US 2210505 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1940- A. D. SINDEN 2.210505 MACHINE FOR CLASSIFYING FINE GRAINED MATERIALS Filed July 11, 1938 J6 J7 J5 Z1 30 19 I E E 15 J5 Jiz/eni'or Qlfredfl 522mm ATTORNEY.
Patented Aug. 6, 1940 UNlTED STATES MACHINE FOR CLASSIFYING FINE-GRAINED MATERIALS Alfred D. Sinden, Aurora, 111. Application July 11, .1938," Serial No. 218,515
" 14 Claims. (claw-) This inventionlrelates to machines for separating and classifying granular or similar. materials, so thatv the different sizes of granules or particles will each accumulate in a separate place, and relates more particularly to machines for doing this by means of centrifugal force and specific gravity, the granular or fine particles of; material being thrown into the air,soythat the relatively heavy ones have a longer trajectory than do the relatively fine particles, withthose intermediate. having trajectories of different lengths, whereby those granules or particles that have the same specific gravity are all collectedin one and the same place, and with those of different specific gravities finally collected in other places.
This application is a continuation, in part, of application Serial No. 154,121; filed July 1'7, 1937.
The object of the invention, broadly, is toensure more satisfactory separation and classification of the granules or particles of different sizes than has heretofore been found possible with certain machines or apparatus for this purpose, and to provide a novel construction and arrange ment that simplifies and facilitates the running and the making of repairs on machinery or apparatus of this character. I
More specifically considered, it is also an-objeot to provide certain details and novel features of construction and combinations whereby a battery of centrifugal throwing machines may be mounted on a common or single shaft, with an overhead, hopper having a feed spout for eachmachine, tending to increase, the general efliciency and the desirability of machinery or apparatus of this particular character.
To the foregoing and other useful ends, the
invention consists in matters hereinafter set forth and claimed and shown in the accompanying drawing, in whichi Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a centrifugal throwing machine embodying the principles of the invention, showing the receiving bins and certain other parts. in vertical section.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged front elevation of said machine, with the right-hand portions thereof shown broken away for convenience of illustration, being in effect an enlarged vertical section on line 2-2 in Fig. 1 of the drawing.
Fig. 3 is a vertical transverse section on line 3-3 in Fig. 2 of thedrawing.
Fig, 4 is a view similar to Fig. 2, but on a smaller scale, and showing the entire battery of throwing machines mounted on a Single common shaft and operated by a single motor.
, As thus illustrated, the invention comprises a single horizontal shaft I mounted to rotate in bearings 2, 3 andA, and operatedby the single motor 5, as shown more clearly inFig. 4 of the drawing. v I ,5
The apparatus for throwing the granular material or particles into the air, in order to separate and classify them, is preferably divided into a battery of small units, each having a cylinder '6 provided with sideflanges l to form a shallow 1Q groove between them. Each unit has a bracket plate 8, upon'which three rolls 9, l0 and II are mounted, so that theserolls are free at one side and only supported at the other side thereof. Upon these rolls, there is an endless belt l2 for, 15 each unit, as shown more clearly in Fig. .3 of the drawing, said belt having its upper stretch engaging the peripheries oflthe flanges i, so that the said drum, 6 of each unit serves to operate the belt thereof. In Fig. 4, sixthrowing units are shown, and the six drums: thereof are .on the same shaft ,I, as explained, so that the plurality of throwing units are all operated in unison by one and the samemotor;
, A feed hopper I 3 is provided above the said 25 units, with a downwardly extending spout M for eachunit, so that the granular .material is delivered to each unit at a point between the drum 6 and the roll 9, thereby causing the granular material to traverse an arcuate path of substantially 225 degrees, before-it is shot into the air in a stream l5, as indicated in Fig. 3 of the drawing. In order to do this, it will be seen that each feed spout l4 has its upper portion offset lat.- erally, relatively to the lower end thereof, so 35 that the upper portion of the spout will not interfere with the saidstream of materials l5 being shot into the air by centrifugal force. In other words, each stream I5passes at one side of the upper portion of the feed spout of the unit from which the stream emerges into space.
With this construction, it will be seen that any belt l2- can .be easily displaced laterally from its unit, as the rolls 9, l0 and II are only supported at one side, leaving the. other side open or unob- 45 structed for the removal of the belt.
Also, the. upper rolls H are preferably adjustable on the bracket plates 8, to tighten the belts.
I It is found. that a plurality of comparatively narrow units of the-kind shown and described, 50 give more satisfactory results than are obtained from a single wide unit-of substantially the same capacity. Obviously, witha plurality of units of the kind shown and described, comparatively narrow belts can be used, instead of one wide belt,
and these narrow belts are easy to slip on and off. In addition, with a plurality or battery of comparatively narrow throwing units, the problem of properly feeding the materials to the throwing machine, in order to ensure a uniform depth and width for the stream of materials traversing the arcuate path thereof, is greatly simplified.
