US 2214551 A
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Sept. 10, 1940. c. R. EDWARDS METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TAKING SAMPLES 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 3144mm r01,
Filed Jan. 2, 1951 Sept. 10, 1940. c. R. EDWARDS METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TAKING SAMPLES Filed Jan. 2, 1931 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 v "WW l WV H. 4 4 WNNN rill/A24 Sept. 10, 1940. c R EDWARDS 2,214,551
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TAKING SAMPLES Filed Jan. 2, 1951 s Shets-Sheet 5 LB5.PER 5 5am.
54 BY km? W (61241 ATTORNEY5 Patented Sept; 10, 1940 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TAKING SANIPLES Charles R. Edwards, Houston, Tex.
Application January 2, 1931, Serial No. 506,107
This invention relates to methods of obtaining samples from the earth and apparatuses suitable for obtaining samples from strata deep in the earth.
One object of the invention is to combine the taking of both the solid sample and the fluid sample at one trip into the well bore and to thus obtain the fluid sample from the formation before the fluid in the well bore has time to contaminate or drive the formation fluid away from the well bore. It is obvious that if a well is being drilled with the rotary system, or by any other system wherein considerable fluid is in the well bore, the fluid present in the'well bore may mix with the fluid in the formation or even drive the fluid in the formation away from the well bore in a very short period of time; this is especially so where the fluid common or cognate to the formation approaches the well bore through fissures, crevices or interstices in rock or other formations and where the fluid pressure therein is less than that of the well bore fluid adjacent the formation.
Another object of the invention is to greatly lower the cost of drilling wild cat and semi-wild cat wells by taking both a geological and fluid sample at one trip into the well bore.
Another object is to be able to circulate during the times both samples are being taken.
Another object is to be able to take both samples without withdrawing the drill stem.
Another object is to relieve the fluid pressure above the set sealing means by by-passlng the drilling fluid from above the set sealing means to below the sealing means without first unseating the outer sealing means.
Another object is to provide both a fluid sample chamber and a core barrel that can be run in the drill stem and take their respective samples and be each withdrawn from the drill stem from the well bore.
Another object is to provide a fluid sample chamber to be operated in conjunction with a collapsible drilling in the drill stem, the collapsible bit to be run through the drill stem and to be used to uncover a stratum and the fluid sample chamber to take a sample of fluid from the newly uncovered stratum before the drilling fluid has time to enter the stratum and to provide for the withdrawal of the sampling chamber with its sample of fluid from the newly uncovered stratum and the withdrawal of the collapsible bit all without the withdrawal of the drill stem.
Another object is to take a fluid sample out of bit both of which can be run 1 the stratum under investigation, before the colloids in the drilling fluid can be precipitated into or against the stratum to seal oil or tend to seal off the stratum and prevent or tend to prevent the egress of cognate fluid from the stratum to the well bore.
Another object is to be able to use the drill stem as casing and thus maintain the seal off of the drilling fluids from the formation until the well is brought in and finished.
With the above and other objects in view, an m drill stem only, taken on the line 22 of Figure 1 and shows the bayonet lock in the drill stem.
Figure 3 is a vertical view of the upper end of the lower inner section of the bayonet lock.
Figure 4 is a vertical sectional view of the lower end of the upper outer section of the bayonet lock.
Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view of the same parts as Figure l with the device set for taking a fluid sample which is indicated as entering the sample chamber along the line of the upward pointing arrows in the center of the view.
Figure 6 is a vertical sectional view showing a rat hole seal in drilling position, this seal may be used in place of the sealing means around the drill stem of Figures 1 and 5.
Figure 7 shows a vertical sectional view of the rat hole seal in set position indicating by the arrows the flow of the drilling fluid.
Figure 8 is a cross view of the tester supporting ledges taken looking down at the upper break in Figure 1 just below the numeral ll.
Figure 9 shows an application of a pressure gauge to the tester, a broken elevation of a gauge and,a vertical section of the upper part of one form of the tester.
Figure 10 shows in elevation parts of one form, each, of a drill'stem, a bit, a core barrel, a tester, a casing, a drilling rig, and a derrick.
