US 2208734 A
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- July 23, 1940. A. L. SCHREIBER 2 ,7
I POTTERY SUPPORT FOR GLAZE FIRING Filed May 3, 1938 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. flaw/v A. SCHQE/BEQ BWM? A 0 BY.
Jl lly 23, 1940. SCHRElBER I 2,208,734
POTTERY SUPPORT FOR GLAZE FIRING Filed May 5, 1938 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 1N VENTOR. 4PM A. 50/25/552 AOEY.
Patented July 23, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,208,734 POTTERY SUPPORT FOR GLAZE FIRING I Armin L. Schreiber, Altadena, Calif. Application May 3,1938, Serial No. 205,758
My invention relates to supports for holding ceramic ware during the firing of the glaze upon such ware and has particular reference to a self-contained support for each piece of ware, a
number of which supports may be stacked one upon the other to take the place of saggers, stilts and batts commonly employed for the stacking of ceramic ware in a furnace during the firing of the glaze.
In the glazing of ceramic ware, particularly flat pieces such as plates, dinner ware and similar articles, the glaze material is sprayed or otherwise applied to the piece of ware and then a number of such pieces are stacked upon a car or similar device ready for entry into the glaze firing kiln. The pieces must be supported during the firing process so as not to touch each other and the area of contact between the pieces and any support which touches them must be maintained at a minimum.
The usual present practice is to provide a sagger or semi-cylindrical box-like member having a plurality of sets of triangular support bars or pins arranged at difierent levels therein, the pins extending inwardly and upwardly relative to the sagger, three pins being usually included in one row to provide three substantially pinpoint contacts upon which a piece of ware may rest.
To provide for a minimum of contact area between the pin bars and the pieces of ware, the pin bars are usually arranged to extend upwardly at a considerable angle to the horizontal to present the upper edge of the bar as apoint, while the normal shape of such dished fiat ware is that the rim portion of the ware extendsdownwardly relative to the horizontal, making it necessary to space the rows of pins at considerable distances from each other in order to accommodate the dished articles without contact between adjacent pieces and between the upper surfaces of such pieces and the pins supporting the next higher piece. Thus considerable space inthe kiln is wasted.
It is therefore an object of my invention to provide a device for supporting pieces of ceramic ware during the firing oi the glaze, in ;which a plurality of pieces may be supported one above the other in closely nested relation.
Another object of my invention is to provide a device forsupporting pieces of ware as set forth in the preceding paragraph, wherein each of the pieces of ware is carried upon an individual support, which is in turn adapted to rest upon and be supported by a similar support carrying another piece of ware disposed immediately below the first named piece. H
Another object of my invention is toprovide a support for pieces of ware as set forthin the preceding paragraphs, in which each of them-- dividual supports comprises a shallow semi-amnular base having a radially extending flange projecting inwardly of the circle described by the setter, the flanges extending downwardly at an angle to the horizontal substantially conform- 5 ing with the angle of the rim portion of the pieces of ware to be supported thereby.
Another object of my invention is to provide a device for the purpose set forth, including an individual setter for each piece of ware provided with substantially conical pins removably associated with the setter to provide pin-point contacts between the setters and the pieces of ware supported thereby.
Other objects and advantages of my invention will be apparent from a study of the following specifications, read in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a. setter constructed'in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the setter shown in Fig. 1; v
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view taken through an assembly of a plurality of setters illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 and illustrating the manner in which a plurality of pieces of ware may be supported in stacked relation thereby;
Fig. 4 is a vertical section view taken along line IVIV of Fig. 2;
Fig.5 is a perspective view of a modified form of my invention;
Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view taken along line V-V of Fig. 4;
Fig. '7 is a perspeotive'view of a different shape of setter embodying the principles of my invention;
Fig. 8 is a perspective view of a still further shape of setter embodying the principles of my invention; and
Fig. 9 is an end view of a kiln-car illustrating the manner in which my setters may be stacked upon a car to be conveyed into and through a glazed fu'ing kiln.
Referring to the drawings, I have illustrated one form of my invention in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 as comprising a supporting member or setter l constructed of any suitable heat-resistant material, such as refractory material or heat-resistant metal alloy. The setter l comprises a shallow base or web portion 2 which may extend about 5 a piece of ware to be supported by the setter, the base or web forming a wall-like structure extending about and exteriorly of the perimeter of the piece of ware. The base 2 may assume any desired shape such as a portion of a ring or annulus, as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, a portion of any geometric shape such as two sides of a triangle, as shown in Fig. 7, or three sides of a square, as shown in Fig. 8, or it may have an irregular shape paralleling the shape of the perimeter of the piece of ware to be supported by the setter, the only limitation upon the shape being that the web should extend sufficiently about the piece of ware to enclose the center of gravity of the piece within a line connecting the outer ends of the web or base. The size of the base may be varied in accordance with the type of piece and dimensions of the piece to be supported upon the setter, the essential feature being that the inner edge of the Web or base portion should lie outside of the perimeter of the piece of ware supported upon the setter so that a plurality of setters I may be stacked one upon the other by placing the lower surface of each web or base upon the upper surface 3 of the base of another identical setter while pieces of ware are supported upon each of the setters and without permitting contact between any of the pieces of ware and the webs or bases of the setters.
