US 2215717 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
52151.24, 1940. T. Hr REA 2,215,717
BLEEDER OR IURGING APPARATUSFOR REFRIGERATIG SYSTEMS Filed Feb. 17, 1959 zsneets-sheez 1 IN VENT OR.
` `7150/7706 /7. /cea BY @www ATTORNEYS sq. 24, 1940. T`., REA `2,215,717
BLEEDER 0R PURGING APIARATUS FOR REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS Filed Feb. 17, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet? 1N VENTOR.
Patented Sept. 24, 1940 1 AT1-11-1T` ori-ice BLEEDER on PURGING APPARATUS Foa REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS Thomas I-I.` Rea, Three RiveravMich., assignor to Armstrong Machine Works, Three Rivers, Mich.,
a corporation of Michigan Application February 17, 1939, serial No. 257,027
This invention relates to improvements in bleeders or purging apparatus vfor refrigerating systems;
The main objects of this invention are:
First, `to provide an automatic purging or bleeding apparatus for refrigerating systems which is highly efficient, entirely automatic in its operation, and is not likely tobecome inoperative in use. e
, Second, to provide a purging apparatus which, when once set into operation, requires no `manual manipulation. e
Third, to provide an apparatus having these advantages which may be used as a. so-called straight purging unit or may be `used as `a combined expansion valve and purgerunit. I
Fourth, to provide an apparatus having these advantages which is verycompact and has rela` tively few movable parts.
Objectsv relating to' details and economies of the invention will appear from the description to follow. The invention is defined and" pointed out` in the claims.
Preferred embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figl represents a. refrigerating system `mainly in diagrammatic ,form in which the apparatus of my inyerit on is installed to serve as a com bined expansion valve and purger. e I
Fig. 21is anl enlarged fragmentary view mainly in vertical section on line 2-2 of Fig. 4.
Fig.1 3 isa fragmentary view partially in vertical section on line 3-3 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 4 isa view mainly in horizontal section on line "4-4 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a view mainly in diagrammatic form showing Imy improved purging apparatus installed as a straight purging unit or apparatus.
In the installation shown in Fig. 1, I designates the compressor, 2 a condenser, 3 the evaporating coils, and 4 the surge drum of a refrigerating apparatus in connection with which I have shown my purging apparatus which is designated generally by the numeral 5.
This purging apparatus, in the preferred embodiment illustrated, comprises an inlet chamber 6 to which the supply connection 1 delivers, this supply connection being preferably provided with a valve B. It willbe noted that the supply pipe 1 has a delivery nipple 9 projecting centrally of the inlet chamber and terminating in a valve seat for` the non-returncheclr` valve I Above this inlet chamber isa separazing chamber II open at its lower end to the upper end of the inlet chamber. This chamber II is surrounded by a jacket I2 forming a refrigerating 1 chamber I3 surrounding the separating chamber, the wall I4 of the separating chamber being the inner wallof the refrigerating chamber or being common to the separating and refrigerating chambers.
The refrigerating chamber has an inlet connection I5 provided with a port having a downwardly facing valve seat I6, this inlet connection connecting the lowerend of the refrigerating chamber with the inlet chamber. The valve I1 carried by the lever I8 is adapted to close this connection I5 when the float I9 is in elevated position. i
This float I9 is ofthe inverted bucket type and has a restricted vent or discharge hole at an elevated point in the top thereof. It will be noted" that the float embraces the inlet nipple 9 so that the incoming refrigerant or the refrigerantdeliveredfrom` theppe l is discharged interiorly of the float. Gaseous refrigerantand/or air at this point will collect at the topof the inverted float while the liquid refrigerant communicates freely with the interior .ofy chamber 6 through an opening or openings lili at the bot- `tom of ^thefloat. i
The separating chamber has an air discharge connection 2I at the top `thereof and is provided withV a downwardly facing valve seat 22 with ao which the valve 23 cooperates. This valve 23 is provided with a float 24, the arm 25 of which is` pivoted at 26, the valve being connected thereto at 21 so that when* the iloat is lifted by liquid within the separating chamber it closes the valve, 35
e' the fioat` acting as a weight to open the valve` when the `liquid level is below the oat actuating point.