Referring now to the drawings, wherein the same numerals refer to similar parts and Figures 1 to '7, inclusive, in particular, the numeral I, I, refers to sections of pipe which may be of ordinary drill pipe. There are connected between sections of this drill pipe I suitable specially formed sections such for example as sections 2 and 3.
Sections 2 and 3 of the drill stem may be united with some detachable joint as; for example, the bayonet lock shown in detail in Figures 2, 3, and 4. For example, the tubular section 3 at its thickened upper end has suitably disposed lugs or splines l3, I3, and I4, I4 facing radially outwardly about the thickened 'part 4.
And the lower end of tubular section 2 may have an inwardly facing annular flange I5. Above the flange I5 and facing inwardly may be radially disposed lugs or splines I6, I8 and I|,* I'I suitably spaced and arranged to slidably and rotatively enter and interlock into a suitable flt as in Figure 1 and when interlocked the lugs I3 and I6 and the lugs I4 and I! may both contact in pairs along their vertical radial faces and lugs l4 and I6 may also contact along a part of the horizontal upper face of lugs I4 and a part of the horizontal lower face of lugs I6 so as to transmit right hand motion from section 2 to section 3 and so as to prevent relative vertical motion between sections 2 and 3. The size and spacing of the lugs may be such as is shown in Figure 2 permitting the section 2 to be partially rotated left handed and lowered relatively to section 3 as is shown in Figures 5 and 7. Obviously, if the inwardly facing splines I6 be very materially extended in an upward direction so that in all positions the splines I I are engaged with I6, there can be no relative rotatlve movement between the parts 2 and 3 at any time.
The perforations III, II) in section 2, if present, may be so located with reference to the lugs I6 that when the lugs of sections 2 and 3 are interlocked the perforations II) are effectively sealed by lugs I4 of section 3 fitting over the perforations I0 so as to prevent the passage of fluid through perforations III. And the inwardly facing flange I5 is preferably made to flt about the section 3 so as to prevent passage of fluid through the joint or the flange I5 may have packing therein.
The section 3 may be made with an outside downwardly facing annular shoulder I8, beneath which the seal 5, which with its upper and lower washers I9, I3 is slidably mounted on section 3 may be located; however, this shoulder is optional.
In Figures 6 and 7, in order that seal or packer 5a may be free to slide up or down along section 3, it is suggested that the shoulder I8 maybe usually dispensed with.
The packer 5 may be any suitable conventional packer, the one shown in Figures 1 and 5 preferably being of a good grade of soft rubber of hollow cylindrical form as shown and preferably being retained between two meta-l washers as I9, I3.
The seal 5a may be any suitable seal or packer of conventional form and material and preferably arranged to fit snugly around and still be slidable along the section 3.
The packers 5 and in. may be set as shown by examples in Figures 5 and 7 by the weight of the upper portion of the drill stem I. In the examples shown the bayonet lock between sections 2 and 3 is unlatched by a slight left turn of the section 2; this may be accomplished, perhaps more readily, by supporting the weight of section 2 and the stem I above section 2 on a conventional swivel (not shown) and turning to the left from the top of the well until the lugs are in the relative positions shown in Figure 2 and then lowering the upper stem I and section 2 until the packer 5 or 5a is set. Obviously, if packer 5a is intended to slide very far along the section 3, then the length of the section 2 will have to be increased.
Packer 5 is of the open hole type and is set by collapsing so as to increase its diameter until it tightly fllls the well bore.
Packer 5a is of the rat hole type and is wedged tightly into the reduced bore of the well bore or as it is now usually called, the rat hole. In either event the well bore on the outside of the drill stem I is separated into two compartments when the packer 5 or 5:1 is set. The wall of the full size well bore is indicated by lines 28 and the wall of the reduced well bore or the rat hole is indicated by lines 2 I.
The drill pipe is provided with a dentated ledge 22 to support the flow tester proper during drilling or coring out of contact with the seat 6. Dents or notches in the ledge 22, shown in Figure 8, permit the drilling mud to pass the ledge while the flow tester is in position but any suitable passageway may be substituted.
