US 2214991 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept 17. 1940- A. T. CANDY, JR 2,214,991
sANsTlg'ARY LAMP vFiled Jan. 17, 1940 Patented Sept. 17, 1940 lPATENT OFFICE SANCTUARY LAllIP Albert T. Candy, Jr., Glen Ellyn, Ill., assignor to Candy & Company, Inc., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Application January 17, 1940, Serial No. 314,199
9 Claims. `(cl. 24o-13) My invention relates to sanctuary lamps, including sentinel (pre-funeral) lamps and the like, and especially to that type of sanctuary lamp vwhere a solid candle is burned in its own container, which in turn is inserted within the conventional ruby glass. My invention is especially-although not necessarily-adapted to that type of candle which is molded in its own glass container which constitutes a packaging therefor and which is thrown away along with the remnants of the spent candle when a new candle is to be substituted.
In some of its aspects, the present invention represents an improvement over my application Serial No. 141,671 filed May 10, 1937 on Sanctuary lamps, issued on February 6, 1940, as Patent No. 2,189,746.
One object of my invention is an improvement vand simplification of the removable mounting of the upper end of the candle container jar in the top or cap, whereby the candle container is susvpended within the ruby glass and can be lifted out of the ruby glass by lifting the top, and then disconnected from the top for substitution of a 'fresh candle and container.
` Another object of my invention is the isolation of the combustion gases from the insulating air space between the candle container and the ruby glass, whereby wax vapors and other impurities in the combustion gases will not be deposited as a lm on the inside of the ruby glass or on the outside of the container. Such filming impairs the transmission of light through the candle containing glass and through the ruby glass. Any lfilm deposit on the inside of the ruby glass would require the ruby glass being cleaned each time another candle and container was substituted.
Still another object of my invention is the ven- :tilaton of the insulating air space between the candle container and the ruby glass, whereby a more uniform temperature may be preserved and moisture condensation avoided, and yet the ventilation is more or less directly with the outside air as distinguished from ventilation which would be in communication with the combustion space. By my invention I also prevent or minimize heat conductivity from the cap down into the :glass orv other material of the candle container. Since the hot combustion gases customarily pass out through the cap and the cap is usually subjected to radiant heat from the flame, the cap tends to absorbv heat from the ilame or combustion gases and conduct the heat down into the candle container. This heat conduction to 'the' candle container is greater when the flame is high than when the candle has burned down Well below the cap. Consequently, the heat conduction has led to a higher temperature of the candle container and the melted portion of the burning candle during the first portion of the ing.
`and ruby glass.
23 and the clearance spaces 24 serve externally burning of the candle than during the later stages of the burning of the candle. The greater heat at the early stages of burning has. resulted in a brighter llame and faster candle consumption at the start, which gradually diminished as the candle burned down. By entirely eliminating any substantial heat conduction from the cap, I am able to make the burning conditions more uniform and therefore maintain a more constant size of flame and rate of candle consumption throughout the range of the entire burning period.
The foregoing together with further objects, features and advantages of my invention are set forth in the following description of specific embodiments thereof illustrated in the accompanying drawing wherein:
Fig. 1 is an elevation of the complete lamp;
Fig. 2 is a similar view of a lamp modified for suspension;
Fig. 3 is a Vertical section of the lamp taken on the bent diameter 3-3 of Fig. 4;
Fig, 4 is a plan section looking upwardly taken on the line 4 4 of Fig. 3; and
Fig. 5 shows the cap or toppiece together with a candle and candle unit suspended therefrom being removed fro-m the ruby glass and base.
The sanctuary lamp of my invention, identihed as a` wholevas IIi, comprises a shell-like base II closed at its top by a cup I2, which receives the lower end of the cylindrical ruby glass I3 which at its upper end supports a cap or top piece Ill from which the glass container I5 for the candle I6 is suspended. In the form of Fig. l, the base may rest upon a flat surface ef the altar, and in the form of Fig. 2 the base II is arranged to be suspended by chains Il.
The top piece or cap I4 may be a brass cast- Its lower margin terminates in an outer skirt I8. A set of four arcuately spaced lugs I9 extend inwardly from the skirt with the bottom shoulders 2l) of the lugs spaced a fraction of an inch above the lower edge of the skirt, thereby forming a seat for reception of the upper edge of the ruby glass. The skirt is conformed to provide an intermediate shoulder 2l and an upper shoulder 22. A set of long arcuate vVentilating slots 23 are formed through the skirt at the shoulder `2I and horizontally intermediate the lugs I9. The lower portion of the skirt I8 is of somewhat larger inside diameter than the outside diameter of the ruby glass, thus leaving a lateral clearance space 2d between the skirt Thus, both the Ventilating slots to vent the inter-glass air space between the ruby glass and candle container.
One convolution of external screw thread 25 is molded into the glass container I5 adjacent lts upper edge, and below this is an annular bead 25 of similar cross section.