A gauge glass 29 is provided, this being ccnnected to the upper end of the separating chamber by the valve connection 30 and to the inlet chamber by the valve connection 3|. This gauge glass is a matter of convenience in setting the apparatus -into operation and also it enables one to determine the liquid level in the separating chamber. e i l The refrigeratlng chamber is provided with a discharge connection 32 which delivers to the evaporating coils, the `connection being preferably provided with a valve 33.
The air discharge 2| has a. valve 34 and delivers into the atmosphere or into a Jar indicated at 35 which is of `advantage in inspecting a discharge.
To insure that the refrigerant discharged or tor 36 which is arranged so that a relatively narrow passage or opening 3'I is provided therearound, as shown in `iligs. 2, 3 and 4. This substantially increases the efficiency of the apparatus although it will operate without such feature.
In the installation shown in Fig. 5, the receiver 38 is connected to the condenser by the line 39 and to the evaporating' coils 3 through the pressure regulating valve 4U. The inlet pipe 1 of the purging apparatus is connected to the top of the receiver 3B by the connection 4I having a valve 42 therein and to the bottom of the receiver through the connection 43 having the valve 44 therein. This structure is the same as that described.
Referring to the installation shown in Fig. 5, the purger may be set in operation as follows. Assuming it to be empty or undercharged, and with the valves 44, 42, 33 and 34 closed, in this condition, the bucket float I9 will be down or in valve opening position as shown in the drawings and the float 24 will also be down or in valve opening position. The rst step is to open the valve 44, reference being had to Fig. 5, allowing the purger to become primed or partially lled with liquid refrigerant. The liquid level inside the purger will fill the apparatus to a point substantially above the normal level and liquid refrigerant will pass through the inlet chamber to the refrigerating chamber, lling this normally to a substantially higher level than the level within the separating chamber, the level in the refrigerating chamber depending upon the condenser pressure as well as the position of valve 33. The reason that the refrigerator chamber levelwill normally be higher than the separating chamber level is that the refrigerating chamber normally contains less air to begin with than the separating chamber and furthermore there is normally more storage capacity for compressed air in the line to valve 33 in practice than there is in practice in the line to valve 34 from the separating chamber. Condenser pressure governs the extent to which the air ,above the liquid levels is compressed, but the location of valves 33, 34 is a factor in the relative height of the levels in the refrigerating and separating chambers. For example, if valve 33 should be four or ve feet from the purger, all of the air that was originally in the refrigerating chamber, as well as some of the air from the inlet chamber, can easily be compressed so that it will be contained in such a length of pipe between the purger and the valve. However, if valve 33 is only a few inches from the purger, there will be less pipe space available for storing the air when it is compressed when liquid refrigerant first enters the unit. The same remarks also apply to the location of valve 34 and the liquid level obtaining in the separating chamber; i. e., it is dependent upon the condenser as well as the location of valve 34.
When the purger is primed or partially filled with liquid, the valve 44 is closed, shutting off the supply of liquid refrigerant and the valve 42 is opened, preferably fully, connecting the purger to the top of receiver 38 and the gaseous refrigerant therein. The discharge valve 33 is then cracked or opened slowly. This will allow the pressure in the refrigerating chamber I3 to drop to suction pressure and cause the liquid refrigerant therein to boil. Additional liquid refrigerant will pass into the refrigerating chamber through its inlet connection or port I5 slightly lowering the pressure in inlet chamber 5 and separating chamber II, which in turn allows refrigerant gas and air from the receiver to enter the inlet chamber and collect in the inverted bucket float I9. This element is thereby caused to float and rise, closing the liquid discharge valve I'I, i. e., the inlet valve to the refrigerating chamber. In this condition, the interior of the purger will be at high or condenser pressure, whereas the liquid refrigerant in the refrigerating chamber will be boiling under low or suction pressure. The boiling liquid refrigerant in the refrigerating chamber will thus chill the liquid in the separating chamber to within a few degrees of low pressure or suction temperature.-
In this condition, the refrigerant gas and air passing through the bucket vent 20 will rise through the liquid in the purger and, striking against the baille 36, will be diverted against the refrigerated or chilled wall of the separating chamber. Since this gas is under condenser pressure but at a decidedly lower temperature, the refrigerant therein will condense and the non-condensable air component thereof will collect in the top of the separating chamber. As the air collects, increasing the pressure on the liquid refrigerant in the separating chamber, the refrigerant level will be lowered as can be observed through the gauge and the liquid thereby displaced will enter the inverted bucket float, causing it to sink and open the inlet connection or port I5, thus discharging the displaced liquid to the refrigerating chamber I3. When this has happened, refrigerant gas and/or air will again enter the inlet chamber and collect in the inverted bucket float causing it to rise and close port I5.