The pieces of ware should be supported upon shelf-like projecting means attached to or formed integrally with the web 2 such as a shelf-like flange 4 extending inwardly of the shape described by the web 2, the flange or shelf devices projecting below the rim or verge 5 of a piece of ware 8 to be supported upon the setter, the shelf or flange 4 preferably extending downwardly at an angle to the horizontal substantially conforming to the dish angle, that is, the angle to the horizontal formed by the rim portion 5 of a dish, plate or other piece of flat ware to be supported.
The thickness of the base or web portion 2 may be selected of any desired value though I prefer to maintain this web portion as thin or narrow as it is possible to achieve and yet obtain the necessary strength and rigidity for the setter l and to provide sufficient rigidity for the support of the flange or shelf portion 6.
As is illustrated particularly in Figs. 1 and 3, the flange t comprises an inwardly extending supporting shelf projectiong below the rim portion or verge 5 of the plate 6 to be supported thereon, the plate 6 being adapted to be held in spaced relation to the flange 4 by means of a plurality of supporting pins 1. I prefer to employ three pins l disposed about the shape described by the setter i, one pin being disposed at each of the ends of the setter while a third pin is disposed approximately midway between the ends of the setter. The pins, like the setter, may be made of any suitable heat-resistant material and are preferably constructed as shallow, conical or pyramidal shapes having a relatively broad base la providing a suitable support for the pins when merely laid upon or resting upon the upper surface of the flange t while the apex lb of such pins defines a substantially pin-point directed toward the underneath surface of the rim portion 5 of the piece to be supported upon the setter. Thus the piece 6 is supported at three points by pinpoint contacts.
While the pins '5 may be merely laid upon any part of the upper surface of the flange 4, I prefer to provide elongated radially extending recesses 8 formed in the upper surface of the flange 4 to constitute sockets in which the bases of the pins may be received to prevent accidental displacement of the pins as pieces of ware are placed upon or removed from the setters i.
For the purpose of permitting ready handling of pieces of ware 6 in placing them upon or removing them from the setter I, I prefer to maintain the width of the flange 4 as small as possible and I may provide the flange 4 with a plurality of lips or extensions 9 extending inwardly of the circle described by the setter l to form enlargements of the flange at the point at which the pins I. are to be placed and thus providing a substantially long area for supporting the pins 1, permitting them to be adjusted inwardly or outwardly of the circle or other shape of the setter to adapt a single setter for the reception of pieces of ware 6 of different diameters.
By employing the setters as hereinbefore described, it will be apparent that a plurality of such setters, each supporting its individual piece of ware 6, may be stacked one upon the other, as shown in Fig. 3, by placing the lower surface of the web of one setter upon the upper surface of another setter. If desired, the lower surface of each web may be provided with three legs I!) projecting downwardly therefrom adapted to be received in shallow depressions or sockets H formed upon the upper surface of the next lower setter.
By referring particularly to Fig. 3, it will be noted that each of the setters may be constructed of such vertical height that when a plurality of such setters are arranged one above the other, each supporting its individual piece of ware 6, the pieces of ware are maintained in closely nested relation to each other, such close assembly of several pieces of ware being accomplished by reason of the fact that the shelf or flange extends at substantially the same angle as the angle formed by the rim portion 5 of the pieces of were 6 and hence the space required between adjacent pieces maybe maintained at a minimum. Thus I am enabled to stack a greater number of pieces of ware in a given vertical height than is possible with present methods. It will also be noted that in the event one of the setters i should become broken all that is necessary is to discard such broken piece and substitute a new individual setter therefor, while if such breakage should occur only those pieces immediately adjacent the broken setter will be injured.
By employing individual setters as hereinbefore described for each piece of ware 6, it will be apparent that the pieces may be placed upon the setters immediately the glazing material has been applied to the piece and the individual setters may thereafter be employed to safely handle or transport the pieces to any desired location for stacking. Moreover, since the setters extend only about substantially one-half of the circumference of a piece of ware, ready access to the interior of the circle described by the setters may be had, permitting ready handling of pieces of ware in placing them upon or removing them from the setters and adapting the pieces to be handled by automatic machinery which will engage the lower surface of the pieces during transport of the pieces from the glazing table to the setters.
In Fig. 5 I have illustrated a modified form of setter which may be employed in place of the setter shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, such modified form of setter comprising a semi-annular web l2 having any desired vertical height, the side walls of which preferably taper downwardly toward the horizontal center thereof while the flange !3 which extends radially inwardly from the web l2 projects from the horizontal center of the web, providing a somewhat stronger, more rigid construction than is possible with the flange construction shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3.