The candle is preferably molded in the glass container, and the container serves as the merchandising packaging for the candle as well as the container for the candle while it is burning.
Each lug I9 carries an inwardly extending screw-engaging projection I8 of minimum feasible size. The projections i9 are progressively offset vertically so that they constitute, in effect, a cut-away convolution of an internal screw thread and in that manner cooperate with the screw thread 25 of the glass container whereby the container is detachably secured to and suspended by the cap.
Between the upper edge of the glass container and the continuous annular seat formed by the upper shoulder 22 of the cap, is inserted a gasket 26. The gasket is preferably of a heat resistant insulating material, such as an asbestos compound. Preferably a gasket 26 is cemented as at 26 at the factory to the upper edge of each glass container. The space at the crowned portion of the cap together with the space in the container above the candle constitute a combustion chamber for the burning candle, which is isolated from the insulating air space between the ruby glass and the container, and this isolation is made more perfect by the sealing effect of the gasket.
It will be noted that the insulating space between the container and the ruby glass is vented to outside atmosphere and not to the combustion chamber. For this reason vapors and other impurities in the combustion chamber are precluded from passing into the insulating air space where they might condense leaving deposits therein, and especially on the inside of the ruby glass. This makes it unnecessary to clean the inside of the ruby glass when changing candles.
Air for combustion is admitted to the combustion chamber by a series of inlet openings 21 in the cap just inwardly of the gasket seat, while the products of combustion are vented through more or less central exhaust openings 28 in the cap on either side of the cross 29.
The candle I6 carries a central wick 3U, the lower end of which is supported by a stamped metal holder 3l and the upper end of which protrudes through the central candle knob 32 to a height which, for protection, is preferably slightly less than that of the top of the gasket.
Even in a cold atmosphere the insulating effeet of the air space between the container and the ruby glass preserves a high enough temperature within the container to keep a body of melted candle material an inch or more deep. A light from the candle flame may thus pass downwardly at a considerable angle, determined by the depth of the melted material. When the candle has burned to within an inch or so of the bottom, all of the remaining wax will be melted and the remaining wick held upright by the holder 3l. vAt such time the wide downward angle of light emanation is preserved because the light may pass through the transparent melted wax remaining in the bottom of the container and through the glass bottom of the container, the angle, as illustrated by the dotand-dash lines in Fig. 3, being limited only by the upper edge of the base l! or cup l2 which is considerably lower than the bottom of the candle container. This is of particular advantage where a lamp of the type shown in Fig. 1
is set rather high in reference to the congrega-A tion and in -a suspended lamp of the type of Fig. 2.
This is made possible by the suspension of the candle container as distinguished from a candle container which rests upon the base.
When the candle is spent or substantially spent, the operation of substituting a new one is 'exceedingly simple. As shown in Fig. 5, the operator grasps the cross, which forms a convenient handle, and lifts the cap upwardly. Because the candle container is suspended by the cap, it too is removed from the ruby glass. -Al1 the remnants of the candle-the unburned wax, the unburned wick, bits of charred wick, the holder, etc-are carried out in the container and none has come in contact with the inside of the base or ruby glass. Therefore, it is not necessary to clean them. With the cap held in one hand, the glass container is turned by the other hand to unscrew it from the cap. A new container, packaging a new candle, is then screwed into the cap in its place, the cap, with the new container suspended therefrom, is then replaced by a single, one-hand operation. The old candle vcontainer may be thrown away.
The cap not only forms a convenient handle for removing the glass container, but it serves to suspend the container within the ruby glass, to keep the bottom of the container well above the base, and to position the container away from the ruby glass to maintain the insulating air space therebeween.
Despite the fact that the candle container is dependingly and firmly mounted in the cap, the mounting is so arranged as to preclude heat conduction from the cap down into the wall of the candle container. Such heat conduction into the upper edge of the glass container is precluded by the insulating characteristic of the asbestos gasket. The contact areas of the screw threading are reduced to the minimum provided by the small lug projections I9 which aiford no appreciable conductivity. The freedom from any such heat conductivity into the glass container from the cap, which is centrally heated by the discharge of the combustion gases, makes for a more uniform temperature within they combustion chamber and a more uniform depth of melted wax on the candle. This is in part because any such heat conductivity through the wall of the glass container and in turn to the candle wax would progressively decrease as the candle burned lower and there was a lgreater distance for thev heat to be conducted through the glass wall, which is not a particularly good conductor. Instead the temperature to which the upper part of the candle is subjected, is kept more constant by conning the heating effect to such factors as remain more uniform, despite the lowering of the candle top as it burns. Thus the heat supplied to the upper part of the candle as it burns is supplied largely by direct radiation from the flame, which of course travels down to maintain a constant height above the top of the candle as it burns, by heat from the ame reflected downwardly by the underside of the cap, and by the downward radiation of heat absorbed by the cap from the gases passing out through the exhaust openings 28. Much of the heat centrally absorbed by the cap from the exhausting gases is re-absorbed by the cold air coming in through the inlets 27, tending tokeep the skirt of the cap relatively cool. This is supplemented somewhat by the previously described ventilation of the insulating air space through the slots 23 and the clearance space 24. The skirt can be manually engaged for lifting the cap in the event the cross is too hot.
