US 2212261 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. BROTHMAN TURBINE TYBE MIXER Filed June z, 1959 Aug. zo, 1940.,-
2 sheets-sheet 1 INVENTOR ABRAHAM BROTHMA/V ORNEY Patented Aug. 20, 1940 UNITEDA STATI-:s
PATENT oFFl-CE 5 Claims.
The present invention relates to mixers and more particularly to mixers having a turbine action for the intermixing of liquids and liquids, liquids and gases, or liquids and solids, while circulating the same in a kettle or the like.
The invention seeks to provide a mixer o! the type indicated wherein an intimate direct shearing action is obtained in the particles of a mass passing through the mixer. i
The invention further contemplates the provision of means for introducing reactants, solvents, etc., into the mass being mixed at the point of mechanical shearing of the particles ofsaid mass and thereby obviating localizedv over-concentration of the material being introduced. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixer wherein a greater area of contactbetween gas and liquid, or liquid and liquid phases are obtained during the aforementioned shearing action.
The invention as herein contemplated, and which will be more fully described in the following specification, is designed to give several advantageous operation phases.
The instantdesign provides for direct or mechanical shearing in addition to the agitation or indirect shearing obtained by the circulation of the mass of material in a containeror kettle. A pumping action of the mixer is aorded by providing a limited inlet to the rotor orv impeller of the mixer. This insures a more intimate and longer contact of the mass of materials with the mixer, a feature not obtained in multi-blade paddles as heretofore used. The rotor of the mixer is of such design as to allow for greater linear speeds and hence greater pumping -capacites. Floating pockets in the mass are obviated due to the forced ow through a restricted impeller inlet.- In thisvmanner a better heat transfer is obtained. The device is designed to provide for the injection or introduction of a gas or liquid at the point of most intense mixing action to `make possible continuous mixing in a small container or kettle.
The features outlined in the preceding paragraphs may be obtained with the following principles of operation:
' Shearing between rotor blades and stator ridges or ribs provide for the mechanical shearing above-mentioned. A limited or restricted inlet to the impeller insures to each particle o! the,circulated mass, a uniform movement of travel. The vprovision of stationary radial elements to tangentially deiiect the mass after .passing u through the mixer, acts to retard the ilow of material through the mixer and thus to increase its eillciency. The provision of holes or apertures in the stator portions of the mixer for the introduotion 'therethrough of' reactants, blenders, etc., at the points of highest velocity liow, causes 5 a wiping and spatula action of the mass passing through the mixer and past the 'mentioned apertures.' The present design lends itself to being arranged in units positioned one above the other so multi-turbine effects may be obtained. Pro- 10 viding encircling screens or -cages around the mixer would serve to hold up the charge in said mixerto increase the amount of shearing of the mass therein.
The apparatus as herein contemplated, may be l5 used as a continuous mixer in sulphonation and nitration. It may be used in flue gas absorption and in the distribution of C02 in resin kettles. The mixer may be used for hydrogenation and oxidation at atmosphere or at greater pressures, 90
and in blowing! of asphalt and the blowing of linseed oil and other oils at atmosphere, at greater pressures, and at all temperatures. The device may be used in blending operations, thinning operationsin the manufacture o! suspensions, lin 25 emulsificaticns, for gas scrubbing, ln the acid treatment of petroleum and lubricating oils, in the continuous NaOH refinement of vegetable oils, etc.
In carrying out the invention it is, of course, too cumbersome to illustrate and describe the various changes and arrangements which may be made in the apparatus for each of the foregoing types o! operation. The instant disclosure is intended as exemplary of apparatus for the heresii in mentioned purpose, the following detailed specifications thereof being based on the accompanying drawings, in 'which exemplary forms of mixers have been illustrated.
Fig. 1 is a plan view, partly in cross section, ol a kettle in which is provided a turbine type mixer as herein contemplated.
Fig. 2 is an elevational view thereof, the kettle being broken away to expose to view a mixer 45 of instant design.
