior plates of each course having edge pillar sections of one plate cooperating with intermediate pillar sections of the opposite plate, and continuous vertical studs extending between adjacent edge pillar sections, the edges of adjacent plates being spaced to permit access to, the studs.
10. .In a building structure, a plurality of courses of interior and exterior plates, each of said plates having vertical edge pillar sections as well as spaced intermediate pillar sections,
the exterior and interior plates of each course having edge pillar sections of one plate cooperating with intermediate pillar sections of the opposite plate, continuous vertical studs extending between adjacent edge pillar sections, and pins passing transversely through the sections and the stud.
11. In a building structure, a plurality of courses of interior and exterior plates, each of said plates having vertical edge pillar sections as well as spaced intermediate pillar sections, the exterior and interior plates of each course having edge pillar sections of one plate cooperating with intermediate pillar sections of the opposite plate, continuous vertical studs extending between adjacent edge pillar sections, eye bolts disposed between adjacent edge pillar sections within recesses formed in the studs, pins passing transversely through the sections, the stud and the eye of said eye bolt, there being apertures in said plates through which said bolts project, and a header secured against the plates by said bolts.
12. In a building structure, a plurality of courses of interior and exterior plates, each of said plates having vertical pillar sections, the sections of the interior plates overlapping the sections of the exterior plates, transverse anchoring pins passing through the overlapped sections, and anchor bolts for supporting a floor structure, anchored by some of said pins.
13. In a building structure, a plurality of courses of interior and exterior plates, each of said plates having vertical pillar sections, the sections of the interior plates overlapping the sections of the exterior plates, transverse anchoring pins passing through the overlapped sections, vertical studs'extending past said sections, and anchor bolts for supporting a floor structure, extending from the studs and anchored therein by some of said pins.
14. In a hollow wall structure, a series of plates having vertical pillar sections, and forming opposite wall surfaces, the pillar sections of the plates overlapping withthose of the plates forming the opposite wall surface, and transverse fastening means passing through the pillar sections, one of the plates having a panel portion forming a recess therein substantially deeper than that formed in the horizontally adjacent plates whereby a columnar structure is formed.
15. A preformed plate for building purposes, said plate having one or more pillar sections arranged on one side thereof, and a closely adherent pliant layer of insulation material permanently adhered to said one side and substantially entirely covering and contacting the pillar section surfaces and the remaining surface of said one side.
JOHAN'NES C. P. LEEMHUIS.