When a substantial quantity of air has been accumulated in the foregoing manner in the dome or top of the separating chamber II, the air discharge valve 34 may be opened and with further lowering of the liquid level due to accumulation of compressed air as described above, the ball float 24 drops, opening the air valve and discharging air from the purger through air discharge connection 2l to the atmosphere or into inspection jar 35. The valve 44 is then cracked or opened slowly to allow enough liquid refrigerant from the receiver 38 to reach the purger to maintain the desired liquid level for the refrigerating chamber (in practice indicated by the frost level on the outside of the purger casting or on pipe 32, which is caused by condensation and freezing thereon of moisture from the air. Preferably an amount should be admitted sufficient to keep the refrigerating chamber practically filled with boilingA refrigerant). Thereafter, the operation of the purger is continuous and automatic. The gaseous refrigerant is caused to condense when it strikes the cold wall of the separator chamber, freeing the air in the mixture, which collects in the dome and oper'- ates the air venting float valve in the manner described. After all the air has been purged from the system, it is not necessary to close any of the valves or remove the unit from the line.
Assuming at the start that the valves 8, 33, and 34 are closed, to placethe unit of Fig. 1 in operation as a combination expansion Valve and purger, the valve 8 is rst opened until the purger is primed with liquid refrigerant as indicated by the liquid level in the gauge glass. The valve 33 is then opened slowly, reducing the pressure in the refrigerating chamber to substantially the same pressure as exists in the evaporator.
This *reduction` in pressure causesthe liquid refrigerant to boil ands-chill the" wall I4 separating the reirigerantfchamber and the separating chamber. Any refrigerant gas` that passes `through the ventinthe inverted `bucket oat release mechanism. Liquid refrigerant will enter i the inlet chamber through connection 'l asmfast as it is`c`ondensed in the condenser 2. As ,the liquid refrigerant enters` the `inverted bucket float due to the abovedepressicnof the liquid level, the float loses its buoyancy and sinks, opening valve l I5 and Vdischarging theliquid to the refrigerating r vchamber. jAs` refrigerating liquid isdischarged to lthe refrigerating chamber, more refrigerant gas mixed withtheair willenterlthe inverted bucket float causing the float to rise `and close s valvelBi This cycle is repeated asfreqjuently as desired to; discharge the liquid refrigerant from thecondenser tothe refrigerantchamber and then directlyto the evaporator. In addition to the. refrigerant condensedv in the" regular condenser,` all refrigerant gas condensed in the sepa# rating chamberVwill `also be discharged `through valve 15 `to the refrigerant to the evaporator.`
My purging! apparatus is continuous in operation and when' once installed isautomatic-that is, no other manipulation of the control valves is required. `The `amount of gas to be purged may be governediby the size of thelventing opening in the bucket and thestatichead that forces the gas through the venting opening. The`size of this ventingfopening can bereadily determined for each type"of refrigerant. `The amount ofgas that should s pass through the venting opening should be slightly less than the condensing capacity of the heat exchange" surface of ,the separating chamber, Therefore, it isimpossible to feed the purger too much gas, and also, it willwork `at l maximum efficiency because nothing less than `the l maximum amount ofv gas can befed to thepurgf ing'unit. Whenfused as acombination'expansion valve and purger it serves a double function. It should be stated `thatfthis application is possible only when allcof theliquid refrigerant is carried on the low pressure or evaporator side of the sys` tem. The inverted bucket mechanism described discharges the liquid refrigerantto the evaporator just as fast as it is formed `in the condenser. Anyv air that is in the system or that may be introduced into `the system due to low, suction pressures or while charging the svstemfwith additional refrigerant will" automatically be `vented `from the purger without attentionon the part ofthe engl-l I have mediated aidldeseribea abraetiarem;
bodimentcf my invention in two installations. vIl have not illustrated certain` modifications ,1in
structure that @are pSSible ortheir 'v riousnstalvung adaptations as, it is believedmettais-disciov l sure will enable those 'skilledin'theariitoembodyl 1 "sx'n'adaptr myirnprovements.a'slmyb CeSirec'i.'l