The flow tester may be provided with a ledge 23, whereby the flow tester can be located at the desired point in the drill stem. These supporting means, when in use, permit the passage of fluid and hold the flow tester above the seat 6 while drilling or coring so as to permit circulation between the valve 6a and seat 6. The location of the ledges 22 and 23 or other support is preferably at such a point that when the bayonet lock between sections 2 and 3 is released as will permit the seating of the valve or seal in on or in seat 8 before the packer 5 or 5a is seated.
That part of sleeve 1 indicated by the numeral 1 may be made a sliding flt in the upper end of section 3 as indicated in Figure 5, and, if preferred, this, sliding flt may also be formed so as to be a fluid tight seal, in which event, this flt may then be used as a sealing means in lieu of the 'sealing means 6, to above described.
When it is preferred to reimpose the mud pressure more slowly on the stratum tested a perforated plug valve seat formed as indicated at 24 may be secured in the lower end of sleeve 1 and a ball valve I2 may be used in connection with the same; obviously the seat 24 is not required when valve I2 is left out.
Holes may be formed in the sides of sleeve I at a suitable point below valve Be as at 25, to permit the exit of fluid from sleeve 1 when ball valve I2 is used; particularly is this useful when stem 8 fits fluid tight along the cylindrical faces 21, 27a in sleeve 1, and it is very apparent that the seal between the sleeve 1 and the nipple 4 should be above the hole.
Sleeve 1 may be made to flt about the stem 8 8 either along the conical valve faces 28, 26a or along the cylindrical faces 21, 21a, or both places may be made to flt and form a double seated valve.
Sleeve I is reduced in diameter at its top and may be threaded about the reduced diameter to receive a cylinder 28.
To use fluid pressure to open the fluid sample chamber a cylinder 28 is installed above the sleeve I to contain a piston 29 and spring 38.
The piston 23 is secured to the stem 8. A compression spring 30 of sufiicient strength to raise piston 29 and stem 8 so as to close the fluid sample chamber is placed under piston 28 but is Is ed tubular sections desired to obtain the rock pressure applied above the piston 29 will compress the spring 38.
The stem 8-preferably is perforated just below the piston 29 so as to equalize the downward thrust on stem 8 and the upward thrust on the bottom of piston 29 caused by the fluid pressure of any fluid that may be in the fluid sample chamber.
Preferably, the areas of the valve 26, or the cross sectional area of stem 8, and the upper surface of piston 29 are substantially about equal so as to about equalize the upward thrust on valve 28, or stem 8, and the downward thrust on the top of piston 29 caused by the fluid pressure of any fluid in common contact with the lower end of stem 8 and the top surface of piston 29.
The cylinder 28 is supplied with an aperture as at 3i connecting from the outside of cylinder 28 to within the cylinder 28 at some point above piston 29.
The upper end of the cylinder 28 is produced with a reduced bore so as to permit easy passage of the cylindrical portion of stem 8 and this reduced bore is preferably provided with a gland as indicated at 9.
The upper outer diameter of the cylinder is here produced with a reduced diameter and may be threaded.
An independent fluid receiving chamber I I may be incorporated into the flow tester and may be suitably attached to the cylinder 28; for instance, with threads.
The fluid chamber l I may be made up of jointfor convenience. The chamber ll may be suitably closed at its upper end or the chamber H may be left open if it be desired to have the chamber ii extend upward to above the fluid in the well bore or to extend to above the surface of the ground.
The upper end of chamber ll may be provided with a double closure, one of which may prevent the passage of fluid in either direction; for instance, an ordinary pipe plug as at 32. If it is of the formation being tested, a suitable valve may be installed at some convenient point in the fluid receiving chamber, such, for instance, as is indicated by the numeral 33. The pressure on the fluid received in chamber ll produced by the cognate fluid sought may be tested by using an ordinary pressure gauge above valve 33 and opening valve 33 to admit the fluid and pressure in chamber 1 l to the gauge and observing the gauge. Figure 9 shows such a gauge secured to a plug 32a, having a perforated extension that forces the valve 33 off of its seat as the plug 32a and gauge replace the plug 32 after the top of the chamber is above the top of the well; this unseating of the valve 33 allows fluid to enter the gauge 59 where its pressure can be noted to learn what the rock pressure of the formation tested is.