Fig. 3 vis an enlarged vertical sectional view, partly broken away, of a mixer such as shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view of the rotor 5u of the mixer shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a similar view of one of the stator members thereof.
Fig. 6 is a iront elevational view partly broken away and partly in cross section, of a kettle havu ing a mixer therein of alternate design, connecltions being shown for introducing material at the shearing points of said mixer A Fig. 7 is a top plan View, broken in successive stages, of the mixer shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view indicating the intimate detail of one of the stator members of the mixer shown in Figs. 6 and 7.
Fig. 9 is a similar view of an alternate form'of stator.
In that practical embodiment of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive, the kettle I5 is shown as comprising a cylindrical shell I6 and dished top and bottom portions respectively I1 and Ila. Vertically disposed in the kettle there is provided a shaft I8 driven by means suchl as the motor I9 through reduction gearing 20 supported at the top of the kettle. A
In the usual manner the kettle may be provided with a manhole 2 I, a charging connection 22, and a reflux connection 23.
t The turbine type mixer herein contemplated, is preferably positioned -below the middle of the kettle and supported in this position as by means of rods 24 or the like, carried by supports 25 aflixed tothe inner wall of the kettle. The posi- 4tion of the mixer in the kettle may vary, however, and may be determined by the pumping capacity of the rotor, the viscosity of the material being agitated, and the intermediate changes in the consistency of the mass.
Referring now more particularly to Figs. 3, 4, and 5, upon the shaft I8 there is provided a rotor member 26 on Iboth upper and under faces of which are preferably set the blades A21 and 2 8 respectively. These blades, as shown in Fig. 4,
are disposed tangentially to a circle of smaller dia-meter than the outer periphery of the rotor 26.
The mixer also includes the respective upperv and lower stator rings 29 and 30, each being formed with ribs or ridges respectively 3l and 32,
directed toward the respective blades 21 and 28.
'Ihe ribs 3| and 32 are preferably radially arranged as shown in Fig. 5. The stator rings are so arranged in relation to the rotor 26 as to provide the gaps 33 and 34 between the respective blades and ribs. The stator members are preferably formed as rings to provide central inlet openings 35 and 36, the outlet of the mixer being in the present instance, unrestricted.
The aforementioned rods 24 serve to support the spaced brackets 31, said brackets serving to hold the stator `rings ,in the aforementioned spaced relation. l
Because of the angular disposition of the blades 21 and 28 in relation to the respective ribs 3| and 32, a direct shearing of material passing between said blades in the gaps 33 and 34, is4 obtained. Fig. 2 shows in a general way, by means lof arrows, the type vof flow obtained in the mass during rotation of the rotor 26. Material is sucked downwardly through the opening 35 and upwardly through the opening 36 and by centrifugal force directed past the respective blades of the rotor and ribs of the stator to be mechanically sheared and thenforced to the outer periphery of the mixer and into the mass of materials in the kettle. There is thus established a circulation of the mass of materials wherein in a quite short period all of the materials within the kettle are thoroughly intermixed first by the aforementioned mechanical shearing and second by the friction among the particles in the mass as said mass is being agitated. y,
To further enhance the friction in the mass,
deector blades such as 38 may be provided on p the inner wall of the kettle to retard swirling of the mass during agitation thereof.
It is evident from the above that a highly efilcient mixer for the purpose previously set forth has been obtained; that all the parts thereof are of such design as to be inherently strong; that the peripheral speed of the rotor has been utilized to obtain a highly eicient operation-one whichwas not obtainable Iby the usual type of l0 paddleor turbine mixer where the material in the kettle could not maintain uniform contact with the paddles; and that the coninement of the rotor between superposed stator members guides the material into such intimate contact with the vblades and ribs that a highly efficient mechanical shearing of the mass is obtained.
In that form of the invention shown in Figs. 6 to 9, the kettle 4B has mounted therein the vertical shaft 4| which may be rotated in a manner 20 as, above described. 4Upon the shaft 4I is carried a rotor 42 having blades 43 and 44. This rotor is substantially similar to the one previously described.