Having thus described @my inventivanj,A what I i claim as new ahddesifeto secureby LettersfPatf I`1,1SI' l, y s j c i.. 1.Ir`1 a.purging` apparatus `for refrigerating s systems,` `the combination of an inlet chamber having fa refrigerant-"supply` connection `at the lower end thereof provided with Jva v return check chamber and thence vconstituting a refrigerating chamber for said separating` chamber, said refrigerating chamber having a discharge connection at the top thereof and being provided with an inlet port openingto saidinletchamber and havinga downwardly facing valve seat, an upwardly closing` valve coacting with said valve seat, an inverted bucket float having a restricted vent opening in the top thereof` arranged `in said inlet chamber` to embrace said supply` connection thereof and `operatively associated with said valve, an air discharge port at the top pf said separating chamber provided with a downwardly` facing valve seat, an upwardly seating valve operatively associated with said air discharge port, and a float in said separ- `ating chamber operatively associated with said air Yvalve and acting to close the same when the level of the liquid in the separating chamber is sufficient to sustain the float in valve closing position, the float acting as a weight to open the valve when the level of the liquid is such that it ,said inlet chamber, a valve for said inlet connection, an inverted bucket float operatively associated with said valve and having a restricted -ventopening at the top thereof, said bucket float being arranged in saidinlet chamber to receive the refrigerant and `refrigerant gas delivered thereto, an air discharge valve at the top of said "separating chamber, and a float in said separatw ing chamber operatively associated with said air valve and acting to close the same when thelevel ofthe liquid in the separating chamber is `reutlicient` to sustain the float in valve closing position. 3. In` a: purging `apparatus for refrigerating systems, the combination of an inlet chamber having a refrigerant `supply connection, a separlating chamber above and opening to said inlet chamber and provided with a jacket constituting a `refrigerating chamber for said separating chamber, said `refrigerating chamber having a discharge connection and having an inlet con`` nectionto said inlet chamber, a valve for said in-y let connection, a float `in said inlet chamber operatively associated `withsaid valve, a deliector disposed at thelower end oi said separating chamn ber to deflect therefrigerant passing from the inlet chamber `into the separating chamber r thefloat in valve closing position.
C 14.111,9, purging apparatus for` refrigerating systems, thecombination of a separating charni f ber provided with a jacket constituting a refrigerating chamber for saidseparating chamber, said refrigeratingchamber having a discharge connection and an inlet connection, an air dis-n charge valve at the topof said separating cham ber, and a float in said separating chamber operatively associated With said air valve and acting to close the same when the level of the'liquid in 75 the separating chamber is sufficient to sustain the float in valve closing position.
5. In a purging apparatus, the combination of an inlet chamber having a refrigerant supply connection, a separating chamber in communication with said inlet chamber to receive refrigerant therefrom, a refrigerating chamber for said separating chamber, said refrigerating chamber having a discharge connection and an inlet valve, a vented bucket float disposed to receive the refrigerant deliveredto said inlet chamber, said float being operatively connected to said refrigerant chamber inlet valve, an air discharge valve for said separating chamber, and a oat in said separating chamber operatively connected with said air valve and acting to close the same when the level of the liquid in the separating chamber is at or above a predetermined level.
6.1m a purging apparatus, the combination of an inlet chamber having a refrigerant supply connection, a separating chamber in communication with said inlet chamber to receive refrigerant therefrom, a refrigerating chamber for said separating chamber, said refrigerating chamber having a discharge connection and an inlet valve, a float disposed in said inlet chamber and operatively connected to said refrigerating chamber inlet valve, an air discharge valve for said separating chamber, and a float in said separating chamber operatively connected with said air valve and v4acting to-close the same when the level of the liquid in the separating chamber is at or above a predetermined level.
7. In a purging apparatus, the combination of an inlet chamber having a supply connection, a separating chamber in communication with said inlet chamber to receive liquid and gas therefrom, cooling means for said separating chamber, a oat disposed in said inlet chamber, a liquid discharge valve for said inlet chamber operatively associated with said 'float to control the discharge of the liquid from said inlet chamber in accordance with the position of said oat, an air discharge valve for said separating chamber, and a float in said separating chamber operatively associated with said air discharge valve.