An estimate of the capacity of the fluid possibilities of the stratum under investigation may be made by observing the time to fill the chamber I i this is done by noting how long the tester is left open, and in a well known manner making a computation using the above data and the area of the passageway in stem 8 and volume of chamber I i. Obviously the inlet in the wall 21 of stem 8 is an orifice and the volume of chamber II is a measure, and the fluid in chamber ll can be gauged for pressure which will determine the resistance to flow or back head and the time tester is open are known, then by using the usual formula found in standard engineering text books on the subject a fair comparative estimate can be made to estimate the possibilities of the stratum.
One desirable method of operation is to fit any suitable bit or core barrel of any desirable construction at or near-the lower end of the lower section I of the drill pipe, and to then assemble thereto needed sections of drill stem or other suitable apertured material such; for instance, as sections 2 and 3 assembled as in Figure 1 and also a suitable sealing means; for example, either the packer or packer 5a of such form and proportions as will satisfy the conditions to be met.
The manipulation, including assembling, lowering, sustaining, suspending, rotating, raising,
and other manipulations incident to the various j steps of the methods performed or to be performed are usually performed by means and methods of an ordinary suitable drilling rig and the ordinary suitable equipment usually found about such a rig and the steps of the methods are mainly steps common to the operations, manipulations. and functions performed about, by, and with such rigs and equipment. The distance the assembled parts are lowered at this time depend on what the next step is; for instance, if it is desired to use the flow tester as illustrated in Figures land 5, it is necessary to only assemble and lower as' much drill stem as may be required to permit the top of the flow tester to protrude a convenient distance for easy manipulation when the ledge 23 is on the ledge 22.
With the lower parts of the flow tester suitably assembled; forinstance, as is indicated in Figure 1, these parts are lowered by assembling the fluid sample chamber Ii either in a unit or of sections as is desired and lowering the same as is ordinarily used in lowering tubing of a like kind until the ledge 23 rests on the ledge 22 to support the flow tester on' the ledge 22 by the assembled portion of the drill stem.
This entire .assembly, including the cutting tool and flow tester, is then lowered by adding more sections of drill pipe above until the bit has about reached the bottom of the well bore.
A special joint of drill stem is usually attached and used as the top joint of the drill stem and when required, an hydraulic swivel as assembled at the top of the drill stem for convenience in rotating and circulating.
Drilling may now proceed in any suitable manner, such, for instance, as in ordinary rotary drilling or coring and, if the rotary hydraulic system is used, circulation is established in any suitable manner; for instance, with the ordinary slush pumps in a well known manner and the drilling may proceed until it is desired to test; for instance, a new formation may be uncovered and the new stratum may be thought to be possible of production and it may at once be decided that a flow test of the productive possibilities of the new stratum should be made before the new stratum is sealed off by the drilling mud or other fluid or before any defeating quantity of the fluid in the well bore has time to enter the freshlyuncovered stratum and prevent the obtaining of a fluid sample of the cognate fluid that might be normally in the new stratum. I
When a flow testis to be made the well may be very quickly sealed into the two non-fluid communicating compartments and the stratum under investigation may be exposed in a compartment from which a communication into the flow tester can be made as desired; for instance,
section 2 of the drill stem may be slightly rotated to the left so as to unlock the bayonet lock between sections 2 and 3 and then lowered so as to seat the flow tester with valve 6a of sleeve 1 on seat 6 forming a fluid seal as indicated in Figure 5 at 6, 6a, and also sealing the annular space about the packer 5 by applying weight from the upper part of the drill stem through section 2 to collapse and expand the packer 5 as indicated in Figure 5 in a well kriown manner, or if the packer 5a. is to be used instead of packer 5 the weight of the upper part of the drill stem forces the tapered rat hole packer 5a downwardly tightly into the rat hole as is indicated in Figure 7 to form a fluid tight seal between the top of the rat hole and the outer surface of the drill. stem 3, thus, in each example completely sealing the well in these instances into the two non-fluid communicating compartments. The circulation is stopped during the steps of sealing if the perforations IO are lacking or are small in diameter, because when the downward thrust on top of the piston 29 exceeds the upward thrust on the lower end of stem 8 enough to compress the spring 30 so as to expose the perforations in the lower end of the stem 8, the stem 8 then is adapted to communicate with the bore beneath the sleeve packer l and if this should occur before the outer packer 5 or 5a is set the flow tester would in such an event open, before the outer seal was complete.