In this form of the invention tile stator mem- 25 bers 45 and 46 are also ring-shaped and provided with inlet openings 41 and 48.
The stators 45 and 46 are each shown as having a respective chamber 49 and 50- and piping connections 5|- and 52 to a vertical pipe 53 having a 30 flange 54 above the top of the kettle for connection to a supply of a gas or a liquid.
Each of the stator rings. at its outer periphery,
kserves to support rings 55 between which are disposed a plurality of vertically disposed ballles 56.
also arranged another series of baffles 51. The latter may be termed primary bailles and the former, secondary baiiles.
With particular reference to Figs. 'I and 8, it will be noted that each of the chambered stator rings 45 and 46 are provided as at .58 with a series, or as shown at 530i Fig. Q, with a plurality of series, of holes or apertures of relatively small dimension. These apertures'58 or 59 communicate the chambers 43 and 58 with the gap or space between the blades 43 and 44 and the respective stator members.
YIn staggered relation to the bailles 56 there are As shown in Fig. 8. the hollow stators may also be provided with ribs for shearing association with the shear blades 43 and 44, the viscosity of the mass being agitated, determining the desirability of using the ribs and also determining the height of the ribs and blades.-
Thus it maybe seen that during the agitation and mixing of materials and the shearing there- --of, a gas such as air or CO2 or other gases, or
a suitable liquid or finely divided solid maybe introduced through the pipe 53 and thus into the chambers 43 and 50 to pass through the apertures 58 into the mentioned area of shearing between the rotor and the stators. In this man- Aner the material passing through pipe 53 may be introduced into the mass in small but continuous quantities to insure a uniform distribution therein.
The primary deiiectors 51 and also the'second- While only two forms of the mixer have been disclosed, it is obvious that the design thereof could be varied to suit the diierent conditions outlined in the preamble of this specification, and it is intended that the invention as claimed should have a broader basis of interpretation than on the present specific disclosure.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. A mixer comprisingl a rotor, shear blades on said rotor, a stator member disposed to each side of said rotor and each having a surface in shearing relation with said shear blades, said stator members each having a chamber and each provided with perforations communicating said chamber with the shearing points of the mixer, and means for conducting a fluid to said chamber f A mixer of the character described comprising a rotor having shear blades, a stator at each side of the rotor and each having a surface in shearing relation with said shear blades, each stator being formed with a central inlet opening for the passage therethrough of a fluid mass entering. the mixer, and deflector baffles positioned beyond the outer periphery of said rotor for defiecting the fluid mass leaving the mixer, said baffles being fixed and arranged in plural c'oncentric series.
3. A mixer of the character described comprising a rotor having shear blades, a stator at each side of the rotor and each having a surface in` shearing relation with said shear blades, each stator being formed. with a central inlet opening for the passage therethrough of a fluid mass entering the mixer, and deflector baffles positioned beyond the outer periphery of said rotor for deecting the fluid mass leaving the' mixer, said baiiles being carried by said stators and arranged in plural concentric series.
4. A device of the character described comprising a. pair of hollow stator members having apertured faces directed towards each other, shear ribs on said faces, a rotor positioned between said stator members and having blades in shearing relation with said shear ribs respectively, and means connected to said stator members for conducting iiuid to the hollows therein, said fluid passing through the mentioned apertures directly to the shearing points between said ribs and said blades.
5. In a device of the character described, a pair of hollow stator members, and a rotor positioned therebetween for inducing a ow of a liquid mass between inwardly directed surfaces ofv said stator members, a set of blades on each side of said rotor, each set of blades being directed towards one of the mentioned stator surfaces to shear the liquid mass passing therebetween, said inwardly directed stator surfaces being apertured for pas.- sage therethrough of a fluid circulating in the mentioned hollow stator members, the fluid pass- 'ing through the apertures being directed at the shear points between each set of rotor blades and its related stator surface.