Looking at Fig. 1, which is more or less diagrammatic, it will be seen that the coarsest materials follow the trajectory IE, substantially, while the finest particles follow the trajectory Il, substantially, and the intermediate particles may follow the trajectory l8, so that the different sizes are collected in the three bins I9, wand 2|. Of course, the feeding of the granular materials to the different units may be regulated by suitable valve devices (not shown) in the spouts l4, and the speed of the machine may be regulated by any suitable governing means for regulating the speed of the motor 5, whereby a predetermined feeding of the materials to the different units, and a predetermined speed of rotation of the drums, will give the desired results. Different kinds of materials, obviously, may require different speeds for the belts and may require different speeds for the feeding of the materials downwardly from the hopper above the units. Such regulation can be employed, within the judgment of the attendant in care of the machine, as will ensure the satisfactory separation and classification of the different sizes of the granules or particles of any desired materials.
While three divisions have been shown and described for the materials, it is obvious that the separation and classification can be carried out with a greater number of divisions, if desired. In any event, the relatively fine and coarse and medium sizes of the granules or particles are subjected to centrifugal force to shoot the mixed sizes of granules into the air, with the result that the relatively fine, coarse and intermediate or medium sizes are finally collected in separate mounds or heaps. With the construction shown and described, it is found that accurate and more satisfactory separation and classification is obtained, with the result that each heap or mound contains substantially only granules or particles of the same size, thus ensuring a better product for sale in the market.
It will be understood, of course, that the materials are not compressed between the belt l2 and the drum 6, but are fed in such manner that they spread out and hug the belt, but the surface of the drum keeps the granules or particles from bouncing around. Therefore, of course, the stream l5 leaves the surface of the belt, as it shoots into the air.
As clearly indicated in the drawing, the materials practically do not touch the drum 6, but to the contrary cling to or hug the belt 12, so that the materials are under no compression while traveling around the drum-that is to say, are not compressed by the drum itself, but only by centrifugal force exerted to press the materials against the belt. The stream of materials pro- J'ected from each unit is at one side of the upper portion of the spout l4 allotted to such unit, so that the spout does'not interfere with the free projection of the materials into space, in a practically flat stream, with the trajectories from all the units exactly or practically the same, because hr the fact that the units are all operated by the one common shaft I, at the same rate of speed,
and because the speed of feed of the materials.v
from the hopper l3 to the feed spouts I4 is predetermined, relatively to the speed of the units, to insure that mode of operation, and that effect on the materials.
It is obvious that the belt 92 of each throwing unit is free from any edgewise engagement with any portion of the drum 6, and has no edgewise engagement with the flanges I, so that the belt can be slipped off sidewise without being unlaced. It is also of importance that the materials engage only one single belt of each unit, and that while the materials are free to directly engage the bare middle portion of the drum, the speed of rotation is such, relative to the speed of the feed from the lower end of the spout l4, that the materials practically do not engage the middle portion of the drum, although free to do so if conditions change. The flanges 'Idirectly engage the edge portions of the flat sheet of materials formed in the arcuate space extending around the drum. Thus the materials are not compressed between belts, nor between a belt and a drum, and the materials are caused to travel in an arcuate space of fixed widthand thickness, so that the width of the fiat stream of materials is substantially greater than the thickness thereof, thereby serving to prevent the finer particles from being entrained with the larger particles, and insuring better separation of the different sizes of particles.
It is important to observe, therefore, that the flat end flanges 1 have no sub-flanges that engage the two side edges of the belt, on eachunit, so that said belt has only surface engagement with the smooth and cylindrical peripheries of the flanges 1 shown and described.
While a long, straight hopper is is provided, parallel with the shaft 9, to feed the materials to the upper ends of the feed spouts I4, it will be understood that any suitable known or desired feeding means can be used to introduce the materials into said spouts. Also, it will be seen that these spouts M are each mounted on the upper end portion of one of the supports 8, previously described. In any event, each unit has a discharge outlet from which the materials are thrown or discharged in a stream that extends over the drum, and over the laterally deflected lower portion of a feed spout, with said stream passing under the hopper or other feeding means, and at one side of the laterally offset upper portion of said feed spout, whereby the materials are fed to the middle of the arcuate space between the drum and the belt and are discharged upwardly and over the drum without any interference by the spout or feeding means.
What I claim as my invention is:
1.. In a machine for classifying loose materials, the combination of a plurality of throwing units, for throwing the materials by centrifugal force, a shaft common to all of said units, a feed spout for each unit, means parallel with said shaft and common to all of said feed spouts, to feed the materials to the upper ends of said spouts, each unit having a discharge outlet disposed in position to project the materials upwardly and outwardly under said feeding means, the upper portion of each feed spout being offset laterally to prevent interference with the stream of materials projected from its allotted unit.
2. A structure as specified in claim 1, each unit with the said specified discharge comprising a drum with flat end flanges, and an endless belt traveling on the flat peripheries of said end flanges, one side of each unit being left open,
in effect, so that the belt can be removed from the drum at this side, while the belt remains continuous.