After the well is sealed the flow tester is then adapted to communicate with the newly uncovered stratum under investigation so as to relieve stratum pressure and permit the fluid in the stratum to be forced out of the stratum. In the present example the fluid flow controlling means is operated to permit communication from the stratum to the tester chamber by lowering stem 8 in sleeve I as increasing the fluid pressure above piston 29 until the spring 30 yields and the piston 29 and stem 8 are lowered relative to sleeve 1 so as to expose the lower perforations in stem 8 to below the seat 26a. It is obvious that as soon as this occurs the pressure in sleeve 1 above ball valve'l2 will be reduced to the atmospheric pressure in the chamber I I. (Or, if desired, the air in chamber ll could be drawn out by well known methods in which event a partial vacuum would be formed in the lower well compartment to assist in inducing a flow of fluid out of the stratum under investigation.)
It is obvious that if a stratum adjacent the lower compartment contains any fluid under pressure it may now come out of the stratum and enter the flow tester until the rock pressure, that is, the normal fluid pressure on the fluid in the stratum, is overcome by the pressure in the lower end of the flow tester.
The fluid pressure above piston 29 may be increased in any suitable manner to force the piston down as by using the mud pumps in a well known manner, to force fluid into the cylinder 28 above piston 9.
After a time cognate fluid from the stratum may enter the tester; the time required may vary owing to conditions beyond control.
To discontinue communication into the lower end of the flow tester by closing the lower end of the flow tester; the flow tester is raised off of seat 6 until the perforation 25 is exposed above seat 6, then fluid will enter through 25 and equalize the pressures so as to permit the spring 30 to act and close the passageway into the tester; or if there is no perforation 25 (25 is not positively required if valve I2 is left out) then the tester may be raised until the sleeve 1 is above seat 6 or at least so that the enlarged part of the sleeve 1 below the seal or packer 6a is out of the reduced bore below the seat 6.
It is also obvious that in the example shown that if the sleeve 1 is raised out of its sealing position the drilling fluid will be permitted to pass into the lower compartment and thus to counterbalance the weight of the column of drilling mud on the to of the outside seal 5 or 5a. This will be found to be useful in some cases to help relieve the load imposed on the outer seal.
This unsealing also reimposes the mud fluid pressure on the stratum tested.
Some collapsible bits and some core barrels have provisions whereby they may be lowered and raised through the drill stem by suitable and well known means and methods. And the top of the plug 32 may be lengthened and made of suitable similar proportions to co-operate with such devices, so that the tester can be used repeatedly without withdrawing the drill stem in somewhat the same manner as such bits andcore barrels are lowered and raised; such methods and means are here intended for use with well testers.
Many other methods and ways of operating the invention than those fully explained are very apparent; for instance, it might be preferred not to use a wire line and grapple at the lower end of the line to manipulate the bit, core barrel, and tester into and out of the well. If the operator preferred to maintain circulation during the above manipulations suitable sealing means may be instituted about the bit body, core barrel, and tester to substantially prevent the passage of fluid around and past the bit, core barrel, or tester during the lowering and raising manipulations of these devices and the. circulation of the fluid would force these devices in or out by controlling the direction of the circulation. Use may be made of the force of gravity to lower these devices also circulation may.
assist in speeding up the lowering operations or reverse circulation may be used to slow up the dropping speed during the lowering operations.
The drill stem may be withdrawn to bring out the tester, or to bring out the tester and bit or the tester and core barrel; but it is to be understood that the invention is intended for use in other ways than to be lowered into" the well and to be brought out of the well by the drill stem. Other forms and modes of operations of the invention have been discussed and all such changes are intended and contemplated as parts of this invention; Nor do I intend to relinquish any part of my invention that is useful.
