US 2210788 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Auge 1940- c. R. ANDERSON I 2.2l0,788
SUPPURT FOR MINE ROOFS 'Filed April 9, 1938 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR C6 Ci Z liAndersan Q WKM 82 6, 1940 c. R. ANDERSON 2,210,788
SUPPORT FOR MINE ROOFS Filed April 9, 1938 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR C'ciLRAn ders on M, M r M Patented Aug. 6, 1940 SUPPORT son MINEROOFS ,5
Cecil B. Anderson, Pittsburgh, Pa.,- as signor, to Martin-Hardsocg Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.,a corporation of Pennsylvania 1 Application April 9, 193s, Serial-No. 201,119
' 2 Claims. (arise-s 5 This invention pertains to the art of mining, and more particularly to anaccessory tobe used in supporting the roofs of mines, particularly the roofs in the main entries of mines.
In mining operations, particularly coal mines,
the roof has to be supported at regular intervals to prevent rock or slate from dropping down from the roof. In the main entries of mines through which the cars are hauled from various rooms and sub-entries to the mouth of the. mine, particular care is given to the roof supports. The most common way of supporting the roof is to provide uprights at each side of the entry, and these uprights carry a cross member which bears against the roof of the mine. The cross member may be'timber, but in larger and more extensive operations it is quite common to use mine rails, particularly second-hand or used rails, and in some cases structural steel for the cross pieces. It not infrequently happens that a mine locomotive or a string of loaded mine cars are derailed in moving through the entry. When this happens the uprights at the side of the'mine are often knocked down by the derailed cars or locomotive endangering the miners and retarding access to the derailed cars and often causing con siderable expense to the mine operator. According to the present invention there is provided an accessory by means of which the cross pieces for supporting the roof can be securely supported in the side walls of the mine where they cannot be hit or knocked out of place by derailed cars or by the normal movement of equipment through the mine. The invention provides an accessory of this character which is particularly designed to be used with rails for cross supports, but which may be used with equal facility where the roof supports are I-beams or similar structural shapes. The invention contemplates the forming of niches in opposite walls of the mine of increasing depth in a lateral direction'downwardly from the roof of the mine, and the bottoms of which are in most instances well above the floor of the mine. These niches are of a character which can be readily cut into the walls of the mineby a miner using a hand pick. Into these niches are set supportswhich are inclined from a vertical position, the supports having means at their upper ends for engaging and holding the roof supports. Being set into niches in the walls "of the mines, these supports cannot be knocked out of place by the derailment of mine cars. Being set at an angle to a vertical position, the loadis transmitted inwardly from theface of the sup-' porting coal so that the coal immediately under the supports is not likely to shear or break out.
The supports are preferably so constructed as to enablelth'emtobe formed of short lengths o r'ail, structural forms, or timber.
.The invention" may be more readily understood by referring to the accompanying, drawings in wl'iich---.. H
Figure 1 represents a transverse section through the mainentry of a mine;'-
Figure 2- is aperspective view of the bracket or clamp for connecting the roof supports to the side supports}: 1
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a base mem'-" ber adapted to -be used at the bottom of the side supports;
, Figure 4 is an elevation of the member shown in Figure 2' viewed from the outermost end thereof; I
Figure...:5 is a longitudinal vertical section through the mid-plane of the section shown in Figure 2.; I z
, Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 4 of a slightly modified construction;
Figure -'7 is a-view similar to Figure 5 ofthe modification shown in Figure 6;
i Figure-8 is a view similar to Figure 5 showing another modification, and
Figure 9'is a schematic view illustrating the manner of cutting nichesin the side walls according to the height of the side supports.
In thedrawings, A indicates the roof of a mine over the main entry. B designates the two side walls, and C is the-floor of the mine. In a typical coal'mine the walls B would be of coal while the roof A would usually be slate or shale rock. The roofis supported by a series of roof supports 2 extending transversely across the entry against 7 the roof. The drawings show but a single one of the supports, but they are located at regular intervals one behind the other along the length,- of the mine, entry. The support 2 is illustrated as comprising a length of rail with the head of the rail bearing against the roof and with the flange of the'rail being at the bottom.