The glass container, in addition to serving as the packaging container for the candle and the holder for the candle while it is burning, and the container whereby to remove the metal wick stand, condensed wax vapors and any unburned or residual portions of the candle-preferably also constitutes the mold wherein the candle is poured. In that case, the problem of providing the characteristic central knob 32 at the upper end of the candle may be accomplished by the method set forth and claimed in my copending application, Serial No. 342,856, led June 28, 1940, on Method of making candles, which is a division of this application, the disclosure of the subject-matter of that divisional application having been deleted from this application.
While I have illustrated and described these specific embodiments of my invention, I contemplate that many changes and substitutions may be made without departing from the scope or spirit of my invention.
1. A sanctuary lamp comprising a base, a hollow ruby glass mounted thereon, a cap supported by and covering the upper end of the ruby glass, a bottomed but open topped candle container, a
candle inthe container, means for suspending the container by its upper end from the cap to position it within the ruby glass leaving an annular air space between the ruby glass and container, and portage in the cap for Ventilating said air space, the cap covering the container to form therewith a combustion chamber for the candle flame, having air inlet and combustion gas eX- haust portage, and being substantially sealed to the upper end of the container whereby vapors in the combustion chamber are precluded from passing into the air space.
2. A sanctuary lamp comprising a base, a hollow ruby glass mounted thereon, a jar-like glass candle container, a cap covering the ruby glass and resting on its upper edge, inter-engaging detachable means on the upper end of the container and on the underside of the cap for suspending the container from the cap within but spaced from the ruby glass to provide a long annular inter-glass space and for holding the container sealed to the cap, openings in the cap adjacent its margins directly communicating between the inter-glass space and outside air, the interior of the container being out of communication with the inter-glass space, the cap also covering the container and having portage for admission of air and discharge of combustion gases, and the cap being manually engageable for lifting from the ruby glass and for lifting, as a unit therewith, the container from within the ruby glass.
3. A sanctuary lamp comprising a base, a hollow ruby glass mounted thereon, a jar-like glass candle container, a cap covering the ruby glass inter-glass space, the interior of the container being out of communication with the inter-glass space, the cap also covering the container and having portage for admission of air and discharge of combustion gases, and the cap being manually engageable for lifting from the ruby glass and for lifting, as a unit therewith, the container from within the ruby glass.
4. A sanctuary lamp comprising a base, a tubular ruby glass mounted thereon, a cap covering the ruby glass and resting on the upper edge thereof, a jar-like glass candle container, interengaging elements on the upper end of the container and on the underside of the cap for suspendingly but removably mounting the container `.on the cap with an annular air space extending between the container and ruby glass through substantially the height of the container, the cap covering the container and together therewith forming a combustion space for the flame of the candle within the container, and a gasket interposed between the upper end of the container and the cap to seal. the combustion space from the air sp-ace, and inlet and exhaust portage in the cap for the combustion space.
5. A sanctuary lamp comprising a translucent candle container' in which the candle burns, a separate cap, a hollow ruby glass on which the cap rests and within which the container is mounted leaving an insulating air space between the ruby glass and container, a combustion chamber formed in the cap and container, means closing oi the combustion chamber from the insulating space, and means venting the insulating space directly to outside air.
6. A sanctuary lamp comprising a translucent candle container in which the candle burns, a separate cap, a hollow ruby glass on which the cap rests and within which the container is mounted leaving an insulating air space between the ruby glass and container, a combustion chamberl formed in the cap and container, means closing off the combustion chamber from the insulating space, and means adjacent the top of the ruby glass forv venting the insulating space directly to outside air.
'7. A sanctuary lamp according to claim 5, wherein the candle container is removably attached to, and suspended by, the cap.
8. A sanctuary lamp comprising a hollow ruby glass, a cap covering the ruby glass and resting on the upper end thereof, a jar-like candle container, interengaging elements` on the'upper end of the container and on the under side of the cap for suspendingly but removably mounting the container on the cap with an annular air space extending between the container and ruby glass through substantially the height of the container, the cap covering the container and together therewith forming a combustion space for the flame of the candle within the container, the container being out of contact with the cap save by the interengagement of said elements, and their interengagement being limited to arcuately small regions whereby to minimize heat conduction from the cap to the container.
9. A sanctuary lamp according to claim 8, wherein an insulating gasket is interposed between the upper end of the container and the cap whereby the interengaging elements may clamp the upper end of the container against the cap through the gasket to provide a limit of approach between the container and cap.
ALBERT T. CANDY, JR.