If that form of, fluid receiving chamber is used that is closed at the top it may be desirable after the top of the chamber is in any convenient suitable position, as, for instance, after the top of the chamber is in operative view, to test the pressure in the chamber, by a gauge 59 that now may be used to replace the plug 32 as shown in Figure 9, to test the gas and liquid in the chamber, and if some solids have found ingress to thechamberto test such solids.
Figure 10 is representative of the invention and shows a core barrel and bit similar to Dodds No. 1,235,883.
It is obvious that many other changes'i'mgach of the various parts as to form, substance, modes of operations, combinations, and methods of applying the invention are possible, practical, and
convenient and the scope of the invention is limited only by the claims.
What I claim is:
1. The method of obtaining both solid and substantially uncontaminated fluid samples from a. deep earth stratum in a well bore which includes the steps of lowering a string of pipe carrying a packer, of taking 'a sample of the solid stratum in its native arrangement of parts, sealing the well bore above said stratum and in taking a substantially uncontaminated sample of fluid from the stratum and lifting both samples to the surface in the same operation.
2. The process of obtaining samples from an earth stratum, which comprises lowering a string v of pipe carrying a packer, taking a sample of the stratum showing the normal arrangement of parts of the stratum, setting the packer and taking a substantially uncontaminated fluid sample from the stratum to indicate the nature of the contents of the stratum and removing both samples in a single" operation.
which includes lowering a string of 3. The method of determining the fluid contents of a covered deep earth stratum, which comprises lowering a pipe carrying a packer, a sampling means and uncovering means, uncovering the stratum, then setting the packer and sampling the fluid contents of the stratum while maintaining the packer stationary and before withdrawing the uncovering means, maintaining the fluid sample uncontaminated while removing it from the well.
4. The method of sampling deep earth stratum,
pipe carrying a packer and lowering a core sampler and a fluid sampler, rotating and lowering said pipe, packer and fluid sampler, cutting a core sample of the stratum seating said packer and immediately entrapping a substantially uncontaminated fluid sample of the stratum before the stratum is materially contaminated and before withdrawing the core sampler and then withdrawing the samples in the same operation.
5. In a well sampling device, the combination with a string of pipe, of means adapted to cut and to withdraw a solid sample carried by said pipe, means adapted to'entrap and to withdraw a fluid sample carried by said pipe, said string of pipe also carrying a packer and said string of pipe being the only metallic connection adapted to manipulate any part of said combination.
6. In a sampling device, the combination with means for cutting an earth bore and of means for receiving, entrapping and removing a substantially uncontaminated fluid sample from the earth in the same operation.
'I. In a well drilling apparatus, the combination which includes means for taking a solid sample, a second means for taking a fluid sample and the same single support for carrying both of said means while sampling.
8. In a well drilling apparatus, the combination which includes a supporting metal tubular stem, a solid sampling device at lower end of said stem adapted to withdraw a solid sample, a fluid sampling device in said stem above said stem's lower end adapted to withdraw a fluid sample, a controlled inlet for said fluid sampling device, and a control for said inlet, said stem being the only metal part of said combination that extends to without the well when sampling.
9. In a well drilling apparatus, the combination which comprises ametal tube carrying apacker, a bit at the tubes lower end for uncovering a stratum, a sampling device above the bit to receive a fluid sample from the stratum when the stratum is uncovered and a controlled inlet for said device, a control for said inlet, said tube being the only continuous part of said combination that extends to without the well.
10. In an earth boring apparatus,the combination which includes a tube, a sampling device associated with the apparatus for receivinga solid sample, a second sampling device for receiving a fluid sample, a controlled inlet associated with the apparatus and means for manipulating said inlet control, said tube being the only continuous support extending from said second device to without the well while sampling.
11. In' a well boring apparatus, the combination which includes a tubular jointed stem carrying a packer, a bit associated with said stem for disintegrating earthy materials, a sampling device associated with said stem for receiving a fluid sample from the earth, a controlled inlet for said device to open to receive the fluid sample and to close to prevent the entrance of fluid from below said device, and means for raising and lowering said fluid sampling device other than by said stem.