According ,to the present invention, there is provided a fitting 3 which may be formed as an integral casting. It has a flat top 4. At each side of the inner end of the member 3 are upwardly and'inwa'rdly extending projections 6. The pro-. jections 6 extend inwardly and upwardly toward each-other at an inclination corresponding generally to the inclination of the flangev of the rail. There is a-s'pace 1 between the ends of the two. parts" 6, the width of this space or gap 1 being,
size rail 2, which the fitting will accommodate. At the opposite end or outer end of the casting 3 is an end wall 8 having an overhanging flange portion 9 with a central notch I0 therein, the central notch I0 being in line with the space or gap I and being of the same width. The arrangement is such that the member 3 may be slipped onto the end of a rail as shown in Figure 4. The flange of the rail .will extend under the overhanging" member 6 and under the overhanging extension 9, while the web of the rail will be received in the space 'I and the notch II]. The end wall 8 will abut against the end of the rail to prevent the bracket 3 from sliding more than a limited distance along the rail.- The flange of the rail will rest on the flat top or deck 4 of the bracket. When the bracket or casting has been slipped onto the end of the rail, it cannot move inwardly on account of the end wall 8 contacting with the end of the rail. It cannot move vertically because of the flange being under the overhanginglugs Band the overhanging flange 9; It cannot move sideways with respect to the rail to any appreciable extent because the width of the space between the two vertical portions 6a and thelugs 6 isiust sufficient toaccommodate the maximum size of rail with which the device can be'used. In practice the casting 3 would be made in a series of graduated sizes, one to accommodate rails between 30 and 50' pounds; another to accommodate rails between 60 and pounds, and the third to accommodate rails of poundsor'over.
On the under side of the casting 3 is an inclined face II. The casting has a downwardly extending flange I2'at the front of the inclined face I I, and the inclined face I I is provided with two spaced lugs I3 separated by a space I4 equal to the thickness of a -rail w'ebh The lugs I3, as shown in Figure 5 are spaced from the lip- I2 a distance I5 equal to the thickness of a rail flange. The. arrangement is such that a short length of rail I6 having its ends cut square can be set endwise against the inclined surface II in such a manner that one of the lugs I3 will be on each side O f the web of the rail while the flange of the rail will rest on the flange I2 of the casting in the space I5. The lugs I3 will thus hold the rail section I6 from moving to the left as viewed in Figure 5 while the flange I2 on the casting will prevent the rail from moving to theright as viewed inFigure 5. The two lugs I3 will prevent relative lateral movement of the casting 3 with re spect, to the endof the rail by reason of the. fact that the lugs I3 straddle the Web of the rail I6.
In addition to the casting 3 the invention contemplates the provision of a second casting I8 as shown in Figure 3 which is of a Wedge shape hav-' ing an inclined top surface I9 and having a horizontal base I9a. On the inclined top face I9 of the member I8 are integral upstanding lugs 20 spaced apart a distance equal substantially to the thickness of the web of a rail and of a length which is slightly less than the distance between the top of the flange of the rail I B and the under side of the head portion of the rail I6.
The manner of using the invention may be readily understood by reference to Figure l. The miner cuts niches Dat opposite places in-the two walls B, these niches being of laterally increasing'depth so that they are deepestin a. direction normal to the planeof the wall at their The cross piece 2 which has previously base. been cut to gt isthen fitted at-eachend with one of the castings 3, The vertical depth of the niches D depends upon the length of the upright supporting rails I6. Lengths of rails I6 which have been cut to the desired length are then applied to the under surface of the castings 3 with the head or ball of the rail turned toward the wall and the flange turned toward the entry, and each of the uprights I6 is fitted to one of the base castings I8, i. e., set in the bottom of each niche. At the time that the cross rail 2 is put into place, the roof will not be smooth as illustrated in the drawings, but will be more or less irregular and perhaps arched, so that there is adequate clearance for the assembly to be effected. As a matter of actual practice, wedges are used in mines at the present time between roof supports and the roof, and such wedges may be used when the cross rails are supported in accordance with this invention. Once the cross member 2 has been assembled on the two side supporting members, the structure cannot becomedislodged because the width of the niches D is just sufficient to receive the rails It so that the rail section It cannot move forwardly or backwardly in the direction ofthe length of the entry. There can be no appreciable relative movement betw'eenthe roof sup-'- mass of coal as well as a vertical component. This,
eliminates any danger of the coal. spalling or breaking out under pressure immediately under the base members I8 as would be the case if the.