3. A structure as specified in claim 1, said shaft having end bearings therefore, outside of the end units, and having an intermediate bearing between two middle units, together withmeans for applying power to one end of the shaft to simultaneously operate all of said units, to simultaneously cause the said specified discharge for each unit.
4. A structure as specified in claim 1, comprising a rotary drum for each unit, for said specified discharge thereof, said drum having a shallow groove formed between its flanges, to form a flat stream of materials which is projected from the unit, with the drum spaced from the belt a distance and rotated at a speed relatively to a predetermined speed of feeding of the materials thereto, such that the materials hug the belt and practically do not touch the drum, preventing compression of the materials between the drum and the belt.
5. A structure as specified in claim 1, the trajectory of the streams projected from said units, by said specified discharge, being all at the same angle, so that the relatively coarse particles fall at the same distance from said shaft, and whereby the relatively fine particles all fall at the same distance from said shaft, simultaneously, from all of said units. 7
6. In a machine for separating and classifying different sizes of granules or particles of materials, by throwing the materials into space, the
combination of a rotary drum, a plurality of rolls,
a single belt only on said rolls with only the two edge portions of the belt engaging said drum, and supporting means therefor at only one side of said rolls, leaving the other side thereof open or unobstructed, with the belt free from edgewise engagement with any portion of the drum, so that the belt can be removed and replaced laterally at the said open or unobstructed side. while in endless condition, structurally separate means at each side of the drum, forming axial support for the latter, obviating the necessity of any shaft bearings on said supporting means, provisions for feeding the materials to the arcuate path of travel between the belt and the drum, the latter having a shallow groove forming said path. and means for driving the belt and drum and rolls at the desired speed, preventing compression of the materials between the drum and belt, and causing the granules or particles to leave the discharge end of said arcuate path at the predetermined speed necessary or desirable for any particular or desired materials.
'7. A structure as specified in claim 6, the discharge end of said path being in position to discharge the materials upwardly and over the drum, said feeding means comprising a spout with its upper portion offset laterally of the belt, thereby to prevent any interference of said feeding means with the stream of materials leavingthe discharge end of said path, and with the lower end of the spout disposed at the middle of the drum.
8. A structure as specified in claim 6, said driving means comprising a shaft upon which said drum is mounted, in combination with a plurality of additional drums and belts and rolls, forming a plurality or battery of throwingmachine units on the said one and the same shaft, with a motor for driving one end of said shaft, thereby to rotate all of the drums at the same speed, and there being a similar feeding means for each said streams are formed.
additional unit, so that a pluralityof uniform 9. In a machine for separating andclassifying side thereof open or unobstructed, so that the: belt can be removed and replaced laterally at the said open or unobstructed side, means for feeding the materials to the arcuate path of travel between the belt and the drum, the latter having a groove forming said path, the drum having end flanges for engaging said belt, both ends of the drum being exposed and accessible, and means for driving the belt and drum and rolls at the desired speed, thereby causing the granules or particles to leave the discharge end of said arcuate path in a stream at the predetermined speed necessary or desirable for any particular or desired materials, said driving means comprising a shaft upon which said drum is mounted, in combination with a plurality of additional drums and belts and rolls, forming a plurality or battery of throwing machine units on the said one and the same shaft, with a motor for driving one end of said shaft, and there being a similar feeding means for each said additional unit, including a hopper common to all of said units and having clearance below its bottom for the stream leaving each unit.
10. In a throwingmachine, for projecting granular material into the air, to separate the relatively fine, coarse, and intermediate particles from each other, the combination of a rotating drum, a plurality of rolls, a single endless belt on said rolls for engaging said drum, thereby providing an arcuate space and path of travel of fixed width and thickness for the materials between the drum and the belt, with the discharge end of said pathin position to discharge the materials in a stream over and beyond the drum, together with a hopper above the drum, for the materials, and a feed spout extending downwardly from the hopper to the receiving end of the arcuate path. said spout having its upper portion laterally offset to provide clearance at one side thereof for the discharge stream, to prevent interference with the latter, there being clearance below the hopper for said stream.
11. A machine for separating and classifying the different sizes of broken or granular materials, or pulverized materials, comprising a rotary drum, 2. single endless belt engaging the periphery of said drum, with a plurality of rolls supporting said belt, the formation of the drum being such that an arcuate space is provided between its smooth circumferential and cylindrical middle surface and said belt, thereby forming an arcuate path of travel of fixed width and thickness for said materials around said drum, with the discharge end of said arcuate space disposed in position to discharge the materials upwardly and over said drum, a feed spout extending downwardly to the intake end of said arcuate space, with the upper portion of said spout offset laterally to prevent interference with the said discharge of the materials, so that this upper portion of the spout is at one side of the discharge stream, and with the lower portion of said spout extending laterally from the lower end of said upper portion to a point substantially at the middle of said space, so that 13. A structure as specified in claim 11, comprising a support for said rolls, at one side only of the latter, and means to mount the spout on said support.
14. A structure as specified in claim 1, said feeding means comprising a relatively long hopper common to said units and connected at its bottom by said spouts to said units.
ALIF'RED D. SINDEN.