The inner periphery of the flange l3 may be provided with an upwardly extending border or head 14 which acts as a barrier to catch any particles of clay, dirt, sand, dust or other material which may fall upon the flange during handling of the setter and to keep the same from falling upon the surface of the next lower piece of ware. Elongated recesses I may be formed at spaced intervals about the flange I3 to provide sockets or recesses for receiving the pins 1 in the same manner as was described with reference to Figs. 1, 2 and 3. If desired, the upper edge N3 of the web 12 may be cut away at one orv more points to provide upwardly extending projections or rests l7 upon which the lower surface of another identical base may rest to define heat circulation openings therebetween. Setters of the type illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6 may be readily stacked by merely resting the lower surface of one setter upon the rests H of the web of the next lower setter.
By using my setters, each individually capable of supporting a piece of ware and each adapted to rest either upon a supporting surface such as the floor of a kiln or car, or to rest upon another setter, a number of these setters may be stacked one upon the other, as shown in Fig. 3, to form a bung capable of being readily handled as a unit during insertion into or removal from the firing kiln. Since each of the pieces of ware is supported by its shallow individual setter, the vertical height of the stack or bung is. built up in small increments and the total height of the bung may be selected to substantially fill the entire loading space in the kiln without loss of space, as would occur when using conventional saggers or setters, each having relatively great height. The limit of the height of each stack depends only upon the strength of the lowermost setter to resist crushing under the Weight of the pieces stacked above it.
In loading a kiln or kiln-car, a number of stacks or bungs may be placed on the floor of the kiln or car and then a shelf of batts or tile may be built up to form anew floor above the first stack, on which a second series of stacks may be supported until all of the space is effectively filled.
As is illustrated particularly in Fig. 9 in which a kiln-car 20 is shown mounted upon suitable Wheels 2! to operate upon suitable tracks 22 now in common use. The upper surface 23 of the car constitutes a supporting surface upon which a stack 24 of setters arranged as shown in Fig. 3 may be placed. As will be understood, any number of these stacks may be distributed throughout the supporting surface 23 of the car until the entire surface of the car is filled. Then a shelf of batts or tiles 25 may be built up upon suitable vertical supports 26, 21 and 28 to form a new fioor upon which a second layer of batts or assemblies 29 may be placed. Other shelves or tiers of batts 25 may be arranged above the stacks or bungs 29 as indicated at 30 until the entire structure is built up to whatever vertical height may be accommodated in the kiln. It will be readily appreciated that employing my setters as illustrated herein, a greater number of pieces of ware maybe accommodated in a kiln or a kiln-car than is possible to accomplish with the present method of supporting the pieces for glaze firing.
While I have shown and described the preferred embodiment of my invention, I do not desire to be limited to any of the details of construction shown or described therein, except as defined in the appended claims.
1. In the art of supporting ceramic ware during glaze firing, an individual supporting member for each piece of ware including a shallow base extending only partially about and extcriorly of the perimeter of said piece so as to embrace the center of gravity of the piece Within the space defined by the piece, a relatively thin shelf disposed about the interior of said base and extending inwardly into the space defined thereby to form a relatively broad shelf surface disposed beneath the rim of said piece, and a plurality of pins each having a. broad surface resting upon the shelf surface and a sharp point directed upwardly therefrom to engage the under surface of said piece.
2. In the art of supporting ceramic ware during glaze firing, an individual supporting member for each piece of ware including a shallow Web member extending at least about such portion of the perimeter of said piece as to embrace the center of gravity of the piece within the space defined by the web member, shelf means on said web member extending inwardly into the space defined thereby, a plurality of supporting pins adapted torest in stable support with bases thereof resting upon said shelf means to define pin point contacts engaging the under surface of said piece, a plurality of recesses in said shelf means, one for each of said supporting pins, each ofsaid recesses having a bottom surface disposed substantially parallel to the upper surface of said shelf means and having a width substantially equal to the width of the bases of said pins and a length disposed radially relative to the space defined by said base and extending a distance substantially greater than the length of the bases of said pins to permit inward and outward adjustment of said pin relative to said supporting member.
3. In the art of supporting ceramic ware during glaze firing, an individual supporting member for each piece of ware including a shallow base extending at least about such portion of the perimeter of said piece as to embrace the center of gravity of the piece within the space defined by the base, a plurality of lips secured to the inner face of said base and extending inwardly into the space defined thereby, and a pin support carried by each of said lips to engage the under surface of said piece. v
4. In the art of supporting ceramic-ware during glaze firing by means of a plurality of individual supporting members, one for each piece of ware, stacked one upon the other, each individual supporting member including a shallow base extending at least about such portion of the perimeter of said piece as to embrace the center of gravity of the piece within the space defined by the base, shelf means on said base extending inwardly into the space defined thereby, a plurality of pins on said shelf meansto engage the under surface of the piece, and a curb means secured to the inner edge of said shelf means and extending above the upper surface thereof for catching loose clay particles and preventing their falling into the next lower piece of ware.
' ARMIN L. SCI-IREIBER.