members I6 were set in a vertical position;
In the modification shown in Figures 6 and -'7,
provision is made for an adjustment in a horizon tal. direction between the posts and the'bracket or fitment which engages the roof support. In these figures 2I designates a member having an end wall 2m to engage against the end of the. roof brace and having part 22 and 23 to engage over the flangeiof the cross rail; On the under side of the member 20 are depending flanges 24 with rib portions 25. These flanges provide a guideway to receive a flanged block 26. The
under surface of the member 2 I- and'the top sur-v face of the block 26 are serratedso that; when they are pressed together they will'not'slide one upon the other, The guideway provides sufficient clearance, however, that whenothere is no pressure applied between the members-2U and26, the
member 26v can be dropped clear of the serrated surface on the member ZII and adjusted along the guideway. The member 25 has spacedprojections 21 corresponding to the projections I3 in Figures 4 and 5 to engage a supporting rail simi lar to the rail I6 as illustrated in dotted lines,.
for example, in Figure 7. Block 26 has a depending flange 28, the function of which corresponds to the flange I2 of Figure 5.
Instead of using a piece of rail for the support I6 it may in some cases be desirable to use a, short piece of timber or pipe or some other kindof support.- Figure 8.il-lustrates 'a modification intended for'use where a piece of pipe is to" be used inplace of pieces of rail I6. In thisfigure 30. designates a casting generally similar to the 'casting 3 of Figure 2 and is provided with an end wall 3| to engage against the end of the cross piece,
and it is provided with overhanging portions 32 and 33 to engage over the flange of a rail or structural member similarto the elements 9 and 6 respectively of the device shown in Figure 2. The underside of the casting 30 is provided with a projection '34 toextend into the end of a piece of pipe 35 which would correspond in function to the member l6 illustrated in Figure 1. The bottom of the pipe 35 rests on a Wedge shaped blo'ck 36 having a projection 31 to enter the bottom of the pipe. I By having a flange, such as 34' on the member 30, it can also be fitted over the end of a piece of timber.
In difierent mines and under different circumstances the member l6 or any other support at the ends of the cross member 2 may be of a length different from that used in some other installation. Figure 9 illustrates diagonally the manner in which the niches D are formed for side supports of different heights. The inclination at the rear of the niche D will be approximately the same irrespective of the height of the post or other support It,- and the bottom of the niche must always be of an area sumcient to receive the head or base block I8. Where very short side supports are used, the top of the niche is recessed further, whereas with longer posts the niche at its top terminates in the plane of the side wall. Figure 9 illustrates the idea of forming niches of different vertical heights to accommodate posts of different lengths. The niches can be easily cut into the side walls of the mine by a miner using a pick so that no special tools are required.
Frequently the supporting assembly is actually used at only one end of the cross rail, the other end of the rail being merely entered into a hole cut into the other side wall just under the roof in a manner familiar to those skilled in mining.
While I have shown and described specifically certain detailed embodiments of my invention, it will be understood that this is by way of illustration and the various changes and modifications may be made in the construction of the parts within the contemplation of my invention and under the scope of the following claims. Various modifications have been shown. These are merely'typical illustrations of ways in which my invention may be embodied, as it may be embodied in various other forms.
1. A fitting for connecting a mine roof support with an upright comprising a generally wedgeshaped body having a horizontal top surface with overhanging flanges at the sides and at the end thereof arranged to receive the end of a flanged 1 with an upright comprising a generally Wedgeshaped body having a horizontal top surface with overhanging flanges at the sides and at the end thereof arranged to receive the end of a flanged roof support, the undersurface of the fitting being inclined andhaving projections thereon arranged to fit about the upper end of an upright support for connecting the fitting and support against relative movement in a plane transverse to the axis of such support, said fitting comprising two superimposed parts the lower of which is of wedge form and, carries the said projections to engage the upright, the upper part resting on the lower and having the said flanges to engage the roof support, the contacting faces of the two parts being interfitted to enable one part to be adjusted in the direction of the length of tl k roof support with which the fitting is engaged.