12. In an apparatus for testing a well the combination comprising a string of pipe to be lowered into a well having an inlet at its lower end and carrying a packing for sealing the well above the inlet, said string of pipe being the only connection extending to above top of the well and a valve for the inlet controlled by operative means independent of the movement of the pipe to open and close the inlet while the packer is seated.
13. Apparatus for testing the productivity of a formation encountereddn a well containing fluid which includes a string of pipe to be lowered into the well to adjacent the formation to be tested, a packer associated with the pipe, means at the lower end of the pipe to' receive a sample from the formation including a controlled inlet opening into the pipe, said pipe being the only part extending to above the -fluid, said controlled inlet being'operable while said pipe is stationary to permit and to prevent the passage offluid into said pipe.
14. Apparatus for testing the productivity of a formation encountered in-a well containing drilling fluid, which includes a single string of pipe to be lowered into the well to adjacent the formation to be tested, means lowered into the well by said string of pipe for sealing ofi the drilling fluid from the I the lower end of said string of pipe to receive a sample from the formation including an inlet opening into said pipe and a valve structure including a part connected to said pipe and a part independently movable with reference to said pipe and said sealing means, said pipe being the only connecting member extending to without the well. a
15. Apparatus for testing the productivity of a formation encountered in a well containing drilling fluid comprising a single empty string of pipe to be lowered into the well through the drilling fluid to adiacentthe formation to be tested, a. packer lowered into the well by said string of pipe for sealing oil the drilling fluid from the forformation to be tested, means at mationto be tested, means at the lower end of said pipe being the only connecting member extending to without the fluid.
16. Apparatus for testing the productivity of a formation encountered in a well containing drilling fluid, comprising a single empty string of pipe to be lowered into the well through the drilling fluid to adjacent the formation to be tested, a packer carried by the pipe for sealing off the well above the formation, an inlet below the packer opening into the pipe, and a valve for the inlet, the setting of the packer being positively controlled by movement of the pipe, the opening and closing of the valve being independent'of the movement of the pipe and the pipe being the only continuous connection extending to without the drilling fluid.
17. Apparatus for testing the productivity of a formation encountered in a well containing drilling fluid, comprising a single string of pipe to be lowered into the well through the drilling fluid to adjacent the formation to be tested,
means carried by the string of pipe to permit and to prevent the flow of cognate fluid from the formation into the pipe, said means including relatively movable parts, and a packer mounted on one of said parts for sealing off the drilling fluid from the formation while the passages are aligned, the other of said parts being independently movable with reference to the pipe and the pipe being the only continuous connection extending to without the drilling fluid.
18. Apparatus for testing the productivity of a formation in a well containing drilling fluid, comprising a single string of pipe to be lowered into the well through the drilling fluid to adjacent the formation to receive a fluid sample therefrom and to be raised out of the well to remove the entrapped sample, said pipe being closed against the flow of drilling fluid as-the pipe is lowered into the well, a packer carried by the pipe as the pipe is lowered into the well and adapted to 'be seated by manipulation of the pipe, an inlet for the pipe communicating with the well below thepoint at which the packer seals on the well, and means for controlling the inlet to permit fluid from the formation to enter the pipe while the packer is set and to prevent fluid from entering the pipe after the packer is released and the pipe is being raised out of the well, said controlling means being independent of the movements of the pipe and the packer and the pipe being the only continuous connection extending to without the drilling fluid.
19. Apparatus for testing a well containing drilling fluid, comprising a single string of pipe to be lowered into the well through the drilling fluid, said pipe being closed against the entrance of the drilling fluid, means at the lower end of the pipe for receiving a sample including an inlet opening into the pipe and a valve for controlling the inlet, means carried by the pipe for sealing the well above the inlet, the valve being movable to control the inlet independntly of the movement of the pipe and the pipe being the only operative connection extending to beyond the drilling fluid.
'20. Apparatus for testing a formation encountered in a well containing drilling fluid, which includes a single string of pipe to be lowered into the well to adjacent the formation to be tested, a valved inlet at the lower end of the pipe controlled from the top of the well independently of the movement of the pipe and a packer carried by the pipe above the inlet, said pipe being the only operative connection extending to beyond the drilling fluid,
CHARLES R. EDWARDS.