8. In a purging apparatus, a chamber having an opening for admitting a liquid refrigerant and a gaseous refrigerant mixture containing air to the chamber, a float associated with said opening and adapted to collect said gaseous mix- -ture and to be elevated thereby in said liquid,
a refrigerating chamber having a portion common to said first named chamber and having a connection to said chamber, and valve means for said connection controlled by said oat to admit liquid refrigerant from said first named chamber to said refrigerating chamber when the oat is lowered, said refrigerating chamber having a valve controlled discharge line to decrease the pressure in the refrigerating chamber when said line is open and thereby cause liquid refrigerant in the refrigerating chamber to boil and chill said common portion of the refrigerating and rst named chambers, said float having provision for slowly freeing said gaseous mixture collected thereby, whereby said mixture arises into Contact with and is chilled by said chilled portion, the gaseous refrigerant in the mixture condensing and the air collecting at the top of the first named chamber, resultant increase in air pressure in said rst named chamber causing said float to bev depressed whereby said first named connection is opened for entrance of liquid to said refrigerating chamber.
9. In a purging apparatus, a purging chamber adapted to contain liquid refrigerant and having a connection thereto for admitting a gaseous refrigerant mixture containing air to the chamber, control means associated with said connection and adapted to collect said gaseous mixture admitted therethrough, a refrigerating chamber including a portion in heat transmitting relation to said first named chamber, said refrigerating chamber having an opening communicating with said first named chamber' to admit liquid refrigerant thereto from the first named chamber, a valve for said opening controlled by said control means whereby the opening is closed when the control means is elevated, said refrigerating chamber being adapted to have a relatively low pressure created therein to reduce the pressure suiciently to cause said liquid refrigerant in the refrigerating chamber to boil and chill said portion, said control means having a vent therein for slowly venting said gaseous mixture into the first named chamber, said mixture arising above the liquid in said first named chamber and contacting said chilled portion whereby the gaseous refrigerant condenses and air in the mixture collects at the top of said chamber, increase in air pressure in said chamber causing the liquid refrigerant to actuate said control means whereby said opening is exposed for entrance of liquid refrigerant and' condensate to said refrigerating chamber, and means for removing air from said first named chamber.
10. In a purging apparatus, a purging chamber ladapted to contain liquid refrigerant andhaving a connection thereto for admitting a gaseous refrigerant mixture containing air to the chamber, a hollow float associated with said connection and adapted to collect said gaseous mixture admitted therethrough and to be elevated thereby in liquid refrigerant contained in the chamber, a refrigerating chamber having a wall common to said first named chamber and having an opening communicating with said first named chamber to admit liquid refrigerant thereto from the rst named chamber, a valve for said opening controlled by said float whereby the opening is closed when the float is elevated, said refrigerating chamber being adapted to have a relatively low pressure created therein to reduce the pressure in the refrigerating chamber sufficiently to cause said liquid refrigerant to boil and chill said wall, said float having a vent therein for slowly venting said gaseous mixture from said float into the first named chamber, said mixture arising above the liquid in said rst named chamber and contacting said chilled Wall Whereby the gaseous refrigerant condenses and air in the mixture collects at the top of said chamber,
increase in air pressure in said chamber causing the liquid refrigerant to enter said float whereby the latter sinks and said valve lis actuated to expose said opening for entrance of liquid refrigerant and condensate to said refrigerating chamber, and means for removing 'air from said chamber.
1l. In a purging apparatus, the combination of a chamber having an opening for the admission of a gaseous refrigerant mixture containing air thereto, said chamber being also adapted to receive a quantity of liquid refrigerant, a hollow vented float member disposed in the liquid in said chamber adjacent said opening, said member being adapted to collect said gaseous mixture admitted to the chamber and to be elevated thereby in said liquid refrigerant, means for chilling at least a portion of the wall of said, chamber, the vent in said oat member slowly venting said gaseous mixture from the float member, said vented mixture arising above the liquid in said chamber and contacting said chilled portion whereby the gaseous refrigerant eondenses and air in the mixture collects at the top of the chamber to thereby depress the level of the liquid, said chamber having an air discharge opening, and means coasting with said last named opening to vent the collected air from 5 the chamber.
THOMAS H'. REA.